4,970 results for Lincoln University

  • The Nature of Wellbeing: How nature’s ecosystem services contribute to the wellbeing of New Zealand and New Zealanders

    Roberts, L.; Brower, A.; Kerr, G.; Lambert, S. J.; McWilliam, W.; Moore, K.; Quinn, J.; Simmons, D.; Thrush, S.; Townsend, M.; Blaschke; Costanza, R.; Cullen, R.; Hughey, K.; Wratten, S.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    What do we need for a ‘good life’? At one level, the answer to this question will differ for each person. Yet at a deeper level, we all share a common set of fundamental needs that must be met for us to experience wellbeing. Understanding those needs and the crucial contribution of nature’s services in enabling us to meet them is the subject of this report. The report brings together research on wellbeing and research on ecosystem services, focusing principally on the services that come from indigenous ecosystems in New Zealand. There has been a massive upsurge in research on ecosystem services in the last 20 years, including much detailed research and discussion about how to classify and categorise the types of ecosystem services that contribute to wellbeing, and numerous studies attempting to determine the monetary value of various ecosystem services. However, the question of how to categorise and understand the types or aspects of wellbeing that ecosystem services may contribute to has not been explored to anywhere near the same extent. This may be a reflection of the fact that much of the impetus for studying ecosystem services has come from ecologists and economists, rather than from social scientists who are more familiar with the rapidly expanding wellbeing literature. To date, much of the work of ecologists has focused on the supply of ecosystem services, while that of economists has focused on the demands for ecosystem services, both marketed and non-marketed. However, there has been little focus on what is driving our demand for ecosystem services—a desire for enhanced wellbeing.

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  • Influence of farm dairy effluent ammonium concentrations on soil N2O emissions

    Johnston, Tony

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Nitrous oxide (N₂O) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) and the single-most ozone (O₃) depleting substance. Agriculture is the dominant source of anthropogenic N₂O emissions globally, and especially in New Zealand. Urine, synthetic nitrogen (N) fertiliser and farm dairy effluent (FDE) are the main sources of N₂O emissions from agricultural soils in New Zealand. Urine and synthetic N fertiliser have received considerable research attention to minimise their contribution to soil N₂O emissions due to the high N loadings and greater emission factors (EF) of these inputs. However, as the land application of Farm Dairy Effluent (FDE) is a less significant contributor to New Zealand’s overall N₂O emissions profile, research on this N-input is limited. The mass of FDE applied to land increased from, 18kt in 1990 to 39kt in 2013, and a recent increase in popularity of herd homes will further increase the mass of FDE produced. Thus, FDE requires further research. Limited data is available on the EF’s from the land application of FDE. In addition, an analysis of the literature suggests the NH₄⁺-N concentration of FDE is highly variable. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of FDE NH₄⁺-N concentration on soil N₂O emissions. A 35-day field trial was conducted, where 10 mm of FDE was applied to pasture at NH₄⁺-N concentrations of either 90, 150, 200, 300 or 400 mg NH4⁺-N L-1. The 150 and 400 mg NH₄⁺-N L-1 treatments contained 15N to monitor the fate of FDE NH₄⁺-N. N₂O gas samples were taken daily for the first week, then every 2-3 days for the remainder of the trial. Soil inorganic-N pools were monitored every 7 days. Pasture production was measured on days 19 and 35. Peak N₂O emissions occurred within 24 hrs of applying the FDE. The highest N₂O emisions were produced in the 400 mg NH4⁺-N L⁻¹ treatment averaging 65 kg N₂O ha⁻¹ day⁻¹. FDE treatments produced significantly more than the control until day 7. Emission factors ranged from 0.18 to 0.32 percent of total N applied, significantly less than the 1% currently used to calculate New Zealands GHG inventory. The emission period was relatively short due to low soil nitrate concentrations, and/or relatively dry soil conditions. Ammonium concentration is a key driver of N₂O emissions. Cumulative soil N₂O emissions increased linearly with FDE NH₄⁺-N concentration, however, it is likely this relationship may change in soils with a higher moisture content. Therefore, the use of a single relationship between the two variables for all environmental situations may not be possible. Further studies that analyse the influence of NH₄⁺-N concentrations on soil N₂O emissions, in a range of typical environments, are required to fully understand this relationship.

