139 results for University of Otago, Conference paper

  • Red blood cell segmentation using guided contour tracing

    Vromen, Joost; McCane, Brendan (2006-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    We present a model-based contour tracing approach to the problem of automatically segmenting a Scanning Electron Microscope image of red blood cells. These images characteristically have high numbers of overlapping cells and relatively smooth contours. We provide a brief look into what problems conventional algorithms encounter when attempting to segment these images, and go on to show that a model-based contour tracing approach attains high levels of accuracy and almost no false negatives.

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  • Machiavellian marketing: justifying ends and means in the modern politics

    Harris, Phil (2003)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Niccolo Machiavelli is used as a guide to some of the key issues facing modern government and applies his insights into the effective management and development of civic society. Political Marketing, Good Governance, Lobbying, Ethics and Effective Communication with the Consumer is Developed.

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  • Analysis of distortions in a mental map using GPS and GIS

    Peake, Simon A J; Moore, Antoni (2004-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Mental maps are a cartographic illustration of a person’s internal representation of the spatial environment in which they live. They are often used to provide an insight into how different ethnic or social groups perceive their environment. A new method of measuring the distortions present in mental maps is developed and tested using a global positioning system (GPS) and a geographic information system (GIS). Results suggest distortions are apparent the further away subjects travel from their familiar environment and that there are consistent scales at which mental maps operate.

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  • Effective brand positioning of universities amongst Chinese societies in Singapore and Malaysia

    Chung, Kim-Choy; Fam, Kim-Shyan; Holdsworth, David K; Chai, Joe C Y (2008-03-20)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Although branding has become the latest focus in tertiary education to attract international students, little has been written about the influence of brand message on student’s choice of education destination in Asian markets. In a review of the literature, hypotheses are developed and summarised in a hypothetical model which was validated by questionnaire survey. The result of this study suggests that effective brand positioning of university is contingent on the type of message projected, the promotional media used, and the cultural values of potential student. The results have important implications for marketers of export education. This paper recommends further research into the influence of emotion in student’s choice of study destination.

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  • Model-based cartographic generalisation with uncertainty

    Moore, Antoni (2005-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    The aim of this paper is to outline a proposed project to holistically generalise spatial data using agents. Cartographic generalisation is a process that is fraught with uncertainty – for a particular spatial scale there are an infinite amount of combinations for the display (or non-display) of data in the map space. Each map element (e.g. objects such as roads or buildings can be map elements) is an agent, with the ability to self-diagnose for cartographic conflict and reason with uncertainty (using Dempster-Shafer theory) to choose how to display itself in conjunction with neighbouring objects. Synoptically, a legible map will have been created through the intelligent interaction of agents at the local scale. This paper will explore issues associated with the above process.

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  • The impact of leadership on eCommerce system success in small and medium enterprises context

    Ghandour, Ahmad; Benwell, George L; Deans, Kenneth R (2007-09)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Note that the related link points to the general page for the conference proceedings rather than the paper itself, because the URL for the actual paper is extremely long.

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  • The impact of customer focus to the success of eCommerce systems among small and medium enterprises—a conceptual framework

    Ghandour, Ahmad; Deans, Kenneth R; Benwell, George L (2007-12-03)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    This paper conceptualizes the role of customer focus as a contributing factor to the success of eCommerce system (ECS) when it is implemented by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). It postulates that customer focus influences the success of ECS. The success of ECS in SMEs is the dependent variable, the dimensions of which are identified by using DeLone and McLean success model. The output of this paper is a conceptual model that identifies the relevant dimensions of both success and customer focus and the resultant hypotheses that require empirical research to validate the proposed model.

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  • A preliminary investigation of the stability of Geographically-Weighted Regression

    Whigham, Peter A; Hay, Geoff (2007-12-06)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    This paper describes preliminary work analysing the stability of parameter coefficient estimates for Geographically-Weighted Regression (GWR). Based on a large dataset (35721 points) various random samplings of this data were performed and models built using GWR. An analysis of the coefficient values for the independent variables showed that these values could varying significantly both between runs and between sampling sizes. This suggests that the results from GWR must be carefully considered in terms of the form of data, assumed coefficient surface being modelled, and the confidence of the resulting parameter estimates.

