291 results for The University of Auckland Library, Masters

  • Evaluation of utilisation of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Programme in Central province, Kenya

    Ngugi, Catherine Njeri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The PMTCT HIV programme has been one of the most successful HIV preventive interventions towards HIV-free future generations. However, even though the programme is virtually effective in developed countries, many developing countries are reporting child HIV infections due to the MTCT. The programme has existed in Kenya for more than a decade, yet in 2011, 12,894children were HIV infected due to MTCT Objective: To evaluate the PMTCT programme, especially the HIV testing from the antenatal period to the postnatal period among expectant parents attending Nyeri Provincial General Hospital in Central Province, Kenya. Design: Retrospective analysis of the hospital registers. Methods: Three hospital registers were analysed for the period from July 2009 to September 2012. The registers were for antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care respectively. Each register documented the utilisation of PMTCT services by the expectant parents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were produced to analyse data from the registers. Results: The PMTCT services utilisation was sub-optimal. Of the 504 expectant mothers who attended the antenatal clinic, 59.9% came once, 80.4% had their first visit in the third trimester (between weeks 28 and 40) and only 6.9% were accompanied by their partners. All the women were HIV tested in their first visit but only 12.1% were rescreened after three months, and only 3.8% had been tested prior to the current pregnancy (p=0.000). No expectant mother was tested for HIV intrapartum or postpartum. The children of the 504 mothers who were HIV tested were those whose parent/s were known to be HIV positive or who had presented to a child welfare clinic with recurring symptoms suggestive of a failing immune system. Conclusion: Public health programs need to strengthen the PMTCT and HIV prevention programmes to ensure that HIV testing preconception and in pregnancy is fully implemented and strengthened, alongside continued education of the public through community programmes and the media. To avert further horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV, there is a need to address urgently the identified missed opportunities in the PMTCT program. These programmatic challenges require health system redesign and strengthening, resource allocation, addressing research gaps and reassessing the current PMTCT policies.

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  • The Evaluation of Serum IGF-II in children and adolescents born prematurely

    Rowe, Deborah (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Maori Women in Prison : Nga Wahine Ngaro

    Quince, Khylee (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Major thesis assessing Corrections policy and practice in respect of Maori female inmates in New Zealand prisons.

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  • Talking our selves : Stories of identities and linguistic possibilities of bilingual teachers working in English medium early childhood services in the Auckland region.

    Harvey, Nola (2011)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis examines the ways in which five bilingual teachers use their two languages in English-medium early childhood services in the Auckland region. Questions regarding the possible mediation of bilingual identities for teachers and children created a further interrogation of teachers' 'lived experiences' of bilingual activity. The research, informed by critical multiculturalism, used a qualitative methodology and Narrative Inquiry that employed a spiral discourse or 'conversation' approach for data collection. The collaborative insights from participants and researcher became the foundation for further analysis. Findings revealed that bilingual teachers in the absence of government policy, worked powerfully to construct a critical bilingual praxis to counter deficit discourses of bilingualism in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Teachers' 'lived experiences' illustrated their deep knowledge of bilingualism and the use of two languages as critical linguistic and cultural resources for teaching and learning. As trusted agents for the educational and home language communities, 'doing self as bilingual teacher' worked cogeneratively to mediate bilingual identities for themselves and for children.

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  • Myth busting and tenet building: Primary and early childhood teachers' understanding of the nature of science.

