291 results for The University of Auckland Library, Masters

  • Evaluation of utilisation of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Programme in Central province, Kenya

    Ngugi, Catherine Njeri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The PMTCT HIV programme has been one of the most successful HIV preventive interventions towards HIV-free future generations. However, even though the programme is virtually effective in developed countries, many developing countries are reporting child HIV infections due to the MTCT. The programme has existed in Kenya for more than a decade, yet in 2011, 12,894children were HIV infected due to MTCT Objective: To evaluate the PMTCT programme, especially the HIV testing from the antenatal period to the postnatal period among expectant parents attending Nyeri Provincial General Hospital in Central Province, Kenya. Design: Retrospective analysis of the hospital registers. Methods: Three hospital registers were analysed for the period from July 2009 to September 2012. The registers were for antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care respectively. Each register documented the utilisation of PMTCT services by the expectant parents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were produced to analyse data from the registers. Results: The PMTCT services utilisation was sub-optimal. Of the 504 expectant mothers who attended the antenatal clinic, 59.9% came once, 80.4% had their first visit in the third trimester (between weeks 28 and 40) and only 6.9% were accompanied by their partners. All the women were HIV tested in their first visit but only 12.1% were rescreened after three months, and only 3.8% had been tested prior to the current pregnancy (p=0.000). No expectant mother was tested for HIV intrapartum or postpartum. The children of the 504 mothers who were HIV tested were those whose parent/s were known to be HIV positive or who had presented to a child welfare clinic with recurring symptoms suggestive of a failing immune system. Conclusion: Public health programs need to strengthen the PMTCT and HIV prevention programmes to ensure that HIV testing preconception and in pregnancy is fully implemented and strengthened, alongside continued education of the public through community programmes and the media. To avert further horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV, there is a need to address urgently the identified missed opportunities in the PMTCT program. These programmatic challenges require health system redesign and strengthening, resource allocation, addressing research gaps and reassessing the current PMTCT policies.

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  • Novel red fluorescent proteins of the sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor for in situ imaging of bacteria

    Dalton, James (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The Special Court for Sierra Leone: Justice for whom?

    Mahony, Christopher (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The thesis examined the divergence of conceptions of justice between civil society actors in Sierra Leone and personnel working at the Special Court for Sierra Leone.

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  • Mild Traumatic Brain Injury among New Zealand Children: Improving Quality of Care in the Emergency Department Setting

    Sharpe, S (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aim: To examine the occurrence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among New Zealand children and to investigate the quality of healthcare delivered in the emergency department (ED) setting to children with mild TBI. Methods: A systematic review of the literature regarding the occurrence of TBI among New Zealand children was undertaken alongside a clinical audit examining the quality of healthcare delivered to children with mild TBI who were discharged home after assessment in a children's hospital ED in 2007. Medical records of a random sample of 60 children aged <15 years stratified by ethnicity and age were reviewed. ED processes of care for mild TBI were compared with best practice standards derived from guideline recommendations. Findings: The systematic literature review revealed important gaps in knowledge regarding the burden of mild TBI among New Zealand children. The clinical audit identified that processes of care designed to manage potentially life-threatening acute complications (e.g. selection of children for CT scanning to identify intracranial haemorrhage) were consistent with best practice standards. However gaps existed between current and best practice for aspects of care that could minimise risks of disability. For example, despite a high standard of documentation of data required for estimating the probability of TBI, this information was not applied to clearly identify children with definite or possible TBI. In addition, documentation deficiencies raised concerns regarding whether information is provided in a manner supportive of the cultures and languages of families/wh?nau, missed opportunities for injury prevention advice, and the adequacy of follow-up plans in the community. Conclusion: The identified gaps in research knowledge and quality of care in the ED setting require attention to develop effective integrated services that minimise the risk of disability following childhood TBI.

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  • Das Unmittelbare Ansetzen Zur Tatbestandsverwirklichung Beim Versuch Gemäß §22 STGB

    Mandery, Maya (2008)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Maori Women in Prison : Nga Wahine Ngaro

    Quince, Khylee (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Major thesis assessing Corrections policy and practice in respect of Maori female inmates in New Zealand prisons.