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  • The contribution of goal setting to the success of eCommerce systems among small and medium enterprises

    Ghandour, Ahmad; Benwell, George L; Deans, Kenneth R (2007-06)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of goal setting as contributing factor for eCommerce systems (ECS) success in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Based on the literature review relative to eCommerce in SMEs, this research postulates that goal setting influence the success of ECS in SMEs. The success of ECS in SMEs is the dependent variable the dimensions of which are identified by using DeLone and McLean success model. The output result of this paper is a conceptual model identifying the relevant dimensions of both success and goal setting and the resultant hypotheses that require empirical research to validate the proposed model.

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  • Violent crumble: do buildings stand and systems tumble?

    Benwell, George L (2004-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    This paper introduces the notion that systems develop is not as bad as reported in the literature, but nonetheless there is some room for improvement. It sets out to enhance the outcomes of information systems development. The technique employed is to benchmark systems development against architecture. At first glance one may say that the two disciplines have nothing in common. This concern is shown to be false. In fact there arte many lessons to be learned from architecture.

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  • Usability evaluation of non-immersive, desktop, photo-realistic virtual environments

    Villanueva, Rochelle; Moore, Antoni; Wong, B L William (2004-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    This study is about the evaluation of non-immersive desktop web-based photo-realistic virtual environments using think-aloud protocol and heuristic evaluation to determine three aims: (1) whether applying the same usability evaluation methodologies result in additional usability guideline categoriesidentified from the Koykka, Ollikainen, Ranta-aho, Milszus, Wasserroth and Friedrich 1999 study; (2) whether think-aloud protocol or usability heuristic evaluation is a better evaluation method for identifying usability problems in desktop, photo-realistic virtual environments; and (3) whether large-scale desktop, photo-realistic virtual environments will have more usability problems than small-scale non-immersive, desktop, photo-realistic virtual environments. The results show that using the Emergent Theme Analysis (ETA), four broad themes were derived: functionality, interaction, appearance and user comments with functionality and interaction broad themes being similar to the categories suggested by Koykka et al. (1999). Furthermore, the results indicate that small-scale non-immersive, desktop, photo-realistic virtual environments had more usability problems than large-scale non-immersive, desktop, photo-realistic virtual environments, contrary to the hypothesis that large-scale VEs will have more usability problems due to its complexity and that the think-aloud protocol derived more themes compared to the heuristic evaluation – suggesting that TAP is a better usability evaluation method than HE in this type of study. However, a combination of the two qualitative methods has identified a greater number of usability problems, supporting the need for triangulation of research methods. The investigation resulted in new design guidelines that will allow for more usable design of non-immersive desktop, photo-realistic virtual environments. Furthermore, the study provides some new areas for future developments of usability evaluation methods for non-immersive desktop, photo-realistic virtual environments.

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  • The Use of Objective and Subjective Measures: Implications for Incentive System Design

    Stringer, Carolyn; Theivananthampillai, Paul (2009)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    This study examines the question, is the use of subjective measures an ex post adjustment of objective measures to take into account three types of risk: target difficulty (after controlling for budget loss), shared risk (after controlling for business unit strategy) and downside risk? We examine this question using data from a sample of 522 managers and professionals in period 0 (and 434 in period 1) from a large Australasian corporation over a two year period. Period 0 is a pre shock period and period 1 is a post shock period. We find that for the overall two years that the subjective is an upward adjustment to the objective to take into account: (1) target difficulty, the spread between upper limit and lower limit of unit performance; (2) shared risk, that is organizational interdependencies; and (3) downside risk, which is the opportunity loss function that the employees faced in not meeting the maximum bonus allowed. However, in examining the pre shock period and post shock period, the results indicate that the subjective evaluation has been used differently for each period for two type of risk (target difficulty, shared risk). (1) With regard to target difficulty for the pre shock period, the subjective makes an upward adjustment to the objective; but for the post shock, the subjective makes a downward adjustment. One plausible explanation is that during the post shock, quite a few managers and professionals were already on the maximum of the objective measures (given that there may have been gamesmanship at setting targets and upper limits for an anticipated poor economic period). Therefore, the subjective can be a downward adjustment to reflect this gamesmanship. (2) In regard to shared risk (the percentage of transfer revenues), for the pre shock period the subjective was a downward adjustment, while for the post shock period the subjective adjustment is an upward adjustment to the objective measure. This implies that for the pre shock or times of economic stability, the subjective could be used to reduce some of the free rider challenges that face incentive systems. Conversely for the post shock period, or during times of economic instability, the subjective adjustment is to encourage resource sharing and greater coordination and communication. Overall, our results indicate that the subjective measure is used as an ex post adjustment to the objective measure. This could be in response to flaws in the objective (financial) performance measures as subjective measures as this enables other factors to be taken into account.