    Heap, R (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    A fundamental objective of science education is to provide students with the level of scientific literacy necessary to participate in a society increasingly dependent on science and technology. Central to definitions of this scientific literacy is an appreciation of the nature of science (NOS). The purpose of the research project was to identify the understandings of NOS of a cohort of practising primary and early childhood teachers, enrolled in a semester long science course as part of a Bachelor of Education degree. The research sought to examine their initial NOS understandings and mapped these understandings over the duration of the course in order to identify shifts in understanding and aspects of NOS resistant to change. The research was embedded in critical social science methodology. An explicit reflective approach was used throughout the course instruction to teach NOS tenets. Two frameworks were developed to analyse the data gathered, a myths framework and a NOS framework. Analysis of the pre-instruction views showed that the teachers initial understandings of NOS were fragmented, lacking in depth, inconsistent, fluid and revealed many myths of NOS. Over the duration of the course the teachers journals showed shifts in understanding: NOS tenets were more frequently expressed; there was an increase in the complexity of expression; and an increase in the integration or interrelatedness of NOS tenets. Factors which contributed to these shifts in understanding included the use of an explicit approach, consistency between explicit and implicit instruction, reflection, a conceptual change approach and the use of generic science-content-free NOS activities throughout the course. These findings suggest a need for NOS to be addressed in both pre-service teacher education and in-service teacher professional development programmes. The research has indicated that an explicit, reflective teaching approach is pedagogically effective for this need.

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  • Novel red fluorescent proteins of the sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor for in situ imaging of bacteria

    Dalton, James (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • An investigation into the motivating factors behind the use or non use of institutional repositories by selected university academics

    Reid, Stephanie (2008)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The Implementation and Integration of Information and Communication Technologies in Early Childhood Education: Teachers' Perspectives

    Pohio, Lesley (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study reports on the implementation and integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) within Early Childhood Education (ECE) from the perspective of a small group of early childhood teachers. Traditionally the bulk of the literature pertaining to ICT was predominantly focused on the compulsory sector, with any reference to early childhood education reporting on debates surrounding the pros and cons of young children’s use of computers.

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  • Effective pedagogical strategies for language revitalization in Māori-medium Professional Development Contexts

    Hemahema-Tamati, ST (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Das Unmittelbare Ansetzen Zur Tatbestandsverwirklichung Beim Versuch Gemäß §22 STGB

    Mandery, Maya (2008)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Supermarket Sales Data: Feasibility and Applicability in Population Nutrition Monitoring

    Tin Tin, S (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The nutrition transition and global convergence on a high fat, low complex carbohydrate diet have led to corresponding increases in obesity and associated chronic diseases, now recognised as global public health problems. Population food and nutrition monitoring plays a critical role in understanding and addressing these challenges, yet current monitoring methods, such as national nutrition surveys, are not practical on a continuous (e.g. annual) basis. Supermarket sales data could fill a gap by providing detailed, timely and inexpensive food and nutrition information helpful in developing policies and predicting future trends. This dissertation aims to examine the feasibility and applicability of supermarket sales data in population food and nutrition monitoring; and includes two components: (1) a literature review of published research that has used supermarket sales data for various food and nutrition monitoring purposes, and (2) a research proposal involving use of supermarket sales data to evaluate ethnic and socioeconomic differences in food purchasing patterns in New Zealand and the multilevel determinants of any such differences. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken up to April 2006. Forty seven studies were identified, of which four were feasibility studies, 19 assessed population food purchasing patterns, and 24 evaluated nutrition interventions. Four feasibility studies showed promising results for using sales data (scanned data, commercially available datasets and grocery receipts) to assess population food purchasing patterns. Six main purposes of using supermarket sales data observed in this review were to assess the impact of policy changes on population food purchases; to examine the effect of food pricing on healthier food choices; to compare food and nutrient purchase patterns between population groups; to validate food consumption data; to identify factors related to food purchasing behaviours; and to evaluate nutrition interventions. Based on the findings of the reviews, it appears that supermarket sales data have great potential for supplementing population food and nutrition monitoring. Further research is recommended to address some methodological limitations such as restricted data coverage and issues related to capturing, coding and analysing of sales data. The findings of this review have been accepted for publication in an international journal and presented at an international conference. Based on the review, a proposal was written for research that uses electronic supermarket sales data to evaluate ethnic and socioeconomic differences in food purchase patterns and the multilevel determinants of any such differences. Such information is clearly important in New Zealand where the burden of suboptimal nutrition in terms of reduced quality of life, increased morbidity, premature mortality and associated health care costs is substantial and increasing, with a disproportionate burden falling on Maori, Pacific and low socioeconomic group. Since most New Zealand household food purchases are made at supermarkets, the proposed study will inform the development of effective policies, programmes and services to improve nutrition of these priority groups in a more focused and efficient manner.

