2,297 results for The University of Auckland Library, Conference item

  • Study on optical fiber sensing for detecting liquid penetration into anti-corrosive resins

    Hashimoto, Y; Hioka, Yusuke; Kubouchi, M (2015-03-28)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Anti-corrosive thermosetting resins are commonly used in chemical plants to prevent corrosion failure of chemical equipment. As they are often used in contact with corrosive liquid for a long time, liquid penetration into the resins causes problems. On-line sensing to detect the penetrating liquid into the resins is useful to prevent accidents caused by the liquid reaching to the crucial parts of the chemical equipment and to estimate the life-time of the equipment. Penetration behavior of the liquid in an anti-corrosive resin can be described by Fick’s second law, which includes the diffusion coefficient. The method proposed in this study estimates the diffusion coefficient using optical fiber sensor modules embedded in the different depths of the anticorrosive resin while the surface of the anti-corrosive resin is immersed in the liquid. The optical fiber sensor modules contain pH indicators on the light path of the fiber and the spectrum of the transmitted light is monitored. The diffusion coefficient is estimated from the difference between the time instants where the two sensor modules detect the liquid penetration. Nevertheless the diffusion coefficient estimated by the proposed method in an experiment was about 40% smaller than that estimated by a conventional off-line measurement, the study reveals that the proposed method is able to estimate the diffusion coefficient by on-line manner. To further improve the estimation accuracy, the effect of the assumption set for the liquid concentration of the resin, which would have caused the error, is also discussed.

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  • HIV/AIDS and tourism: A qualitative approach

    Frey, Rosemary; Lewis, KA (2005)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Prosody perception, reading accuracy, nonliteral language comprehension, and music and tonal pitch discrimination in school aged children

    Kalathottukaren, Rose; Purdy, Suzanne; Ballard, Elaine (2014-10-15)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Twenty-five school aged children with normal hearing were tested on their perception of prosody using the receptive prosody subtests of the Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C) and Child Paralanguage subtest of Diagnostic Analysis of Non Verbal Accuracy 2 (DANVA 2). Performance of four children with hearing loss on the two prosody measures was compared with performance of normal hearing children. Children were also tested on their reading accuracy, comprehension of nonliteral language, and music and tonal pitch discrimination. Overall results showed that younger children aged 7;1 to 9;11 years had significantly poorer scores than 10;1 to 12;11 year olds on the Contrastive Stress Reception subtest of PEPS-C and the DANVA 2 Child Paralanguage subtest, indicating a developmental effect on speech prosody perception. Children with hearing loss had poorer scores and greater variability on PEPS-C and DANVA 2 assessments compared to normal hearing controls. Statistically significant correlations were observed between prosody perception scores and musical pitch perception and reading measures for the normal hearing group. This is consistent with previous studies showing links between reading and prosody perception. Significant correlation between prosody perception and musical pitch discrimination indicates that pitch is an important cue for prosody perception.

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  • A volume-preserving free-form deformation technique for customizing face model to another configuration

    Wu, Tim; Mithraratne, K (2013-12-04)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article presents a volume-preserving freeform deformation technique that can be used to customise a face model generated from magnetic resonance (MR) images into another configuration using only the surface (skin) data. This customisation process is useful when comparing anatomical measurements between datasets that may have undergone a different mode deformation. For example, gravity and other body forces were often neglected in most biomechanical simulations, and as a result, a supine face model generated from MR images is not suitable for analysis of activities performed in upright posture (i.e. expression detection for human computer interaction). To address this problem, the supine model can be fitted to the scanned skin data of an upright posture, in which conventional biomechanical simulations can be applied. Volume-preservation is an important characteristic of soft tissue deformation due to the high water content, and therefore is essential to produce realistic results, especially when only surface information is available. Validation studies presented in this article showed good agreement between the actual deformations and the predictions by the proposed method.

