13,024 results for The University of Auckland Library, Journal article

  • The professor of management

    Inkson, James (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this issue, we enjoy a guest poem submission...

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  • Use of interval based quality indicators in blood pressure management to enhance quality of pay for performance incentives: comparison to two indicators from the Quality and Outcomes Framework.

    Mabotuwana, T; Warren, James; Elley, Carolyn; Kennelly, John; Paton, Christopher; Warren, D; Chang Wai, K; Wells, S (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Pay for performance incentives are becoming increasingly popular, but are typically based on only a single point-in-time measurement as an indicator of chronic condition management.

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  • Indigenous Peoples’ Health Care: New Approaches to Contracting and Accountability at The Public Administration Frontier

    Dwyer, Judith,; Boulton, A; Lavoie, J; Tenbensel, TG; Cumming, J (2013)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article analyses reforms to contracting and accountability for indigenous primary health care organizations in Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. The reforms are presented as comparative case studies, the common reform features identified and their implications analysed. The reforms share important characteristics. Each proceeds from implicit recognition that indigenous organizations are ‘co-principals’ rather than simply agents in their relationship with government funders and regulators. There is a common tendency towards more relational forms of contracting; and tentative attempts to reconceptualize accountability. These ‘frontier’ cases have broad implications for social service contracting.

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  • Nested Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Region Analysis: A Rapid Accurate Method For Comparison Of Bacterial Community Composition.

    Lear, Gavin; Lewis, Gillian (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Nested automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) was used to examine the community structure of epilithic biofilms in freshwater streams experiencing different levels of human impact. This molecular fingerprinting technique generated reproducible profiles of bacterial community structure that varied significantly between stream sites. Nested ARISA was determined to be a cost-effective, high-throughput approach to assess bacterial community composition from very small sample volumes, requiring little sampling effort and without the need for taxonomic identification of individual organisms. In combination with multidimensional scaling, nested ARISA provides a rapid and sensitive method to carry out complex analyses of bacterial community structure.

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  • Three common metal contaminants of urban runoff (Zn, Cu & Pb) accumulate in freshwater biofilm and modify embedded bacterial communities

    Ancion, PY; Lear, Gavin; Lewis, Gillian (2010-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We investigated the absorption rates of zinc, copper and lead in freshwater biofilm and assessed whether biofilm bacterial populations are affected by exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of these metals in flow chamber microcosms. Metals were rapidly accumulated by the biofilm and then retained for at least 14 days after transfer to uncontaminated water. Changes in bacterial populations were assessed by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Significant differences in bacterial community structure occurred within only three days of exposure to metals and remained detectable at least 14 days after transfer to uncontaminated water. The rapid uptake of stormwater-associated metals and their retention in the biofilm highlight the potential role of biofilms in the transfer of metals to organisms at higher trophic levels. The sensitivity of stream biofilm bacterial populations to metal exposure supports their use as an indicator of stream ecological health.

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  • Building Customized Search Engines: An Interoperability Architecture

    Chua, Cecil; Chiang, R; Storey, V (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Search engines are essential, ubiquitous tools for seeking information from the Internet. Prior research has also demonstrated that combining features of separate search engines often improves retrieval performance. However, such feature combination is often difficult, because developers don’t consider other developers when building their software. To facilitate the development of search engines, we propose a customized search engine approach to integrating appropriate components from multiple search engines. This article presents an interoperability architecture for building customized search engines. To achieve this, authors analyze existing search engines and decompose them into self-contained components that are classified into six categories. The Automated Software Development Environment for Information Retrieval (ASDEIR) was developed as the prototype of the proposed interoperability architecture to test its feasibility, robustness, and usefulness. ASDEIR incorporates intelligent features that detect and attempt to resolve conflicts between components.

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  • Neoliberalism and knowledge interests in boundaryless careers discourse

    Roper, J; Ganesh, S; Inkson, James (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Decades of critical research have established that economic and political ideologies permeate and shape thought, text and action, and academic knowledge production is no exception. This article examines how ideologies might permeate academic texts, by assessing the reach and influence of neoliberalism in research on boundaryless careers. Specifically, it asks: did the emergence and growth of scholarship on boundaryless careers support, challenge, or merely run parallel to the rising dominance of neoliberal ideology? It was found that a diversity of knowledge interests, including managerial, agentic, curatorial and critical interests underlie the production of research on boundaryless careers. However, all four of these knowledge interests are complicit in discursively constructing and aligning the notion of boundaryless careers with neoliberalism in two specific ways. Implications for scholarship on careers and work are discussed.