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  • Molecular genetic analysis of IGF1 in Romney sheep and its role in growth

    Ellis, Olivia Margaret

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    In an effort to improve livestock breeding, recent focus has been on using marker-assisted selection (MAS) to increase the accuracy of the choices made in selecting breeding stock. MAS may increase the annual rate of genetic gain in livestock by as much as 15-30%. Traits that determine the economic value of livestock are of primary concern in livestock breeding. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1: also known as somatomedin C) affects young animal growth and a range of other anabolic processes in adults from a number of species, but little is known about its role in sheep. Variation in the IGF-1 gene (IGF1) has also been reported in other animal species, but once again little is known about ovine IGF1 variation. Using a polymerase chain reaction – single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) approach, 50 New Zealand (NZ) Romney rams were investigated to ascertain whether variation existed in two regions (an exon 2 fragment and an exon 3 fragment) of ovine IGF1. Two PCR-SSCP banding-patterns were discovered for each region, with one or a combination of two banding patterns detected for each sheep. For each region, these patterns were named A and B, and upon sequencing a unique DNA sequence was identified. 150 lambs (obtained from the NZ Romney Progeny Test; 2007-present), that were the progeny of a single ram that produced lambs over two seasons (2007 and 2009) were investigated for the association analysis. Phenotypic data for growth and carcass traits were available for these lambs and statistical analyses (Minitab v17) were performed using stepwise regression to assess the effect of the presence or absence of the IGF1 variants on the various lamb phenotypes. In these analyses the presence of the exon 2 IGF1 A variant was associated (P = 0.049) with increased birth weight in the 2007 lambs, although this effect did not persist in the 2009 lambs, or when the data from both years was combined. For the 2009 lambs, the presence of exon 2 A was associated (P = 0.017) with an increased growth rate from birth to tailing and this effect persisted (P = 0.035) when the 2007 and 2009 lamb data was combined. Trends (0.05 < P < 0.2) were observed between the presence of exon 2 A and increased tailing weight and growth from birth to weaning in the 2009 lambs and these trends persisted when the data from the 2007 and 2009 lambs was combined. No effects were observed for the exon 3 genotypes in 2007, but in 2009, there was a trend for AA to be associated with increased tailing weight and weaning weight, with the tailing weight effect persisting when both years’ data was combined. Overall these results suggest that variation in IGF1 could be of value as a genetic marker to complement genetic evaluations for early growth in sheep.

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  • Phylogenetic congruence of lichenised fungi and algae is affected by spatial scale and taxonomic diversity

    Buckley, H. L.; Rafat, A.; Ridden, J. D.; Cruickshank, R. H.; Ridgway, H. J.; Paterson, A. M.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The role of species' interactions in structuring biological communities remains unclear. Mutualistic symbioses, involving close positive interactions between two distinct organismal lineages, provide an excellent means to explore the roles of both evolutionary and ecological processes in determining how positive interactions affect community structure. In this study, we investigate patterns of co-diversification between fungi and algae for a range of New Zealand lichens at the community, genus, and species levels and explore explanations for possible patterns related to spatial scale and pattern, taxonomic diversity of the lichens considered, and the level sampling replication. We assembled six independent datasets to compare patterns in phylogenetic congruence with varied spatial extent of sampling, taxonomic diversity and level of specimen replication. For each dataset, we used the DNA sequences fromthe ITS regions of both the fungal and algal genomes fromlichen specimens to produce genetic distance matrices. Phylogenetic congruence between fungi and algae was quantified using distance-based redundancy analysis and we used geographic distance matrices inMoran's eigenvector mapping and variance partitioning to evaluate the effects of spatial variation on the quantification of phylogenetic congruence. Phylogenetic congruence was highly significant for all datasets and a large proportion of variance in both algal and fungal genetic distances was explained by partner genetic variation. Spatial variables, primarily at large and intermediate scales, were also important for explaining genetic diversity patterns in all datasets. Interestingly, spatial structuring was stronger for fungal than algal genetic variation. As the spatial extent of the samples increased, so too did the proportion of explained variation that was shared between the spatial variables and the partners' genetic variation. Different lichen taxa showed some variation in their phylogenetic congruence and spatial genetic patterns and where greater sample replication was used, the amount of variation explained by partner genetic variation increased. Our results suggest that the phylogenetic congruence pattern, at least at small spatial scales, is likely due to reciprocal co-adaptation or co-dispersal. However, the detection of these patterns varies among different lichen taxa, across spatial scales and with different levels of sample replication. This work provides insight into the complexities faced in determining how evolutionary and ecological processes may interact to generate diversity in symbiotic association patterns at the population and community levels. Further, it highlights the critical importance of considering sample replication, taxonomic diversity and spatial scale in designing studies of co-diversification.