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  • Understanding the Threshold Conditions for Dislocation Transmission from Tilt Grain Boundaries in FCC Metals under Uniaxial Loading

    Burbery, Nathaniel; Das, Rajarshi; Po, G; Ghoniem, N (2014-05)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Plastic deformation in face-centred cubic (or 'FCC') metals involves multi-scale phenomena which are initiated at atomic length and time scales (on order of 1.0e-15 seconds). Understanding the fundamental thresholds for plasticity at atomic and nano/meso scales requires rigorous testing, which cannot be feasibly achieved with current experimental methods. Hence, computer simulation-based investigations are extremely valuable. However, meso-scale simulations cannot yet accommodate atomically-informed grain boundary (or 'GB') effects and dislocation interactions. This study will provide a stress - strain analysis based on molecular dynamics simulations of a series of metastable grain boundaries with identical crystal orientations but unique grain boundary characteristics. Relationships between dislocation slip systems, resolved shear stresses and additional thermo-mechanical conditions of the system will be considered in the analysis of dislocation-grain boundary interactions, including GB penetration. This study will form the basis of new phenomenological relationships in an effort to enable accommodation of grain boundaries into meso scale dislocation dynamic simulations.

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  • Preliminary analysis of RC wall elongation

    Encina, E; Henry, Richard (2015-05-20)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Previous cyclic tests of beam-column subassemblies have highlighted the effect of plastic hinge elongation in reinforced concrete (RC) structures. This elongation is caused by both geometric effects and residual crack widths, and has been shown to have a significant impact on the seismic behaviour of RC framed structures. Recently researchers have started to focus on the potential for ductile RC walls to elongate during earthquakes. Despite extensive research into the effects of member elongation on framed structures, few studies have investigated the influence of elongation in RC walls. A series of existing experimental tests were analysed to calculate RC wall elongation when subjected to cyclic loading, and a series of nonlinear numerical models were developed to analyse the ability of the fibreelement models to represent the elongation of RC walls accurately. The experimental results confirmed that elongation is highly dependent on the axial load applied and reinforcement distribution within the cross section. The proposed fibre-element model was able to simulate observed elongation from the experimental tests with sufficient accuracy.

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  • The ecology of communicative language teaching: Reflecting on the Singapore experience

    Zhang, Lawrence (2010)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper addresses the ecology of communicative language teaching (CLT) by reflecting on the Singapore experience. It reviews how CLT was conceptualized, advocated and implemented in stages/phases as reflected in the different syllabuses by the Ministry of Education, Singapore. In anchoring the discussion against a historical backdrop and examining the ecology and evolution of English language teaching in Singapore, it focuses on two English Language syllabuses published in 1991 and 2001 respectively. It illustrates the operational issues in reference to the two syllabuses, with a focus on the ecology of such pedagogical innovations and how the ecological nature of CLT is mirrored in the syllabuses. Highlighting issues such as mismatches between what the syllabus documents stipulate and what practitioners bring into English language classrooms and how success in implementation can be achieved when training is provided timely, it also discusses theory-practice connection and the integration issue that is most often debated in the teacher-education literature. It concludes with a discussion of possible implications of the Singapore CLT experience for ELT in China.

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  • Listening for a future: shared stories and shared solutions

    Buck, Ralph; Meiners, J; Chan, ACYY (2006)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    In a global age, dance educators can learn from sharing each others practices and contexts. This paper examines teachers' stories from Australia, Hong Kong and New Zealand with a view to analyzing themes that may fuel future dance education practice: The paper builds on research by Buck (2003), Chan (2005) and Meiners (2005), identifying common issues around meanings of dance, curriculum, children and teaching and learning. By listening to teachers' stories, and noting their approaches and policy environment, we may learn about common barriers and opportunities that might assist the future provision and growth of dance education internationally.

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  • Sustainable Economic Strategies