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  • Reflecting on a research project on play through sociocultural eyes: 'Eureka' moments.

    White, J; Rockel, Jean; Toso, Meripa (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper explores some of the insights (expressed as 'eureka' moments) that were experienced by New Zealand families, teachers and researchers during a research project which used Rogoff's foci of analysis as both a tool for gathering and analysing data. The New Zealand study took place as part of an International Play Project for Organisation Mondiale Pour Le Prescholaire (OMEP). This project involved 'a day in the life' of five very young children across eight countries, and focussed on personal, interpersonal and community/institutional perspectives of play. Results highlight the significant influence of individual, local, cultural and societal values in shaping the experience and associated conceptualisation of play for very young children, and the benefits of sociocultural research in capturing some of this complexity.

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  • Minimizing Power Loss in Air-Cored Coils for TET Heart Pump Systems

    Leung, Ho; Budgett, David; Hu, Aiguo (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) has been shown to provide an effective means of supplying power to implantable devices by avoiding the risk of infection associated with wires passing through the skin. However, it is important to manage the heat generated by the TET systems and avoid the potential of thermal tissue damage. This paper introduces a new optimization procedure to minimize the amount of power dissipated in the power transfer coils of an implantable TET heart pump system. By analyzing the overall circuit impedance it is possible to observe that a zero voltage switched TET system may dissipate different amounts of power in the power transfer coils while delivering the same amount of power. In this study an objective function was developed to determine the best configuration of resonant capacitors for any particular set of TET coils in order to minimize power loss. A set of TET coils was characterized by their self inductance, operating coupling range and their equivalent series resistance profile. When delivering 15 W over a coupling range of k=0.1 to 0.55 (corresponding to a separation of up to 25 mm), the optimal configuration improves heating performance and provides frequency stability over the extended range of coupling variation. When compared to a traditional tuning configuration tuned to a nominal resonant frequency.

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  • Generalized spatiotemporal myocardial strain analysis for DENSE and SPAMM imaging

    Young, Alistair; Li, Bo; Kirton, Robert; Cowan, Brett (2012)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Displacement encoding using stimulated echoes (DENSE) and spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM) are MRI techniques for quantifying myocardial displacement and strain. However, DENSE has not been compared against SPAMM in phantoms exhibiting nonhomogeneous strain, and interobserver variability has not been compared between DENSE and SPAMM. To perform these comparisons, there is a need for a generalized analysis framework for the evaluation of myocardial strain. A spatiotemporal mathematical model was used to represent myocardial geometry and motion. The model was warped to each frame using tissue displacement maps calculated from either automated phase unwrapping (DENSE) or nonrigid registration (SPAMM). Strain and motion were then calculated from the model using standard methods. DENSE and SPAMM results were compared in a deformable gel phantom exhibiting known nonhomogeneous strain, and interobserver errors were determined in 19 healthy human volunteers. Nonhomogeneous strain in the phantom was accurately quantified using both DENSE and SPAMM. In the healthy volunteers, DENSE produced better interobserver errors than SPAMM for radial strain (−0.009 ± 0.069 vs. 0.029 ± 0.152, respectively, bias ±95% confidence interval). In conclusion, generalized spatiotemporal modeling enables robust myocardial strain analysis for DENSE or SPAMM.

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  • Antenatal Self-Care

    Smalldridge, Jacqueline; McCowan, Lesley; KING, N; TOLLEY, I (1993-07-28)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Concentrations of activin A, inhibin A and follistatin in human amnion, choriodecidual and placental tissues at term and preterm

    Keelan, Jeffrey; Marvin, Keith; Sato, Timothy; McCowan, Lesley; Coleman, M; Evans, LW; Groome, NP; Mitchell, Murray (1999)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    To investigate labour-associated changes in production of activin and related hormones by gestational tissues we prepared extracts from amnion, choriodecidual and placental tissues delivered at term before labour (TNL; n=15), at term after spontaneou

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  • Effects of Exercise Training on Maternal Hormonal Changes in Pregnancy.