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  • Vulnerability of transients and freedom campers in uncontrolled camping grounds: Coes and Chamberlains Fords

    Winchester, Henry

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Transient communities throughout the country are faced with the same risks as other fixed communities. However, how are these risks communicated and how vulnerable are these communities? Many families in New Zealand travel to locations their families have been visiting for generations. Within Canterbury, there are many locations where this phenonemon occurs. This research investigated Coes Ford and Chamberlains Ford, which are located along the Selwyn River in Canterbury, New Zealand. This research has three aims: first, to understand the hazards and risks that are present at both Coes Ford and Chamberlains Ford; secondly, to understand how these hazards and risks are communicated through various means; and, thirdly, based on the research, to develop a framework that improves the assessment and communication of risk to transients at Coes Ford and Chamberlains Ford and similar sites. In order to achieve these aims a review of the current hazard management literature defining risk, resilience, preparedness and vulnerability of transients, helped assist and develop the transient community vulnerability assessment framework. Along with a review of the literature, questionnaires, field observations and interviews were used to understand the hazards present and the community at each sites. The transient framework developed helped in understanding each site in regard to the makeup of each location, the hazards present and the potential impact of an adverse event. The results indicated that there were substantive differences between the Coes Ford and Chamberlains Ford communities. These were that there was a number of international visitors at both sites, with both sites having the majority of visitors from Europe. The majority of these visitors were aged between 18 and 34. The ethnic makeup of both the Coes Ford and Chamberlains Fords communities, when comparing their awareness of water quality and flooding issues, saw the Europeans the least aware of the potential of adverse events occurring, but they had the most awareness of and knew where to check if such an event was likely which could be due to the number of responders. This study concluded that the awareness of hazards in transient communities’ changes and there was a need to be aware that not all communities were homogeneous, as each transient community was different and this has been reflected in the findings of this research.

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  • Organics in New Zealand: consumer perception and purchase behaviour of organic food

    Chamberlain, Hannah M.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of New Zealand consumer perception and purchase behaviour of organic food. Research in this area is of importance as the popularity of organic food has been increasing in New Zealand and many other countries. Many studies have investigated consumer perception of organic food in other countries, but there is limited literature available that is specific to New Zealand. Data was collected using a mixed method survey involving the mall-intercept technique and mail survey. A mall intercept survey of consumers was carried out in three locations around Christchurch, Canterbury, with a total of 97 respondents. 72 responses were obtained at the time of the mall intercepts. An additional 78 questionnaires with postage-paid return envelopes were given to consumers who did not have time to respond on the day, with 25 mail responses received. Descriptive (i.e. frequencies and averages) and inferential (i.e. one-way Anova and independent sample t-tests) statistics were used to analyse the data. This study contributes to knowledge about the perceptions and purchase behaviour of New Zealand consumers in regards to organic food. The most frequently bought organic food items are fruit/vegetables, followed by dairy and meat/eggs. The most important benefits of organic food perceived by New Zealand consumers were found to be health and well-being of current and future generations, animal welfare protection, no/minimal pesticides, no/minimal food additives and good taste. The biggest barrier to the purchase of organic food for New Zealand consumers was shown to be high price, followed by limited availability of organic food and limited choice/variety of organic food options. Except for gender, demographic factors were generally not found to have a statistically significant effect on consumer perception or purchase behaviour for organic food. The results of an independent sample T-test indicate a statistically significant relationship between gender and the importance placed on the attributes of more nutritious, health benefits, no/minimal fertilisers, no/minimal food additives and animal welfare protection. The means for these attributes suggested that they were significantly more important to women than to men. The only significant result to take note of for the effect of income would be for the attribute of biodiversity protection. The calculated means suggested that biodiversity protection was significantly less important to respondents with a high income. The attributes no/minimal pesticides and climate protection were significantly more important to the group of respondents with undergraduate degrees. The conclusions of this study indicate which attributes are the most important to consider in future research of the production of organic food for New Zealand consumers, and give an indication of the attributes that should be emphasised in the marketing of organic food in New Zealand. Key words: consumer perceptions, New Zealand, organic food, purchase behaviour

