13,024 results for The University of Auckland Library, Journal article

  • Counsellors as witnesses in Court

    Agee, M; Feather, R (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation

    Whittaker, R; McRobbie, H; Bullen, Christopher; Rodgers, A; Gu, Yulong (2016-04-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Access to mobile phones continues to increase exponentially globally, outstripping access to fixed telephone lines, fixed computers and the Internet. Mobile phones are an appropriate and effective option for the delivery of smoking cessation support in some contexts. This review updates the evidence on the effectiveness of mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions.To determine whether mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions increase smoking cessation in people who smoke and want to quit.For the most recent update, we searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register in April 2015. We also searched the UK Clinical Research Network Portfolio for current projects in the UK, and the ClinicalTrials.gov register for ongoing or recently completed studies. We searched through the reference lists of identified studies and attempted to contact the authors of ongoing studies. We applied no restrictions on language or publication date.We included randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Participants were smokers of any age who wanted to quit. Studies were those examining any type of mobile phone-based intervention for smoking cessation. This included any intervention aimed at mobile phone users, based around delivery via mobile phone, and using any functions or applications that can be used or sent via a mobile phone.Review authors extracted information on risk of bias and methodological details using a standardised form. We considered participants who dropped out of the trials or were lost to follow-up to be smoking. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each included study. Meta-analysis of the included studies used the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect method. Where meta-analysis was not possible, we presented a narrative summary and descriptive statistics.This updated search identified 12 studies with six-month smoking cessation outcomes, including seven studies completed since the previous review. The interventions were predominantly text messaging-based, although several paired text messaging with in-person visits or initial assessments. Two studies gave pre-paid mobile phones to low-income human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive populations - one solely for phone counselling, the other also included text messaging. One study used text messages to link to video messages. Control programmes varied widely. Studies were pooled according to outcomes - some providing measures of continuous abstinence or repeated measures of point prevalence; others only providing 7-day point prevalence abstinence. All 12 studies pooled using their most rigorous 26-week measures of abstinence provided an RR of 1.67 (95% CI 1.46 to 1.90; I(2) = 59%). Six studies verified quitting biochemically at six months (RR 1.83; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.19).The current evidence supports a beneficial impact of mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions on six-month cessation outcomes. While all studies were good quality, the fact that those studies with biochemical verification of quitting status demonstrated an even higher chance of quitting further supports the positive findings. However, it should be noted that most included studies were of text message interventions in high-income countries with good tobacco control policies. Therefore, caution should be taken in generalising these results outside of this type of intervention and context.

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  • Does more protein in the first week of life change outcomes for very low birthweight babies?

    Cormack, Barbara; Bloomfield, Francis; Dezoete, A; Kuschel CA (2011-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Following publication of revised recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) for infants < 0.001) but more protein (3.2 ± 0.6 vs. 2.4 ± 0.5 g/kg/day, P < 0.001) in the first week of life. There were no differences in clinical outcome, growth z-scores at 4 weeks of age or neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 months CA between the ‘before’ and ‘after’ infants. Enteral protein intake in the first 2 weeks of life was positively associated with neurodevelopmental outcome (cognitive score r2= 0.13 P= 0.03, motor score r2= 0.27 P= 0.001). Conclusion: Although the new IVN regimen achieved intakes closer to RNI, there were no major effects on growth, clinical outcome or neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 months CA. Enteral protein intake in the first two weeks was positively associated with neurodevelopmental outcome, suggesting early enteral protein intake is important for optimal brain function.

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  • Born Large for Gestational Age: Bigger Is Not Always Better

    Chiavaroli, Valentina; Behrensdorf Derraik, Jose; Hofman, Paul; Cutfield, Wayne (2016-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • What's the perfect dose for practice to make perfect?

    Byblow, Winston; Schlaug, G; Wittenberg, G (2016-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • M-Protein Analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates Associated with Acute Rheumatic Fever in New Zealand

    Williamson, DA; Smeesters, PR; Steer, AC; Steemson, JD; Ng, ACH; Proft, Thomas; Fraser, John; Baker, MG; Morgan, J; Carter, PE; Moreland, Nicole (2015-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We applied an emm cluster typing system to group A Streptococcus strains in New Zealand, including those associated with acute rheumatic fever (ARF). We observed few so-called rheumatogenic emm types but found a high proportion of emm types previously associated with pyoderma, further suggesting a role for skin infection in ARF.