    Hopkins, Sarah; Baldi, JC; Cutfield, Wayne; McCowan, Lesley; Hofman, Paul (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Context & Objective:  A recent paper by our group reported that regular aerobic exercise during pregnancy led to lower fetal IGF-I and IGF-II concentrations and a modest reduction in offspring birth weight when compared with the offspring of non-training control participants. Maternal hormonal alterations in response to exercise training may be associated with the regulation of nutrient availability for fetal growth through placental regulation of maternal metabolism. Objective:  To determine if the reduction in offspring size was associated with changes in the maternal IGF axis (including placental growth hormone [PGH]), leptin and/or FFA in response to aerobic exercise training in the second half of pregnancy. Design and Setting:  A randomized, controlled trial of exercise in pregnancy. Patients:  Eighty-four healthy nulliparous women (mean ± SD age 30 ± 4 yr, BMI 25.5 ± 4 kg/m(2) ). Measurements:  Serum samples were drawn at 19 and 35 weeks gestation to determine serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein-1, IGF binding protein-3, PGH, leptin, and FFA. Results:  Exercise training in pregnancy had no impact on the pregnancy-related changes in the maternal IGF axis. Women in the exercise group experienced a 29% increase in leptin in late gestation (P = 0.026 vs. control) and a trend towards lower FFA (P = 0.07 vs. control). Late pregnancy changes in maternal leptin were inversely related to offspring birth weight (r = -0.24, p < 0.05) and BMI (r = -0.25, p < 0.05). Conclusions:  An increase in leptin in exercising pregnant women may reflect subtle changes within the placenta in response to regular exercise and may contribute to the reduction in offspring size previously reported in this cohort.

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  • Induction of labour for intrauterine growth restriction at term

    Kenny, LC; McCowan, Lesley (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The suspicion of fetal growth restriction at or close to term is a common clinical scenario, but the management of such pregnancies is controversial. Fetuses with growth restriction have a higher risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. About 40% of stillbirths have been associated with suboptimal fetal growth, 1 and the risk of stillbirth increases beyond 37 weeks. ...

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  • Metabolic Profiling Uncovers a Phenotypic Signature of Small for Gestational Age in Early Pregnancy

    Horgan, RP; Broadhurst, DI; Walsh, SK; Dunn, WB; Brown, M; Roberts, CT; North, RA; McCowan, Lesley; Kell, DB; Baker, Philip; Kenny, LC (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) confers increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality and increases the risk of cardiovascular complications and diabetes in later life. Accumulating evidence suggests that the etiology of SGA is usually associated with poor placental vascular development in early pregnancy. We examined metabolomic profiles using ultra performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS) in three independent studies: (a) venous cord plasma from normal and SGA babies, (b) plasma from a rat model of placental insufficiency and controls, and (c) early pregnancy peripheral plasma samples from women who subsequently delivered a SGA baby and controls. Multivariate analysis by cross-validated Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) of all 3 studies showed a comprehensive and similar disruption of plasma metabolism. A multivariate predictive model combining 19 metabolites produced by a Genetic Algorithm-based search program gave an Odds Ratio for developing SGA of 44, with an area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve of 0.9. Sphingolipids, phospholipids, carnitines, and fatty acids were among this panel of metabolites. The finding of a consistent discriminatory metabolite signature in early pregnancy plasma preceding the onset of SGA offers insight into disease pathogenesis and offers the promise of a robust presymptomatic screening test.

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  • The effect of context and the level of decision maker training on the perception of a property's probable sale price

    Levy, Deborah; Frethey-Bentham, Catherine (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper explores how property market participants engage in the process of making value judgements. More specifically it investigates how being exposed to a residential property impacts the perception of the probable selling price of an unrelated subsequent property and the influence of decision makers' level of training on these value judgements. Property literature suggests that the use of heuristics (or cognitive short cuts), in particular the effect of anchoring and adjustment, may affect value judgements of a subsequent property. The marketing literature provides evidence of the direction of these adjustments by way of assimilation and contrast effects. The effects of the amount of market knowledge and experience have also been shown to affect the use of heuristics but the level of training has not previously been isolated. This paper consists of an experiment comprising 225 Undergraduate Property students from the University of Auckland, New Zealand. The results indicate that the context and the use of heuristics do affect value judgements. More specifically they suggest that contrast or assimilation effects may result depending on the level of prior training of the decision maker, the comparability of the properties being examined and the level of uncertainty surrounding the estimation of the perceived sales price.

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  • Phagocytosis of necrotic but not apoptotic trophoblasts induces endothelial cell activation.