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  • The effects of winter forage crop grazing of hillslopes on soil erosion in South Otago

    Penny, Veronica May

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Agricultural development has lead to deforestation, intensification and increased erosion worldwide. In New Zealand, increasing cow numbers has led to greater demand for forage crops to feed stock off-farm in winter. Expansion of dairying on flat land has pushed wintering systems on to rolling to steep land, particularly in the Southland and South Otago regions. While the impacts of forage crop grazing on soil compaction and overland flow of sediment and nutrients has been studied, there has been no previous work done on the direct influence of this farming practice on soil transport. This study used a novel technique to quantify the volume of soil transported downslope beneath the hooves of cows that were grazing kale over the 2015 winter period. Steel ball bearings were buried in the soil prior to grazing, and the distance they had moved was determined after winter, and used to infer soil transport. A linear relationship was found between soil transport flux and slope gradient of up to 0.25 m m-1, with stock track formation on steeper slopes causing greater spatial variability of soil transport rates and non systematic dependence of soil transport hillslope gradient; further research is required to describe this relationship. The steep slope of the relationship for gradients <0.25 indicates that rapid downslope transport occurs relative to gradient under forage crop grazing. This soil transport results in erosion on convex sites, at rates that exceed soil production rates, leading to unsustainable soil loss in these areas. Soil transport under conventional cultivation was also determined in this study, using the same methodology. No linear relationship was found between transport rates and gradient. However, despite the lack of relationship, downslope soil transport rates under cultivation exceeded those under cow grazing, indicating that significant soil transport results from this practice. The combination of soil transport under grazing and cultivation allows the impact of the forage crop grazing system as a whole to be understood.

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  • Multi-scale analysis of carbon stocks and process indicators in the agro-ecosystem of Canterbury, New Zealand

    Welsch, Johannes

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Increasing interest in characterising carbon dynamics in the agricultural landscape has been driven by the clear need for greenhouse gas mitigation strategies in response to global climate change. However, little quantitative information is available about carbon stocks and processes in agro-ecosystems. Better understanding of carbon stocks and processes is of particular importance in New Zealand, where farmland occupies large areas across the country and ongoing change in farming practices, land management and intensification are affecting carbon stocks and processes and ultimately, agricultural sustainability. This study aimed to quantify and understand variation in above- and below-ground carbon stocks and processes in shelterbelts and paddocks at multiple scales within the agro-ecosystem of Canterbury, New Zealand. In an initial pilot study across four farms showed that variability in above- and below-ground carbon stocks among-farms was smaller than between shelterbelt and paddocks. Using this knowledge to determine appropriate sampling intensity, I quantified carbon stocks and processes within shelterbelts across 34 farms, focussing particularly on understanding how within-shelterbelt-scale (e.g. soil moisture, pH), shelterbelt-scale (e.g. shelterbelt type, age, and tree biomass), farm-scale (e.g. land use) and landscape-scale (e.g. soil type) factors was related to variability of these variables. Total above- and below-ground carbon pools in shelterbelts were similar for exotic and native shelterbelts (152.6 ± 131 t C ha-1 and 110.8 ± 128 t C ha-1, respectively [mean ± standard errors]), although native shelterbelts were on average half the age of exotic shelterbelts (16 and 27 years, respectively). The above-ground biomass carbon pool represented about 62% and soil carbon pool 33% in both native and exotic shelterbelts. Most variability in carbon stocks was explained at the shelterbelt scale by shelterbelt type, age and size, whereas farm scale played a minor role and soil type was unimportant. Carbon cycle processes varied primarily at the shelterbelt and paddock level. Leaf litter decomposition and microbial activity were twice as high and invertebrates were more active in native shelterbelts compared to exotic shelterbelts, and variability in these indicators were best explained by within-shelterbelt factors (e.g., soil moisture, pH, organic and labile carbon) and shelterbelt characteristics (age, biomass, and vegetation type). Therefore, above-ground shelterbelt-scale factors drive carbon cycle process indicator rates and biological activity in the Canterbury agro-ecosystem, rather than land use or landscape factors. These field data were used in GIS-based spatial carbon model which expored and evaluated a number of agricultural land use, cover and management scenarios and their impact on soil carbon stocks over the enxt 10 years (2014 – 2024) in combination with quantifying the amount of shelterbelt area needed to offset the potential soil carbon loss. While the model default settings predicted an increase in soil carbon stocks, the literature based alternative scenarios, commonly predicted a decrease of 10%, 6%, 34% in soil carbon stocks in the alternative dairy, sheep and beef and arable scenarios. This study shows that native shelterbelts in agro-ecosystems have considerable potential for increasing carbon pools and enhancing carbon cycle process, particularly as they age through time. Contrary to current assessments, this study was not able to provide definate evidence on the effect of further intensification and land clearing on carbon stocks in Canterbury. Future studies should include long-term investigation of carbon stocks and processes across a wider variety of shelterbelt and farm types.