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  • European Security and Defence Policy Seminar, Lisbon 2009 Creating the Future Human Capabilities of the CSDP

    Silva, Pedro; Paile, S (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Transient fixation on a non-native language associated with anaesthesia - a reply

    Webster, Craig (2005)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Measuring hospital-acquired pressure injuries: A surveillance programme for monitoring performance improvement and estimating annual prevalence

    Jull, Andrew; McCall, E; Chappell, M; Tobin, S (2016-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aims To describe a surveillance approach for monitoring the effect of improvement initiatives on hospital-acquired pressure injuries and findings arising from that surveillance. Methods Random sampling of patients on the same day of each successive month from a campus of child and adult hospitals using a standard audit tool to identify presence of hospital-acquired pressure injury. Where multiple pressure injuries were present, the most severe grade injury contributed to prevalence. Statistical process control charts were used to monitor monthly performance and Maximum Likelihood Estimation to determine timing of step change. Results 8274 patients were assessed over 3 years from an eligible population of 32,259 hospitalised patients. 517 patients had hospital-acquired pressure injuries giving an overall prevalence of 6.2% (95% CI 5.7–6.8%). Annual prevalence was 8.4% (95% CI 7.4–9.5%) in the first year, falling to 5.6% (95% CI 4.7–6.4%) in the second year and 4.8% (95% CI 4.0–5.6%) in the third year. A step change was signalled with mean prevalence up to July 2013 being 7.9% (95% CI 7.1–8.8%) and mean prevalence thereafter 4.8% (95% CI 4.2–5.4%). Hospital-acquired pressure injuries were found in all age ranges, but were more frequent in children up to 14 years (17.4%) and those aged 75 years or older (38.7%). Conclusion Monthly random sampling of patients within clinical units can be used to monitor performance improvement. This approach represents a rational alternative to cross-sectional prevalence surveys especially if the focus is on performance improvement.

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  • Estimation and economic evaluation of aboveground carbon storage of Tectona grandis plantations in Western Panama

    Derwisch, S; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Olschewski, R; Hölscher, D (2009-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Tropical tree plantations may play an important role in mitigating CO2 emissions through their potential to capture and sequester carbon from the atmosphere. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) as well as voluntary initiatives provide economic incentives for afforestation and reforestation efforts through the generation and sale of carbon credits. The objectives of our study were to measure the carbon (C) storage potential of 1, 2 and 10-years old Tectona grandis plantations in the province of Chiriqui, Western Panama and to calculate the monetary value of aboveground C storage if sold as Certified Emission Reduction (CER) carbon credits. The average aboveground C storage ranged from 2.9 Mg C ha(-1) in the 1-year-old plantations to 40.7 Mg C ha(-1) in the 10-year-old plantations. Using regression analysis we estimated the potential aboveground C storage of the teak plantation over a 20 year rotation period. The CO2-storage over this period amounted to 191.1 Mg CO2 ha(-1). The discounted revenues that could be obtained by issuance of carbon credits during a 20 year rotation period were about US$460 for temporary CER and US$560 for long-term CER, and thus, contribute to a minor extent (1%) to overall revenues, only.

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  • Return to Tradition in Contractual Interpretation

    Havelock, Rohan (2016-09-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Sap flow of the southern conifer, Agathis australis during wet and dry summers

    Macinnis-Ng, C; Wyse, S; Veale, A; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Clearwater, M (2016-02-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Key message: Analysis of sap flux density during drought suggests that the large sapwood and rooting volumes of larger trees provide a buffer against drying soil. Abstract: The southern conifer Agathis australis is amongst the largest and longest-lived trees in the world. We measured sap flux densities (Fd) in kauri trees with a DBH range of 20–176 cm to explore differences in responses of trees of different sizes to seasonal conditions and summer drought. Fd was consistently higher in larger trees than smaller trees. Peak Fd was 20 and 8 g m−2 s−1 for trees of diameters of 176 and 20 cm, respectively, during the wet summer. Multiple regression analysis revealed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and vapour pressure deficit (D) were the main drivers of Fd. During drought, larger trees were more responsive to D whilst smaller trees were more responsive to soil drying. Our largest tree had a sapwood area of 3,600 cm2. Preliminary analysis suggests stem water storage provides a buffer against drying soil in larger trees. Furthermore, Fd of smaller trees had higher R2 values for soil moisture at 30 and 60 cm depth than soil moisture at 10 cm depth (R2 = 0.68–0.97 and 0.55–0.67, respectively) suggesting that deeper soil moisture is more important for these trees. Larger trees did not show a relationship between Fd and soil moisture, suggesting they were accessing soil water deeper than 60 cm. These results suggest that larger trees may be better prepared for increasing frequency and intensity of summer droughts due to deeper roots and/or larger stem water storage capacity.