    Ingham, Jason (2001)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This document seeks to objectively compile available literature and report emerging issues considering aspects of sustainable economic development. In conducting this exercise it has become evident that both sustainable development and globalisation are topics whose meaning and impact have yet to be widely understood and endorsed within New Zealand. Every effort has been made to capture the nature of the current debate surrounding these issues, and in general the content of the various viewpoints has been presented verbatim with referencing, using internet references where available. Quite deliberately the author has attempted to avoid emphasising a single viewpoint, while taking care to compile a coherent report addressing the topic at hand. Definitions of economic growth and sustainable economic development are first considered, including comments on environmental and indigenous culture implications and the notion of triple bottom line reporting. This is followed by a brief account of New Zealand’s past economic performance. Details of New Zealand’s decline in prosperity with respect to its OECD contemporaries are considered, and the influence of the economic reforms of the late 1980’s and early 1990’s is discussed. Next the policies initiated by the current Labour-Alliance government are considered. These policies were designed to close the gap between the prosperous and less prosperous members of New Zealand’s society, emphasising the need for social cohesion and policies that provide benefits to all. The current absence of a national vision is discussed, and a proposed vision for New Zealand’s future is presented, embracing both social and economic considerations, and taking into account Governments stated vision. It is suggested that in the absence of an existing vision and consensus on the parameters that New Zealanders deem most appropriate to quantify their comparative prosperity, it is premature to present prescribed performance goals. Nevertheless, candidate outcomes for a vision of New Zealand are presented. As prelude to the debate, issues surrounding personal perspectives on the relative priority afforded to the economy, the environment, and societal factors are revisited. Recognising the intimate relationship between the knowledge society and global trade in the internet era, the growing debate surrounding emerging aspects of globalisation are reviewed. Finally, a suite of candidate strategies for sustainable economic development is formulated. It is emphasised that the validity of these strategies is less important than their success in provoking thought and dialogue on issues currently facing New Zealand, and how as a nation we will retain or elevate our relative level of prosperity. The central pillar of the strategy set is the development of a balanced scorecard for the nation, capturing the dimensions of growth economy, talent nation, knowledge society, cohesive community and healthy environment. For each dimension a readily quantifiable performance parameter and recommended performance target are provided. Extending from this scorecard, a strategy for public policy transformation to create a knowledge economy is presented. It is proposed that the key imperatives are for Government to reduce the bureaucracy, transform the business environment, and assemble a national economic development agency. In support of this public policy transformation, it is recognised that New Zealand businesses must transform themselves in order to effectively participate in the knowledge economy. Imperatives for change include the need to celebrate business success, better develop and exploit a national brand, focus on growth-oriented talent management, participate in solving New Zealand’s structural problems, change the product/service mix, lift the focus on innovation, make greater use of niche markets, economic development zones, and cluster, and participate in new capital formation.

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  • Comparison of CLEAN-SC for 2D and 3D Scanning Surfaces

    Legg, Mathew; Bradley, S (2012-02-06)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    We present experimental data comparing the accuracy obtained for 2D and 3D scanning surfaces using CLEAN-SC deconvolution of beamformed acoustic maps. A spherical array is used to obtain recordings from a dense point cloud of sound source locations. Beamforming and CLEAN-SC acoustic maps are generated using traditional 2D scanning surfaces and 3D scanning surfaces corresponding to the surface geometry of an object being acoustically imaged. Results for the 3D method show improved accuracy of measured positions and magnitudes of sound sources under a range of circumstances. The most benefit, in regard to position error, is for frequencies above 5kHz and sound sources located less than a metre from the array. In these circumstances, the three-dimensionality is more dominant.

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  • Perception of Other People’s Emotions

    Zamuner, Edoardo (2010)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this paper I argue that one of the functions of the perceptual system is to detect other people's emotions when they are expressed in the face. I support this view by developing two separate but interdependent accounts. The first says that facial expressions of emotions carry information about the emotions that produced them, and about some of their properties. The second says that the visual system functions to extract the information that expressions carry about emotions.

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  • Pheromones for pest management and eradication of invasive species

    Suckling, David (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Surveillance is a key component to pest management and biosecurity and the availability of attractants for certain insects has revolutionised our ability to intervene against them. In fact, the improvement in success of eradication when attractants are available is more than 20-fold, according to a recent global study. Populations of such invasive species with urticating hairs and a wide host range as tussock moths or processionary moths can be controlled or eradicated when these tools are available for delimitation and suppression, and in New Zealand several eradication programs have been operated successfully. Examples are whitespotted tussock moth (Lymantriidae), painted apple moth (Lymantriidae), fall webworm (Arctiidae), Hokkaido gypsy moth (Lymantriidae). In other cases, it has not been possible to eradicate the organism, such as the defoliating gum leaf skeletoniser (Nolidae), an outbreak species in Australia and now widely dispersed in New Zealand. The identification and deployment of this insect illustrates the surveillance paradigm well. Beyond applications in surveillance, it is also possible to consider aerial application of mating disruption with various formulations, such as those recently compared in a New Zealand study on a tortricid (microencapsulations, SPLAT and a bioflake) with the ground application of a polyethylene tubing dispesnser. Pheromones can also be envisaged to be developed in other new ways, from mobile mating disruption to ant trail pheromone disruption. New trapping and surveillance tools and new concepts for biosecurity from can widen the tool kit we need to combat invasive species. A deep knowledge of chemical ecology is needed to face this challenge.