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  • Using molecular genetics to gain insight into allopatric and sympatric speciation of topshells and their parasitic trematodes

    Donald, Kirsten; Spencer, Hamish (2003-12)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Prevailing theory suggests that many parasite species have evolved in tight congruence with their hosts, with the parasite phylogeny mirroring that of the host. This theory is based largely on studies of host-parasite interactions between species where strong links would be expected. For example, the highly congruent evolutionary trees of procellariform seabirds and their feather lice (Paterson et al., 1993) are expected as oceanic seabirds breed in large, often monospecific, colonies and lice do not survive long away from their host. Consequently, in this case, there are few opportunities for host switching. Our research employs molecular techniques to test the theory of tight host-parasite congruence in a host-parasite system where high host specificity is not necessarily expected; Trochoidea (topshell snails) and digenean trematodes (flatworms). Due to the fine-scale sympatry of the topshell hosts and the complex life cycle of digeneans, the parasites are likely to encounter a range of potential hosts, allowing ample opportunity for host-switching. Topshells belonging to the genera Melagraphia and Diloma are ubiquitous in the New Zealand intertidal zone, with seven species currently recognised. Six of these species are endemic, the exception being D. nigerrima, which also occurs in Chile. Related topshells are found in other parts of the Pacific, most notably along the southern coast of Australia, where seven species are classified as belonging to the genus Austrocochlea. Despite different topshell species having slightly different ecological requirements, species may exist in sympatry e.g. during a preliminary study at Purakaunui Inlet, near Dunedin, six species were found within a 20 m radius. Melagraphia, Diloma and Austrocochlea are all potential first-intermediate hosts of digenean trematodes, which infest the snail’s digestive gland. During their life cycle digeneans usually parasitise three hosts. The second-intermediate and definitive hosts of these digeneans are unknown, but are likely to be a crustacean and a fish, respectively. Digenean eggs are shed into the water column in the faeces of the definitive host and so, due to the sympatric nature of topshell distribution, developing larvae are likely to encounter a number of potential host species and opportunities for host-switching are great. Topshell phylogeny is currently unresolved, with poorly defined generic boundaries and digenean phylogeny is even less well understood; digeneans which parasitise Melagraphia, Diloma and Austrocochlea consist of a single morphotype which has tentatively been placed in Opecoelidae (Clark, 1958; Miller and Poulin, 2001). Species assignments and phylogenies of both topshells and their digeneans trematodes are being resolved using DNA sequence data. Questions concerning the dispersal, biogeography and evolution of both host and parasite are being addressed by analysing this molecular data in conjunction with data on their geographic distributions. Ultimately the goal of this research is to answer questions about the co-evolution of topshells and their parasites, such as: are the two trees congruent? is there evidence of host-switching and host-addition?