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  • "Ballet is always going to hurt": Attitudes surrounding female ballet dancers dancing in pain

    Martin, Rosemary (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    "This ethnographic research collects the views of current dancers, ex-dancers, dance teachers, choreographers and artistic directors and analyses these using Foucauldian perspectives of discipline, social hierarchies, power, knowledge and discourse, alongside feminist theory, prevalent physiological conceptions of pain and contemporary theories of dance pedagogy, ethnography and subjectivity" -- Abstract.

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  • 'Tonga for the Tongans': Culture in Rights Interpretation in the Tongan Constitution

    Kelly, Danielle (2010)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Tonga’s Constitution is one of the oldest in the world. It is a remarkable document with a remarkable history. The Constitution opens with a firmly stated Declaration of Rights, extending over 32 provisions. Like many rights documents around the world, the rights provisions use open and absolute language. This thesis looks at the approaches of the Tongan Courts to interpreting these rights provisions. Particularly, it examines the relevance of culture in interpreting constitutional rights, focussing on the recent case Taione v Kingdom of Tonga. It argues that even within a conception of universal rights, it is undeniable that what may be considered an acceptable or permissible limit to a right varies between societies. These permissible limits are established by balancing the values protected by the right against other values. This paper argues that in finding the values for that equation, it is both possible and necessary to give regard to the values of the cultures within the relevant society. This allows rights to be meaningfully located within the society whose constitution is being enforced. It further argues judges must try to acknowledge the values that form part of their interpretation. Judges’ own values inevitably form part of their adjudication process, often supported by selected precedent. However, an overreliance on common law or comparative law precedent results in a cultural bias as culturally based values are introduced into the balancing process without acknowledgement. Because of the intimate link between culture and identity of a people, there is an obligation on judges in Pacific courts to engage with cultural values in constitutional interpretation, in order to ensure that there is legal recognition of the identity of the peoples to whom the Constitution applies. Meaningful engagement with cultural values requires a greater self-consciousness in constitutional interpretation: an attempt to include a greater articulation of values in areas of judgment that are typically value-silent.

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  • Once daily gentamicin in infants and children; an evaluation of safety and the role of therapeutic drug monitoring

    Best, Emma (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    AIMS: To assess (i) the safety of once daily dosing (ODD) of gentamicin by systematic evaluation of ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity; and (ii) the usefulness of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in a paediatric cohort. METHOD: Infants and children with suspected or proven gram negative sepsis were enrolled prospectively to receive ODD gentamicin at 7 mg/kg/day. Neonates were excluded. Hearing and renal function were assessed at baseline, during and after therapy by otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and by either serum creatinine or glomerular filtration rate. Abnormal OAE were followed with audiometry. TDM was performed using an interval adjusted graphical method (Hartford nomogram) with levels taken between 6- 14 hours after dose. Assessment of efficacy (clinical and microbiological) was a secondary outcome measure. RESULTS: There were 106 episodes of therapy in 79 children (median age 5.6 years; range 1 month - 16 years), 60% of which were for febrile neutropaenia. Evaluation was complete in 88% (93/106) for ototoxicity and 92% (98/106) for nephrotoxicity. Two children (1.88%, 95% CI 0.10 - 7.13) experienced permanent hearing loss. Three children did not complete full assessment after preliminary abnormalities on OAE. Incorporating these cases gives a ‘worst case scenario’ incidence of 4.71% (95% CI 1.71 - 10.91) possible ototoxicity. One child (0.94%, 95% CI < 0.10 - 5.73) experienced transient nephrotoxicity. No ‘toxic’ serum gentamicin levels were detected, including in those children who experienced clinical toxicity. All children with detectable toxicity were undergoing treatment for malignancies and had received nephro or ototoxic medications prior to the gentamicin course. Complete or partial efficacy was seen in 93% (non oncology) and 78% (oncology) treatment episodes, equivalent to prior literature reports. CONCLUSION: In this systematically evaluated paediatric cohort receiving ODD gentamicin, toxicity occurred infrequently and only in those with identifiable risk factors. TDM did not identify children who developed clinical toxicity. The development of toxicity appears to be associated with factors such as underlying medical condition, prior courses of gentamicin, exposure to other oto or nephrotoxic medications, all of which may be more predictive of toxicity than elevated serum gentamicin levels. TDM in healthy children on short course gentamicin appears unnecessary, but may be warranted in conjunction with renal and hearing assessments in those with risk factors.