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  • Log-likelihood Method to Select Initial Values of Multichannel Non-negative Matrix Factorization

    Yoshiyama, F; Uenohara, S; Nishijima, K; Hioka, Yusuke; Furuya, K (2015-06-06)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    A multichannel extension of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) associates the spatial property of the sources with each of the NMF bases. An initial-value selection method based on log-likelihood for multichannel non-negative matrix factorization (MNMF) is introduced to reduce the variation of the source separation performance. Experimental results showed selecting initial values that provide high log-likelihood would improve the source separation performance of MNMF depending on the sources.

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  • A Computational Model of Rumen Anatomy

    Waite, Stephen; Cater, John; Waghorn, GC; Suresh, Vinod (2015-07-20)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The biomechanics of the rumen play an important role in the digestion of plant matter in animals such as cows and sheep, but are poorly understood. Computational modelling will be useful in explaining the role of anatomy and contractions in the mixing and outflow of feed. We report on the development of a geometric model of the sheep rumen. A plaster cast of an excised rumen was produced and imaged. The resulting point cloud was used to create a cubic Hermite surface mesh that will be used for simulating rumen contractions and flow.

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  • Seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete walls with minimum vertical reinforcement

    Lu, Yiqiu; Henry, Richard (2015-05-20)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Recent research suggested that the current minimum vertical reinforcement limits in NZS 3101:2006 may be insufficient to ensure well distributed cracks in plastic hinge regions. A series of numerical analyses were used to investigate the behaviour of an example RC wall designed according to the minimum requirements in several different concrete design standards. The analysis results confirmed the observed failure mode of an RC wall damaged during the Canterbury earthquakes that had only half the current required minimum vertical reinforcement. Furthermore, RC walls built in accordance with current minimum vertical reinforcement requirements in both ACI 318-11 and NZS 3101: 2006 were shown to still be susceptible to limited flexural cracking and premature bar fracture. In addition to the modelling, six large-scale walls have been tested to examine the effect of axial load, shear span ratio, and reinforcement ties in the end region on RC walls with distributed minimum vertical reinforcement in accordance with NZS 3101:2006. The observed extent of crack distribution, hysteretic behaviour, failure mode, and drift capacity of four of the tested walls are discussed. The experimental results confirmed that current minimum vertical reinforcing limits in NZS 3101:2006 are insufficient to form a large number of secondary cracks. The failure mode for all walls was controlled by bar buckling and subsequent fracture. The lateral drift capacity of all four tested walls was 2.5% and both the shear span ratio and the anti-buckling ties had no significant influence on the drift capacity.

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  • Optical coherence tomography imaging of cardiac trabeculae

    Ruddy, Bryan; Cheuk, Ming; Dixon, AW; Lippok, N; Vanholsbeeck, Frederique; Nielsen, Poul; Taberner, Andrew (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    An integrated instrument is being developed to study live cardiac trabeculae, which is capable of stimulating the muscle under controlled conditions while measuring the heat production, force, and sarcomere length distribution. To improve the accuracy of estimation of stress, strain, and volumetric heat production, the geometry of the muscle must be known. A spectral domain optical coherence tomography system (SD-OCT) has been constructed and calibrated to image the trabecula mounted inside the instrument. This system was mounted above the muscle chamber and a series of equally-spaced cross-sectional images were obtained. These were processed using a workflow developed to extract cross-sectional area and volume. The initial results have demonstrated the feasibility of using OCT to capture the overall geometry of cardiac trabecula mounted in the instrument. Further work will be directed to improve the image quality for larger samples and apply meshing algorithms to the acquired data.