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  • Geostatistical modelling, analysis and mapping of epidemiology of Dengue Fever in Johor State, Malaysia

    Seng, Su Bee; Chong, Albert K; Moore, Antoni (2005-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Dengue fever, and especially the life-threatening form - DHF is an infectious mosquitoborne disease that places a heavy burden on public health systems in Malaysia as well as on most of the tropical countries around the world. Various environmental factors such as rainfall, temperature, living conditions, demography structure domestic waste management and population distribution are important in determining the mosquito survival and reproduction. A geostatistical modelling, analysis and mapping approach has been utilised in this research to understand the correlation between dengue fever prevalence, population distribution and meteorological factor, and the characteristics of space-time clusters in the Johor State. By supplementing GIS with geostatistical analysis and space-time permutation scan statistic tools, the spatial variation of dengue incidence can be mapped. Geographical weighted regression (GWR) analysis has revealed a strong (R2= 0.87) positive spatial association between dengue fever prevalence and population distribution in the Johor State. The dengue prevalence is expected to be higher in densely populated urban area, such as in Johor Bahru: however, there is a “rule” change in the Johor Bahru sub-district due to the positive impact from a dengue control and prevention programme. GWR analysis has also identified that ten to 14 days of accumulative rainfall is sufficient to support the mosquito breeding cycle and the dengue virus incubation period (vector + host) in the Johor Bahru district is 15 days. Space-time clusters showed that dengue transmission is a contagious type as the spacetime extent is limited at 200m and 20 days and mainly involved household transmission. Results from this study reveal the ability of an augmented GIS surveillance system by incorporating the disease epidemiology and a geostatistical approach to provide reliable information for infectious disease management, control and surveillance. This research is the first study that has utilised GWR in infectious vector-borne disease, especially the attempt to “spatialise” the time in Hypothesis 2. In addition, it is also the first study which makes use of spatial-scan statistic permutation model to study the characteristics of dengue fever space-time clusters.

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  • A reconceptualisation of destination tourism management: focussing on sustainability and corporate social responsibility

    Mitchell, Robert (2006-10-18)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    This research proposal is in an early stage of development. Investigating the linkages between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and the business strategies of tourism destination businesses offers the prospect of new perspectives on the management of sustainable tourism. Previous tourism management discussion has been dominated by research into tourist perceptions and joint government and industry planning processes for addressing physical and social impacts of tourism. And although there has been some discussion of the ethical and CSR aspects of tourism there has been a notable lack of empirical research. Sustainable management of tourism operations seeks a balance of economic, social and environmental considerations. And even with widespread concern about social and environmental impacts, economic business drivers continue to dominate management thinking. The tensions caused by differing perceptions of sustainability and expectations of sustainable the industry stakeholders in the face of steady growth in tourist numbers, indicates the need for further research. The application of a CSR lens could provide useful insights in this domain. The conflicting perceptions of sustainability are held by business strategists, economists, planners and ecologists invite investigation. The conceptualisation of sustainable business embraces continuing and sustainable business performance, while the concept of sustainable development supports development which generates long term and equitable social and environmental and economic outcomes which outweigh any negative factors. Sustainable tourism is generally conceived as an industry objective rather that a strictly defined concept and it is seen to be broadly in accord with the concept of sustainable development. Tourism management literature indicates that effective resolution of the conflicting objectives of destination stakeholders requires constructive long term cooperation between tourism operators, government and local communities. Adding the requirement of sustainability to the formula produces a range of new demands. Although there has also been considerable research into the cooperation between tourism groups, government and communities, relatively few examine the challenge of balancing business management philosophies and practices with the objective of achieving sustainable tourism. A special problem in sustainable tourism is the challenge of long term management of visitor activity in protected natural areas (PNAs) or national parks. Hoped for outcomes from this research are: An extended understanding of how stakeholders cooperate, or fail to cooperate, in the management of common pool resources in the form of PNAs. An understanding of the ethical bases for management strategies could provide new insights in the sustainable management of tourism destinations.