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  • The value relevance of international financial reporting standards : evidence from New Zealand

    Bridges, Caroline (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this thesis, I examine the value relevance of financial statements for companies that chose to voluntarily adopt International Financial Reporting Standards in New Zealand between 2005 and 2007, prior to it becoming mandatory for all companies. Specifically, I document the relative and incremental value relevance, respectively, of voluntarily adopting New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards as opposed to domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards on the book value of equity and net income for a sample of 34 companies. The main results of the empirical analysis find that (i) there is no evidence to suggest that the value relevance of the book value of equity and net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards, when taken together, is greater than the combined value relevance of the book value of equity and net income calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards (i.e., New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards do not have relative value relevance); (ii) the book value of equity calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards does not have incremental value relevance over and above the book value of equity calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards; and (iii) net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards does not have incremental value relevance over and above net income calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards. I also carry out an analysis of the conservativeness of the net income figure measured under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards, and find that there is no significant difference in the timeliness or asymmetric timeliness (i.e., conditional conservatism) between net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards and domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards. Overall, my thesis finds little evidence that the voluntary adoption of New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards provides accounting information that is more value relevant to that under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards, which is consistent with the conclusion of Hung & Subramanyam (2007) albeit in the German institutional setting. Hence, the benefits of early adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in New Zealand are questionable.

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  • Differential Effects of Recurring and Nonrecurring Non-Audit Services: New Zealand Evidence.

    Alexander, Deborah (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The provision of non-audit services by auditors to their clients has become a matter of concern to stakeholders. These non-audit fees have grown substantially in relative proportion to the audit fees. This is viewed as a lucrative form of revenue for audit firms but one that potentially could create a lack of auditor independence. Of issue is whether audit firms cut their audit fees to get access to consulting work. This may lead to poor quality audit work. Empirical studies have found a positive relation between audit fees and non-audit work. This seems to be counter-intuitive. There are a number of possible explanations for this relation. Simunic (1984) was the first to find this positive relation and attempted to explain it through analytical means. Solomon (1990) provided further thoughts on this relationship. Beck et al. (1988a) suggested the disaggregation of non-audit services into recurring and nonrecurring non-audit services would have differing effects on audit fees and on auditor independence. Companies in New Zealand have published some key pieces of data for the period from 1995 onwards. A description of the nature of any non-audit services is provided in the auditor,s report and the fees for total non-audit services is presented in the financial statements. The potentially differing effects of recurring and nonrecurring non-audit services have not been examined much in previous research, as data is hard to obtain. This unique data was used to test whether recurring and non-recurring services have differing effects on audit fees. This thesis contributes to the literature by showing that auditors do not discount their fees for either recurring or nonrecurring non-audit services. Further examination of this data suggests companies that purchase consulting services from their auditor are substantially different from those that purchase auditing only or auditing and tax and the determinants of their audit fees differ significantly.

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  • The Evaluation of Serum IGF-II in children and adolescents born prematurely

    Rowe, Deborah (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Myth busting and tenet building: Primary and early childhood teachers' understanding of the nature of science.

    Heap, R (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    A fundamental objective of science education is to provide students with the level of scientific literacy necessary to participate in a society increasingly dependent on science and technology. Central to definitions of this scientific literacy is an appreciation of the nature of science (NOS). The purpose of the research project was to identify the understandings of NOS of a cohort of practising primary and early childhood teachers, enrolled in a semester long science course as part of a Bachelor of Education degree. The research sought to examine their initial NOS understandings and mapped these understandings over the duration of the course in order to identify shifts in understanding and aspects of NOS resistant to change. The research was embedded in critical social science methodology. An explicit reflective approach was used throughout the course instruction to teach NOS tenets. Two frameworks were developed to analyse the data gathered, a myths framework and a NOS framework. Analysis of the pre-instruction views showed that the teachers initial understandings of NOS were fragmented, lacking in depth, inconsistent, fluid and revealed many myths of NOS. Over the duration of the course the teachers journals showed shifts in understanding: NOS tenets were more frequently expressed; there was an increase in the complexity of expression; and an increase in the integration or interrelatedness of NOS tenets. Factors which contributed to these shifts in understanding included the use of an explicit approach, consistency between explicit and implicit instruction, reflection, a conceptual change approach and the use of generic science-content-free NOS activities throughout the course. These findings suggest a need for NOS to be addressed in both pre-service teacher education and in-service teacher professional development programmes. The research has indicated that an explicit, reflective teaching approach is pedagogically effective for this need.