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  • Digital Natives: Rise of the Social Networking Generation

    Myers, Michael; Sundaram, David (2012)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Introduction: Mapping cultural intangibles

    Longley, Alys; Duxbury, N (2016-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Commentary on the Special Issue: Youth Leading Environmental Change

    Harré, N (2016-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Applications of phylogenetics to solve practical problems in insect conservation

    Buckley, Thomas (2016-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Phylogenetic approaches have much promise for the setting of conservation priorities and resource allocation. There has been significant development of analytical methods for the measurement of phylogenetic diversity within and among ecological communities as a way of setting conservation priorities. Application of these tools to insects has been low as has been the uptake by conservation managers. A critical reason for the lack of uptake includes the scarcity of detailed phylogenetic and species distribution data from much of insect diversity. Environmental DNA technologies offer a means for the high throughout collection of phylogenetic data across landscapes for conservation planning.

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  • 1,4-bis[4-(1-pyridinium)styryl]benzene ditosylate

    Clark, George; Denny, William; Squire, Christopher (1999)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The crystal structure of the title compound (alternative name: 1, 1'-[p-phenylenebis(4-styryl)] dipyridinium ditosylate), C32H26N22+. 2C(7)H(7)O(3)S(-), provides an energy-minimum conformation which can be related to its DNA-binding properties.

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  • The Stock Market Reaction to Merger and Acquisition Announcements in Liner Shipping

    Panayides, PM; Gong, Xihe (2002-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The importance of mergers and acquisitions as strategies pursued towards the achievement of the organisational objectives of contemporary ocean liner carriers is evidenced by the increasing number of such activities in recent years. Despite the topicality of the issues and their practical significance, there has not been a systematic investigation of the effects that the announcement of such events might have on the stock price of the companies involved. The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate the reaction of the stock market to the announcement by listed liner shipping companies of a planned merger or acquisition. This research aim is achieved through the application of the standard market model in an event study. The methodology is well established in finance studies, but has not been applied to the shipping industry. The results obtained from a number of analytical tests provide support to the hypothesis that the announcement of a merger or acquisition has significant impact on the stock price behaviour of the liner companies involved. Managerial and research implications resulting from the study are also presented.

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  • Connexin gap junction channels and chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Kim, R; Chang, G; Hu, R; Phillips, Anthony; Douglas, Richard (2016-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Gap junction channels are formed by connexin (Cx) proteins. These channels facilitate communication between adjacent cells, and some have been implicated in acute and chronic inflammation. We investigated whether altered connexin expression could be associated with the inflammatory changes of the sinonasal mucosa that characterize chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Our aims were first to screen normal sinus mucosa to determine the expression profile of the connexin family of genes, and second to compare the level of expression of 3 key connexins (Cx26, Cx30, and Cx43) in CRS and normal sinus mucosa. These 3 connexins have been implicated in lower airway epithelial cell repair, as well as chronic and acute cutaneous wounds.Sinus mucosa biopsies were taken from 11 patients with CRS undergoing sinus surgery and from 7 controls with normal sinuses undergoing transnasal pituitary surgery. Gene expression study of the connexin family was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Subsequent targeted quantitative analyses were done using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC).A total of 16 different connexin genes were expressed in the normal mucosa including Cx26, Cx30, and Cx43. The qPCR demonstrated increased abundance of Cx26 (p = 0.005), Cx30 (p = 0.07), and Cx43 (p = 0.04) in CRS compared to control mucosa. IHC confirmed significantly higher levels of Cx43 in CRS (p < 0.001).The majority of the connexin family is expressed in normal sinus mucosa. Expression of 3 selected connexins was found elevated in CRS mucosa. Connexin gap junction modulation may offer a novel therapeutic target for CRS.

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  • Prostate Cancer: Is It a Battle Lost to Age?

    Vaidyanathan, Venkatesh; Karunasinghe, N; Jabed, Anower; Pallati, Radha; Kao, CHJ; Wang, A; Marlow, G; Ferguson, Lynnette (2016-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Age is often considered an important non-modifiable risk factor for a number of diseases, including prostate cancer. Some prominent risk factors of prostate cancer include familial history, ethnicity and age. In this review, various genetic and physiological characteristics affected due to advancing age will be analysed and correlated with their direct effect on prostate cancer.

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