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  • An unexpected journey: the biogeography and conservation ecology of the trapdoor spider genus Cantuaria Hogg, 1902

    Smith, Victoria Rose

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The genus Cantuaria consists of 42 currently recognised species, all of which are endemic to New Zealand (NZ). Cantuaria spiderlings build their burrows near to their mothers, and usually remain there for life. Cantuaria’s sedentary life history is at odds with its distribution, which reaches from Stewart Island up to Whanganui. Cantuaria’s sister genus Misgolas Karsch, 1878 is found in Australia. In this thesis, I used a dated multilocus Bayesian phylogeny to reconstruct [1] when the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Cantuaria diverged from Misgolas, and [2] the distribution history of Cantuaria within NZ. My results showed that Cantuaria and Misgolas shared a MRCA as recently as 18 million years ago, indicating long distance dispersal in Cantuaria’s biogeographic history. However, there was also evidence to suggest that vicariant geographic barriers interrupt dispersal, as species to the east and west of the Southern Alps share a most recent common ancestor approximately 5-8 million years ago. The genus appears to have originated in the southern part of the South Island, before moving gradually northwards. Cantuaria phylogenies were used to delimit species using the Poisson tree process, and 12 new species are described. Morphology and phylogeny do not concur, and geographic location combined with DNA are the most reliable methods for identifying Cantuaria species. Due to Cantuaria species’ small populations (defined as a semi-isolated individual or group of individuals) and lack of dispersal ability, I hypothesised that they would be susceptible to habitat loss and disturbance. My research investigated how different types of habitat and disturbance affect Cantuaria population presence/absence. I also assessed the threats that may be facing individual populations. A taxon that is easily susceptible to changing environmental parameters may be less likely to survive and colonise new territory after a long-distance ocean crossing. My results show that Cantuaria, surprisingly, are able to breed and reproduce in a variety of habitat types, but they are found less often in areas with very high rainfall, and in high elevation areas. Some populations appear to contain very few individuals, and may be threatened by habitat destruction. The threats to Cantuaria populations include climate change (which may increase rainfall in some areas) and urbanisation. A meta-analysis of biogeographical research from the last decade for all taxa investigated the factors that may affect a species’ biogeographic history in NZ and found no evidence to suggest that characteristics, such as dispersal ability, affect a species’ biogeographical history over evolutionary time.