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  • A Hierarchical Analysis of Trial of Labour in Ontario: Do women, doctors or hospitals choose?

    Wise, Michelle (2010-06)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Few studies have determined the contribution of maternity care provider and hospital factors to the variation in Trial of Labour (TOL) and successful TOL rates. Objective: To determine sources of variation in TOL and successful TOL rates at the provider and/or hospital level. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 12,170 women with previous caesarean who gave birth in Ontario in 2007. Hierarchical linear model was used to determine variation in rates by provider and hospital characteristics, adjusting for maternal characteristics, and for clustering of data. Results: TOL rate was 23%; successful TOL rate 75%. Women attending family doctors and female doctors for prenatal care were more likely to have TOL. There were no provider factors associated with successful TOL. Women giving birth at teaching hospitals were more likely to have TOL and successful TOL. Conclusions: Policies aimed at prenatal care providers and hospitals could impact the low TOL rate.

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  • Talking our selves : Stories of identities and linguistic possibilities of bilingual teachers working in English medium early childhood services in the Auckland region.

    Harvey, Nola (2011)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis examines the ways in which five bilingual teachers use their two languages in English-medium early childhood services in the Auckland region. Questions regarding the possible mediation of bilingual identities for teachers and children created a further interrogation of teachers' 'lived experiences' of bilingual activity. The research, informed by critical multiculturalism, used a qualitative methodology and Narrative Inquiry that employed a spiral discourse or 'conversation' approach for data collection. The collaborative insights from participants and researcher became the foundation for further analysis. Findings revealed that bilingual teachers in the absence of government policy, worked powerfully to construct a critical bilingual praxis to counter deficit discourses of bilingualism in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Teachers' 'lived experiences' illustrated their deep knowledge of bilingualism and the use of two languages as critical linguistic and cultural resources for teaching and learning. As trusted agents for the educational and home language communities, 'doing self as bilingual teacher' worked cogeneratively to mediate bilingual identities for themselves and for children.

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  • Parents, peers, personal aspirations and pedagogy: their impact on students' experiences of secondary school.

    O'Brien, Patrice (2011)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Students who entered West Coast secondary schools in 2008 began Year 9 with achievement in reading comprehension that was higher than national norms (Lai, 2009). By the end of 2008, STAR (reading comprehension) testing revealed that this cohort had begun to show a drop in achievement in reading comprehension against national norms and this continued with a further drop in Year 10 (Lai, 2009). Historically, there have also been relatively low levels of achievement by students in NCEA assessment in the West Coast region. The aim of the research was to use student voice to understand the pattern of achievement of Year 9 and 10 students in West Coast secondary schools. To capture student voice, Year 10 students (n=93) completed surveys about their experiences of secondary school. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of students (n=18). This provided data on the factors identified from local and international research that could influence achievement, for example, student aspirations, parental expectations and pedagogy. Achievement data on reading comprehension were also collected. Students perceptions of factors such as parental support for education, the influence of peer groups and student’s future aspirations were positive and did not suggest that these were implicated in the decreasing levels of achievement. In contrast, the use of student voice suggested that being unsure how to improve their work, teacher expectations that were lower than appropriate for this group of students and a lack of cognitive challenge may have impacted to some extent on student achievement. This research reinforces the importance of testing assumptions and highlights the value of using student voice to improve teaching and learning. It demonstrates that there is much to be gained from consulting students about their experiences of school. Hearing what students have to say about school and their learning has the potential to allow teachers to view their classrooms from a different perspective. This can be the catalyst for changes to teaching approaches and practices.

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  • Many are Called, but only FEW are Chosen - E to'atele e valaaulia ae toaititi e filifilia. The perspectives of Samoan males on their roles as Early Childhood educators.