    Chen, Qi; Stone, Peter; McCowan, Lesley; Chamley, Lawrence (2006)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    It is hypothesized that preeclampsia is caused by factors from the placenta that induce endothelial cell activation. Trophoblasts are cells that may be shed from the placenta, then deported in the maternal blood, and finally become trapped in the pulmonary capillaries. The ultimate fate of deported trophoblasts is unknown, but to prevent clogging of the pulmonary circulation they must be cleared from the capillary beds. We examined the hypothesis that endothelial cells phagocytose deported trophoblasts and also examined the consequent effects of the trophoblasts on endothelial cells. Fluorescently labeled trophoblast–derived choriocarcinoma cells were induced to become apoptotic or necrotic and exposed to endothelial cell monolayers. Confocal microscopy demonstrated uptake of both apoptotic and necrotic trophoblasts, and this phagocytosis could be inhibited by cytochalasin B. Phagocytosis of necrotic but not apoptotic trophoblasts induced increased endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression, as well as increased adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cell monolayers. Inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways blocked both expression of ICAM-1 and phagocytosis, whereas inhibition of the P42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway blocked only ICAM-1 expression. This work suggests that endothelial cells can phagocytose deported trophoblasts and that the mechanism of trophoblast death (apoptotic or necrotic) could have major effects on the maternal vascular response to shed trophoblasts.

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  • Crossing the line: boundaries of workplace humour and fun

    Plester, Barbara (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Purpose – This paper aims to present exploratory, empirical data from an ethnographic study into workplace humour and fun. It explores the notion that workplace humour and fun are influenced by the creation of boundaries that either enable or constrain activities. Design/methodology/approach – Qualitative data were gathered from four New Zealand companies within different industries. Mixed methods were used and included semi-structured interviews, participant observation and document collection. Findings – The findings suggest that organisational culture is influential in boundary creation. In three formal companies, boundaries for humour and fun activities were narrower, and this constrained humour activities. In an informal company, wider boundaries resulted in humour activities that were unrestrained which created an unusual and idiosyncratic company identity. Research limitations/implications – It would be useful to replicate this exploratory research in different workplace sectors and environments. Originality/value – Boundaries constructed through social processes are assuming greater importance in modern organisations. However, research has not investigated boundaries around workplace humour and fun. Understanding boundaries may assist work groups when creating (and promoting) fun. This original research considers both managerial and employee concerns, and findings extend theory on workplace fun and humour.

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  • Periconceptional Events Perturb Postnatal Growth Regulation in Sheep

    Jaquiery, Anne; Oliver, Mark; Bloomfield, Francis; Harding, Jane (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Periconceptional undernutrition and twin conception alter intrauterine growth and metabolism and are associated with later adverse metabolic outcomes. The contribution of postnatal growth to these outcomes is less well defined. We investigated whether maternal periconceptional undernutrition or twin conception altered postnatal growth regulation in ways that could lead to metabolic disease. Single and twin offspring of ewes undernourished (UN) from 61 d before until 30 d after mating, fed to achieve and maintain 10-15% weight loss (UN), were compared with offspring of maintenance-fed controls (N). At 2 h and 1, 6, and 12 wk after birth, lambs were weighed and plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations analyzed. Milk intake, measured by deuterium oxide dilution, was inversely related to birth weight only in N singles, although twins had the greatest postnatal growth velocity. Positive associations were seen between milk intake, growth velocity, and leptin concentrations in N, but not UN, offspring. We conclude that periconceptional undernutrition alters the relationships between regulators of postnatal growth, including nutrient intake and key hormonal axes, in both singles and twins without affecting size at birth or postnatal growth velocity. Dissociation of growth from its key regulators is one possible mechanism underlying adverse metabolic outcomes after periconceptional undernutrition.

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  • Drawing on intertextuality in culturally diverse classrooms: Implications for transfer of literacy knowledge

    Jesson, Rebecca; McNaughton, Stuart; Parr, Judith (2011-07-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article examines the effects of using intertextual theories to refine writing instruction in culturally diverse contexts, in terms of transfer of learning. Within a wider, two-year intervention study in six schools, four teachers were observed for a term each to describe how intertextual theories resulted in refinements to writing instruction their Year 4-8 classes. These effective teachers of writing redesigned their writing programmes to create intertextual support for their writers. The nature of the changes resulted in writing instruction which allowed for incorporation of students’ textual knowledge as well as an explicit focus on future applicability of their learning. The observed teaching practices arguably offered students a greater degree of authority over their situated textual knowledge than might otherwise exist. The results of the study offer possibilities for writing instruction to build students’ knowledge through text inquiry as part of writing lessons

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