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  • Policy strategies for the implementaion of agroforestry in New Zealand

    Stupples, Liana G.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Agroforestry provides an opportunity to address many current land use problems. Despite its potential benefits agroforestry has not been extensively adopted as a land use in New Zealand. Assuming that a government might wish to promote the adoption of agroforestry by farmers this study provides strategies for the implementation of agroforestry in New Zealand. In order to create policy to influence adoption and realise the potential of agroforestry this study investigates the factors that determine farmers' adoption. A model of the innovation adoption decision process is proposed and used as a framework with which to discuss agroforestry adoption in New Zealand. Based on the approach that in order to create effective policy, strategies must be matched to the requirements at farmer level, policy strategies that fit the requirements of the farmer are suggested.

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  • Nature conservation: information, costs, and evaluation

    Cullen, R.

    Conference Contribution - Unpublished
    Lincoln University

    Public understanding of conservation is flawed in New Zealand and the level of threat to species and ecosystems is poorly understood. Pursuit of conservation goals is costly. We invest resources and effort to maintain specific species and return ecosystems to a former state by investing resources and effort. Selection of conservation projects needs to be based upon good understanding of their expected outcomes and projected costs. Efforts to conserve ecosystems should be evaluated to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of those actions. Practical, low cost evaluation techniques exist and can inform society about ecosystem conservation programmes. A New Zealand conservvision is for conservation decisions made by small groups of experts, based on estimated cost and projected outcomes that will conserve the dynamic nature of ecosystems.

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  • Papers presented at the New Zealand Agricultural and Resource Economics Society (Inc.) eleventh Annual Conference : Tahuna Conference Centre, Nelson, August 2005

    Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Published on behalf of the New Zealand Agricultural and Resource Economics Society by Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit, Lincoln University, [2005].

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  • Development of environmental indicators for tourism in natural areas: a preliminary study

    Ward Jonet, C.; Beanland Ruth, A.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • Potatoes: a consumer survey of Christchurch and Auckland households

    Rich, M. M.; Mellon, M. J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report presents the results and conclusions from a consumer survey which was carried out in Christchurch and Auckland during January 1980. It was aimed at providing information on consumer purchasing and consumption patterns on potato, and factors affecting these patterns. It has been conducted under a contract with the New Zealand Potato Board to aid in the development of a marketing strategy for the 1980s.

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  • Demand prospects for beef

    Philpott, B. P.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Paper contributed to New Zealand Institute of Agricultural Science Symposium New Zealand Beef Production, Processing and Marketing’: Hamilton, August 24-28th 1970.

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  • New Zealand, The Ten, and future market strategies

    McCarthy, Owen

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Photocopied material - reissue of Canterbury Chamber of Commerce economic bulletin, no. 559, published 1972.

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  • Perceptions of NZ's environment : do perceptions align with science?

    Hughey, K. F. D.; Cullen, R.; Kerr, G. N.

    Conference Contribution - Unpublished
    Lincoln University

    Discusses results and trends from the biennial survey of people's perceptions of the state of the New Zealand environment. The survey is based on the Pressure-State-Response model of state of the environment reporting. Illustrates differences between the scientific and the perceived state of New Zealand's environment.

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  • Cultural limits to innovation in New Zealand

    Rinne, Tiffany

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Conference organised by the Lincoln University Technology Users' Innovation (TUI) Group, June 13-14, 2011, Sudima Hotel, Christchurch, New Zealand.

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  • Postmodernism and landscape architecture

    Lister, G.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Postmodernism is a broad based phenomena, which at once is a group of attitudes and theories, is to do with the condition of living in the contemporary world, and includes a concomitant range of styles and expressions in different fields of activity. In Landscape Architecture Postmodernism has been particularly associated with Participatory Design, Ecological Design, and Experimental or Contextual Design. However, reference to the more rigorous theory would encourage caution in simply attaching the label of Postmodernism to any or all of these. No explicit use has apparently been made of Postmodernism in New Zealand Landscape Architecture and there are few examples of postmodern trends in either theory or practice.

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  • New Zealand agribusiness success: an approach to exploring the role of strategy, structure and conduct on firm performance

    Scrimgeour, F.; McDermott, A.; Saunders, C.; Shadbolt, N. M.; Sheath, G.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    This paper presents a framework to explore agribusiness success in New Zealand. The framework provides the basis for historical analysis. It draws on existing theory based on the structure-conduct-performance paradigm but expanded to take account of firm strategy and the analysis of value chains.

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