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  • The value relevance of international financial reporting standards : evidence from New Zealand

    Bridges, Caroline (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this thesis, I examine the value relevance of financial statements for companies that chose to voluntarily adopt International Financial Reporting Standards in New Zealand between 2005 and 2007, prior to it becoming mandatory for all companies. Specifically, I document the relative and incremental value relevance, respectively, of voluntarily adopting New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards as opposed to domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards on the book value of equity and net income for a sample of 34 companies. The main results of the empirical analysis find that (i) there is no evidence to suggest that the value relevance of the book value of equity and net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards, when taken together, is greater than the combined value relevance of the book value of equity and net income calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards (i.e., New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards do not have relative value relevance); (ii) the book value of equity calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards does not have incremental value relevance over and above the book value of equity calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards; and (iii) net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards does not have incremental value relevance over and above net income calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards. I also carry out an analysis of the conservativeness of the net income figure measured under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards, and find that there is no significant difference in the timeliness or asymmetric timeliness (i.e., conditional conservatism) between net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards and domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards. Overall, my thesis finds little evidence that the voluntary adoption of New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards provides accounting information that is more value relevant to that under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards, which is consistent with the conclusion of Hung & Subramanyam (2007) albeit in the German institutional setting. Hence, the benefits of early adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in New Zealand are questionable.

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  • Differential Effects of Recurring and Nonrecurring Non-Audit Services: New Zealand Evidence.

    Alexander, Deborah (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The provision of non-audit services by auditors to their clients has become a matter of concern to stakeholders. These non-audit fees have grown substantially in relative proportion to the audit fees. This is viewed as a lucrative form of revenue for audit firms but one that potentially could create a lack of auditor independence. Of issue is whether audit firms cut their audit fees to get access to consulting work. This may lead to poor quality audit work. Empirical studies have found a positive relation between audit fees and non-audit work. This seems to be counter-intuitive. There are a number of possible explanations for this relation. Simunic (1984) was the first to find this positive relation and attempted to explain it through analytical means. Solomon (1990) provided further thoughts on this relationship. Beck et al. (1988a) suggested the disaggregation of non-audit services into recurring and nonrecurring non-audit services would have differing effects on audit fees and on auditor independence. Companies in New Zealand have published some key pieces of data for the period from 1995 onwards. A description of the nature of any non-audit services is provided in the auditor,s report and the fees for total non-audit services is presented in the financial statements. The potentially differing effects of recurring and nonrecurring non-audit services have not been examined much in previous research, as data is hard to obtain. This unique data was used to test whether recurring and non-recurring services have differing effects on audit fees. This thesis contributes to the literature by showing that auditors do not discount their fees for either recurring or nonrecurring non-audit services. Further examination of this data suggests companies that purchase consulting services from their auditor are substantially different from those that purchase auditing only or auditing and tax and the determinants of their audit fees differ significantly.

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  • A Hierarchical Analysis of Trial of Labour in Ontario: Do women, doctors or hospitals choose?

    Wise, Michelle (2010-06)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Few studies have determined the contribution of maternity care provider and hospital factors to the variation in Trial of Labour (TOL) and successful TOL rates. Objective: To determine sources of variation in TOL and successful TOL rates at the provider and/or hospital level. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 12,170 women with previous caesarean who gave birth in Ontario in 2007. Hierarchical linear model was used to determine variation in rates by provider and hospital characteristics, adjusting for maternal characteristics, and for clustering of data. Results: TOL rate was 23%; successful TOL rate 75%. Women attending family doctors and female doctors for prenatal care were more likely to have TOL. There were no provider factors associated with successful TOL. Women giving birth at teaching hospitals were more likely to have TOL and successful TOL. Conclusions: Policies aimed at prenatal care providers and hospitals could impact the low TOL rate.