    Sauni, Seiuli (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This research report presents the perspectives and experiences of four Samoan male students in the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Education programme. This study explores and highlights the reasons for their involvement in a profession which is predominantly female. Particular focus on this study was on the significance of their roles within their families, church, communities and most importantly, the development of education of young children. Although these men have all had some teaching experience in Samoa before coming to New Zealand, further studies through the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Teacher Education Programme provided them with new knowledge, skills and an understanding of the Early Childhood Curriculum document. Te Whariki (1996) to enable them to teach in Early Childhood centres. The men in this study were the first male students enrolled in this programme. After three years, they graduated with a Diploma of Teaching and are now all working as qualified teachers in Early Childhood centres in New Zealand.

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  • An Investigation into the Relationships Between Selected Variables and Academic Success in a Pre-Registration Nursing Programme in Scotland

    Cameron, Marie (2006-12)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The ongoing high attrition rates from pre-registration nursing programmes in the United Kingdom (Byrne 2006; RCN Scotland 2006) have long been a cause for concern, and have prompted investigation into possible causes (Glossop 2001). The research done so far has linked, amongst others, factors such as academic success, age, academic qualifications, family commitments and finances to attrition from nursing programmes. Scotland has a particularly high attrition rate (RCN Scotland 2006), and this study aims to investigate the relationships between a variety of variables and academic success. An online, quantitative, questionnaire survey of stage two and three pre-registration nursing and midwifery students was carried out. Demographic data, and data relating to academic performance and extra-curricular work was collected. Kruskall-Wallis testing was used to determine the presence of relationships between variables (Petrie and Sabin 2000). Respondents were split almost 50:50 between the over-25 and under-25 age groups. Almost half of the respondents were married or cohabiting, almost a third have children, and almost a third are the primary wage earners in their households. Academic performance in this group was better in stage one of their course than in stage two. A relationship with academic success was demonstrated with age (p=0.01), entry qualifications (p=0.047), course (p=0.031) and branch (p=0.014) in stage one, but only with age (P=0.041) in stage two. The relationships demonstrated in this study correlate with the published evidence (Glossop 2001), but further analysis and research is required, particularly as the survey had a very low response rate and the sample may not be representative of the population of interest.

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  • Primary teachers' understandings of technological knowledge.

    Patterson, Moira (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Vitamin D and the burden of disease in New Zealand

    Grey, Corina (2008)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Maths Anxiety: Fact or Fiction

    Frankcom-Burgess, Gillian (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • In search of the interdependent self : explorations among Baptist church members in Jamaica and the United States

    Frey, Rosemary (2004)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Utilisation of Primary Health Care services: the perceptions and experiences of South Asian immigrants in Auckland, New Zealand

    Tamanam, Jessica (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The South Asian community in New Zealand – comprising of migrants from India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan – experience high rates of avoidable morbidity and mortality. This trend raises the question about health awareness, behaviours and health care utilisation among the members of this community. Alongside, it also raises questions about the extent to which New Zealand’s health care system addresses cultural diversities in health care. Focusing on health service utilisation of primary health care (PHC), the first point of access for health care, the present research aims to outline the socio-cultural, economic, and contextual factors that influence or present a challenge for health service utilisation behaviours of South Asian migrants. The thesis draws on Berry’s acculturation and Bourdieu’s habitus theories as explanatory frameworks to understand migrant perceptions and utilisation of health care. The study, located in Auckland, employed a qualitative interpretive research methodology. Fifteen participants from India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh, were involved in in-depth interviews. A content analysis of the in-depth interviews revealed two main findings. First, South Asians are influenced by their pre-migration experiences with health care in their home countries, which shape their perceptions of services provided by New Zealand PHCs. These expectations meant that they were most satisfied with health care utilisation when they perceived control over health decisions and were dissatisfied with the PHC when it restricted this ability to freely make choices about their healthcare. Second, the promotion of healthy lifestyles messages and support provided by PHC-level services and society are perceived to be inconsistent by South Asians with their ability to live the desired healthy lifestyles. The study recommends that PHC can better support South Asian migrants in their health service utilisation experiences by taking into consideration the particular expectations formed by their pre-existing health knowledge. Further, in order to develop effective health promotion messaging, PHC will need to create partnerships with existing South Asian community groups in ways that promote cultural diversity in messaging and interactions which empower South Asians to experience better health and wellbeing.

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