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  • Australian snow tourist's perceptions of climate change: Implications for the Queenstown Lakes region of New Zealand

    Hopkins, Debbie; Becken, Susanne; Hendrikx, Jordy (2010)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    This qualitative research has emerged from the sustained discussion of the future of winter alpine tourism in the Australasian context. The ski industries of Australia and New Zealand are intertwined, with research requiring trans-Tasman cooperation (Hendrikx, 2010). When analyses are conducted at a national scale, they fail to incorporate this complex interdependent relationship. Australians account for over 35% of skiers in New Zealand, although this figure rises to 64% for some individual ski fields (NZ ski, 2010). The increasing number of Australians choosing New Zealand for snow-based tourism has been attributed to relative financial costs, the allure of an ‘overseas’ holiday and snow reliability. These reasons are connected, and will become increasingly so, with the climate change problematic. Physical sciences in the form of climate modelling have forecast ‘significant impacts’ for Australasian skiing (IPCC, 2007, Hennessey et al, 2004, Hendrix, 2010, Hendrix & Hreinsson, 2010), with prospects for Australia particularly dire, consequently placing New Zealand in a relatively positive position. Our paper follows on, and complements the climate modelling and forecasting provided by the IPCC (2007), Hennessey et al (2004), and Hendrikx & Hreinsson (2010), using qualitative methods to gain greater understanding of the potential behavioural adaptations available to Australian snow tourists in New Zealand. The depth, nuances and complexities of tourist’s perceptions and knowledge will be sought through semi structured interviews in the Queenstown Lakes region on the South Island of New Zealand during the winter season 2011. Although physical sciences can provide understandings of biophysical vulnerabilities, they neglect the sociocultural context of vulnerability and often frame it as an outcome of specific changes. Therefore the objectives of this research are; 1. To understand the way vulnerability is framed and perceived by demand-side stakeholders, 2. Recognise the types of knowledge which inform actors about climate change vulnerability, 3. To identify the types of behavioural adaptations which are available to Australian tourists and implications these could have for New Zealand’s ski industry. This paper represents part of a wider collaborative research project addressing the vulnerability of snow-reliant industries as a result of forecast climatic changes. It will identify a range of possible behavioural adaptations for demand-side stakeholders which will have applicability beyond the Australasian context. We will discuss the socio-economic, developmental, institutional and governance implications for alpine regions, as individual ski fields within a destination will face varying degrees of vulnerability resulting from climatic and behavioural changes. Therefore the opportunities and threats posed locally to individual ski fields and nationally to the wider ski industry will be highlighted and discussed with relevance to the global ski industry. Preliminary findings will be presented including scope for further applicability and development.

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  • Tourism and mobility

    Hall, C Michael (2004)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    The paper is designed to introduce the special session on tourism and mobility with Hall, Coles, Duval and Bell.

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  • An explicit spatial model for niching in genetic algorithms

    Dick, Grant (2003-12)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    A niching technique is an important component of the genetic algorithm when attempting to solve problems that have multiple optimal solutions. Traditional niching techniques use an explicit concept of similarity to perform the actual niche formation. Often, the definition of this similarity function is difficult or requires a priori knowledge of the problem domain. This paper investigates the use of an explicit spatial structure to perform niching. This technique differs from other niching techniques in that it does not require a definition of similarity between individuals in order to form niches. Early results indicate that using this technique can allow a GA to maintain multiple peaks in some multi-modal functions.

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  • MAPPING PROCESSES TOWARD STRATEGIC LEVERAGE

    Chia Cua, Francisco; Theivananthampillai, Paul (2006)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Although corporate strategy helps in differentiation, positioning, and aligning the organisation to align itself internaly to be competitive, it is not enough. A separate enterprise information system (EIS) strategy must be put in place do deal with external realities. This is particularly crucial to a software start-up in its prototype development stage. Development time must be as short as possible. Two-way communications is possible through EIS. This paper examines a start-up, scans its business environments and explores opportunities, threats, and appropriate corporate strategy. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) and its evolution provides insights to understanding the concept of EIS strategy that folows

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  • How interesting is this? Finding interest hotspots and ranking images using an MPEG-7 visual attention model

    Wolf, Heiko; Deng, Da (2005-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    A lively Dunedin street scene, and a panoramic view of the Southern Alps - two images that might appeal and interest a viewer. But where do people look, and which of those images appears more interesting? In this paper, we are introducing a visual attention model based on MPEG-7 descriptors that creates multi-scale feature maps to detect interest hotspots in images. Further, we are assessing three methods that use attention models for image ranking and compare them to results gathered in a user test. Preliminary results indicate that rankings created by our model show a high agreement with rankings obtained in a pilot user study.

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