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  • Parents, peers, personal aspirations and pedagogy: their impact on students' experiences of secondary school.

    O'Brien, Patrice (2011)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Students who entered West Coast secondary schools in 2008 began Year 9 with achievement in reading comprehension that was higher than national norms (Lai, 2009). By the end of 2008, STAR (reading comprehension) testing revealed that this cohort had begun to show a drop in achievement in reading comprehension against national norms and this continued with a further drop in Year 10 (Lai, 2009). Historically, there have also been relatively low levels of achievement by students in NCEA assessment in the West Coast region. The aim of the research was to use student voice to understand the pattern of achievement of Year 9 and 10 students in West Coast secondary schools. To capture student voice, Year 10 students (n=93) completed surveys about their experiences of secondary school. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of students (n=18). This provided data on the factors identified from local and international research that could influence achievement, for example, student aspirations, parental expectations and pedagogy. Achievement data on reading comprehension were also collected. Students perceptions of factors such as parental support for education, the influence of peer groups and student’s future aspirations were positive and did not suggest that these were implicated in the decreasing levels of achievement. In contrast, the use of student voice suggested that being unsure how to improve their work, teacher expectations that were lower than appropriate for this group of students and a lack of cognitive challenge may have impacted to some extent on student achievement. This research reinforces the importance of testing assumptions and highlights the value of using student voice to improve teaching and learning. It demonstrates that there is much to be gained from consulting students about their experiences of school. Hearing what students have to say about school and their learning has the potential to allow teachers to view their classrooms from a different perspective. This can be the catalyst for changes to teaching approaches and practices.

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  • Many are Called, but only FEW are Chosen - E to'atele e valaaulia ae toaititi e filifilia. The perspectives of Samoan males on their roles as Early Childhood educators.

    Sauni, Seiuli (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This research report presents the perspectives and experiences of four Samoan male students in the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Education programme. This study explores and highlights the reasons for their involvement in a profession which is predominantly female. Particular focus on this study was on the significance of their roles within their families, church, communities and most importantly, the development of education of young children. Although these men have all had some teaching experience in Samoa before coming to New Zealand, further studies through the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Teacher Education Programme provided them with new knowledge, skills and an understanding of the Early Childhood Curriculum document. Te Whariki (1996) to enable them to teach in Early Childhood centres. The men in this study were the first male students enrolled in this programme. After three years, they graduated with a Diploma of Teaching and are now all working as qualified teachers in Early Childhood centres in New Zealand.

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  • An Investigation into the Relationships Between Selected Variables and Academic Success in a Pre-Registration Nursing Programme in Scotland

    Cameron, Marie (2006-12)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The ongoing high attrition rates from pre-registration nursing programmes in the United Kingdom (Byrne 2006; RCN Scotland 2006) have long been a cause for concern, and have prompted investigation into possible causes (Glossop 2001). The research done so far has linked, amongst others, factors such as academic success, age, academic qualifications, family commitments and finances to attrition from nursing programmes. Scotland has a particularly high attrition rate (RCN Scotland 2006), and this study aims to investigate the relationships between a variety of variables and academic success. An online, quantitative, questionnaire survey of stage two and three pre-registration nursing and midwifery students was carried out. Demographic data, and data relating to academic performance and extra-curricular work was collected. Kruskall-Wallis testing was used to determine the presence of relationships between variables (Petrie and Sabin 2000). Respondents were split almost 50:50 between the over-25 and under-25 age groups. Almost half of the respondents were married or cohabiting, almost a third have children, and almost a third are the primary wage earners in their households. Academic performance in this group was better in stage one of their course than in stage two. A relationship with academic success was demonstrated with age (p=0.01), entry qualifications (p=0.047), course (p=0.031) and branch (p=0.014) in stage one, but only with age (P=0.041) in stage two. The relationships demonstrated in this study correlate with the published evidence (Glossop 2001), but further analysis and research is required, particularly as the survey had a very low response rate and the sample may not be representative of the population of interest.

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