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  • Online Spatio-Temporal Pattern Recognition with Evolving Spiking Neural Networks utilising Address Event Representation, Rank Order, and Temporal Spike Learning

    Dhoble, Kshitij; Nuntalid, Nuttapod; Indiveri, G; Kasabov, N (2012)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Evolving spiking neural networks (eSNN) are computational models that evolve new spiking neurons and new connections from incoming data to learn patterns from them in an on-line mode. With the development of new techniques to capture spatio- and spectro-temporal data in a fast on-line mode, using for example address event representation (AER) such as the implemented one in the artificial retina and the artificial cochlea chips, and with the available SNN hardware technologies, new and more efficient methods for spatio-temporal pattern recognition (STPR) are needed. The paper introduces a new eSNN model dynamic eSNN (deSNN), that utilises both rank-order spike coding (ROSC), also known as time to first spike, and temporal spike coding (TSC). Each of these representations are implemented through different learning mechanisms - RO learning, and temporal spike learning - spike driven synaptic plasticity (SDSP) rule. The deSNN model is demonstrated on a small scale moving object classification problem when AER data is collected with the use of an artificial retina camera. The new model is superior in terms of learning time and accuracy for learning. It makes use of the order of spikes input information which is explicitly present in the AER data, while a temporal spike learning rule accounts for any consecutive spikes arriving on the same synapse that represent temporal components in the learned spatio-temporal pattern.

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  • Factors explaining the low income return for education among Asian New Zealanders

    Bolton, Elizabeth; Milne, Barry (2015-06-30)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aotearoa New Zealand has a long and rich history of migration from Asia, but this is also a history fraught with social and political tensions. Asians comprised around 10% of the usually resident population in 2006 (Statistics New Zealand, 2008) and were listed as the fastest growing ethnic group in the most recent National Ethnic Population Projections to 2026 (Statistics, 2010). Asians have double the prevalence of Bachelor’s degrees of any other large ethnic group in New Zealand. For people of all ethnicities, educational attainment is positively associated with income, but in all qualification categories at the 2006 Census, Asian New Zealanders were earning markedly less than their European, Māori or Pacific Islander counterparts. As a clearly important part of Aotearoa’s cultural landscape, any inequalities faced by this group should be of interest to the wider community. This investigation uses relevant variables available in the 2006 New Zealand Census of Populations and Dwellings to create explanatory models that investigate the factors related to this anomalous difference. These models find that being born in New Zealand is of ​​the single most importance in determining income, with Asians born in New Zealand receiving average incomes in line with the population average. Other factors of importance are languages spoken, age of arrival in Aotearoa, and years of residence in New Zealand. If, for each ethnicity, the proportions of individuals in each group within these variables were the same as the population, the income gap closes to $2,000 per year from almost $15,000 between Europeans and Asians, with Asian New Zealanders the second highest earning ethnicity group, and Māori and Pacifica also closing the gap with Europeans. The high level of migrants is shown to be the largest factor explaining the low income return for education for Asian New Zealanders.

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  • What makes early career planners effective in the work place?

    Reeves, Dorothy (2015-04)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper investigates the capabilities and attributes needed by planning practitioners to manage themselves during their early career phase. These are the attributes that complement an early career professional’s technical skills and knowledge. Five established capability scales were used: (1) personal; (2) interpersonal; (3) generic (4) intellectual and (5) profession-specific knowledge. 53 attributes were identified. This paper focusses in particular on the implications of the differences between managers of early career planners and the early career planners themselves. The paper also brings to the fore the importance of life-wide learning in developing these capabilities as the early career planner progresses from graduation.

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  • Dynamic analysis of the interaction between unconfined turbidity currents and obstacles

    Wilson, Richard; Friedrich, Heide (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Sediment underflows, commonly known as turbidity currents, are a type of gravity current that occurs in deep oceans, lakes and river mouths. The present work studies the interaction of turbidity currents with different obstacles and substrates using the ultrasonic Doppler velocity profiler (UDVP) measurement technique in an unconfined basin with a lockbox. The following four conditions are tested: (a) flow of a turbidity current over a smooth surface, (b) flow over a smooth surface with an obstacle present, (c) flow over a rough surface and (d) flow over a rough surface with an obstacle present. It is observed that a rough surface significantly reduces current velocities and diminishes the presence of Kelvin-Helmholtz billows. The presence of a square-cylinder obstacle causes local regions of increased and decreased velocity, but does not have an effect on the global current velocity. Turbulence intensities are slightly higher than presented in previous confined studies.

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