5,076 results for University of Waikato, Journal article

  • Framing thought: literacy and thinking tools

    Whitehead, David

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Creating order of our thoughts and the information we uncover is critical for all writers. David Whitehead believes that students cannot turn their minds to higher order thinking without the help of tools that give power to their thoughts. Here he explains how one such thinking tool, the Concept Frame, can benefit students.

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  • Online surveys-Possibilities, pitfalls and practicalities: The experience of the TELA evaluation

    Harlow, Ann (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Surveys are a commonly used strategy for gaining insights into teacher perspectives. They are often seen as cost effective in terms of time and resources required, but the challenges involved in conducting and processing paper-based surveys can be considerable. Online surveys offer an alternative, particularly now that people have better access to computers and the Internet, and also since the available software has recently become more user-friendly and in some cases, free to the user. In this paper, the research process used in a large longitudinal evaluation study is discussed, where teachers increasingly opted to participate in an online survey in preference to a paper survey. The possibilities of choosing to use an online survey were attractive but they came with pitfalls. The practical strategies that proved effective in engaging teachers in an online survey process and in managing online responses are discussed and considered in the light of current research literature.

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  • Accommodating multiculturalism and biculturalism in Aotearoa New Zealand: Implications for language education

    May, Stephen (2002-01-01)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The field of language education in Aotearoa New Zealand, as elsewhere, has developed significantly since its early and almost exclusive focus on the acquisition of English literacy in schools. As the field has expanded, so too has the range of language education sectors addressed and the theoretical approaches and understandings employed in relation to language and literacy education. Both developments have resulted in a more coordinated literacy education policy - exemplified to date most clearly in the New Zealand Literacy Taskforce - and a more situated, less monolithic understanding of the widely different literacies available to learners. Despite these developments, however, one area still remains noticeably under-theorised and marginalized in relation to ongoing development of language and literacy education policy in Aotearoa - the place of second language learners within it. This paper explores this lacuna and the potential policy implications of addressing and integrating first and second language educational concerns within an evolving national literacy education policy. This has particular implications for the further development of bilingual education - both for Maori and, possibly, other minority groups - and for the related possibilities for multicultural education. It also requires a wider and clearer recognition of minority language education rights, as developed within both international law and political theory, in order to apply these rights appropriately to an Aotearoa New Zealand context which is currently witnessing rapid and extensive demographic (and linguistic) change.

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  • Researching in cross cultural contexts: A socially just process

    McNae, Rachel Elizabeth; Strachan, Jane (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In this paper, we explore culture and its relationship to cross cultural research. The context for this research is Vanuatu, a small South Pacific Island nation. The action research process used was a collaboration between two New Zealand academics, two Ni Vanuatu women researchers and 13 participants over a two year period. The focus of the action research was the design and delivery of a culturally appropriate educational leadership development programme for women. The collaborative research process raised a number of ethical and methodological considerations, for example, the importance of mutually respectful relationships, working in partnership, collaboration, capacity building, transparent communication and consideration of the local context. Using stories from the Vanuatu context, we illustrate how we navigated culture to be able to research in socially just ways. Being involved in socially just, cross cultural research calls for a thoughtful, well-designed and culturally informed approach throughout all stages of the research process, from initial planning through to follow up and capacity building and finally, the sharing of research findings.

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  • Tension and challenge in collaborative school-university research

    Fraser, Deborah (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Collaborative university and school research projects are inevitably labour intensive endeavours that require the careful negotiation of trust and the joint critique of current practice. While this raises tension it can also build generative communities of inquiry that enhance both theory and practice. This article refers to an arts project undertaken in eight primary schools between university staff and generalist teacher co-researchers, focusing on children's idea development in dance, drama, music and visual art. The two-year project is briefly outlined and some issues that arise in school research are explored. There were issues related to insider-outsider tensions, the familiarity all project members have with classrooms, and the associated difficulties with reconceptualising how things might be done. While there are many strengths in collaborative research, there are also tensions. Some of the tensions outlined in this paper include: the need to exercise healthy scepticism alongside interest in the arts; the different cultures of schools and universities and how these influence research; and issues of risk and trust, which are both sensitive areas of ongoing negotiation. These issues and paradoxes in collaborative research are considered alongside particular processes that build school and university partnerships.

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  • Taking video cameras into the classroom

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Cowie, Bronwen; Maguire, Michael (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Research into the communication and interactions in classrooms need to take the multimodal nature of classrooms into account. Video cameras can capture the dynamics of teaching and learning, but the use of videos for research purposes needs to be well thought through in order to accommodate the challenges this tool holds. This article refers to three research projects where videos were used to generate data. It is argued that videos allow the researcher to hone in on the micro-details and, in contrast to other data generation tools, allows researchers who were not present at the time to view what has been witnessed. A video recording is a data source but not data by itself and the information that is discerned from a video is framed and shaped by the research paradigm and the questions asked.

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  • The politics of being an educational researcher: Minimising the harm done by research

    Thrupp, Martin (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Researchers have an obligation to reflect on the politics of their research and of whose interests it serves in order to take steps to minimise it being used in damaging ways. This article uses the problem of the "politics of blame"-- the way governments attempt to construct student or institutional "underperformance" or "failure" as the clear responsibility of schools and teachers--to illustrate the importance of researchers stepping back from specific research agendas to consider the overall positioning of their research. The case of the politics of blame illustrates the importance of researchers taking an independent stance rather than being steered too much by what is fashionable to research or what has political support from government. The article makes some suggestions about how researchers can take steps to pre-empt their research being used in damaging ways.

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  • Multimodal ways of eliciting students' voice

    Cowie, Bronwen; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Moreland, Judy

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    For some time researchers have been exploring how students might best be supported to express their ideas, opinions and feelings and to demonstrate what they know and can do. In this paper, we discuss some of the implications of sociocultural view of learning for how classroom research is conducted and describe some of the approaches we have used to generate information on student classroom experiences. Over the course of our work we have found that the use of multiple and multimodal data generation methods allows student with different interests and abilities to take an active part in research. We then detail some of the challenges and rewards involved in working with students in these ways as part of a research agenda focused on enhancing teaching and learning.

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  • Teacher-researcher relationships and collaborations in research

    Cowie, Bronwen; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Moreland, Judy; Jones, Alister; Cooper, Beverley; Taylor, Merilyn (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    To understand the complexity of the classroom in ways that might inform teaching research in needed that explains both why and how something works. Teacher-researcher collaboration is essential if this is to happen. Collaborative work can ensure that research builds on from what teachers know and can do. Researchers working with teachers to address their current concerns are more likely to generate insights into what teachers might do and where they might go next. Collaboration can contribute a warrant for relevance for research findings. At the same teachers deepen and enhance their own practice through engaging in the research process. This paper describes and discusses some approaches to collaboration that have enables researchers and teachers to access a diversity of ideas and expertise to their mutual benefit.

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  • Investigating diet as the source of tetrodotoxin in Pleurobranchaea maculata

    Khor, Serena; Wood, Susanna A.; Salvitti, Lauren R.; Taylor, David I.; Adamson, Janet E.; McNabb, Paul; Cary, S. Craig (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The origin of tetrodotoxin (TTX) is highly debated; researchers have postulated either an endogenous or exogenous source with the host accumulating TTX symbiotically or via food chain transmission. The aim of this study was to determine whether the grey side-gilled sea slug (Pleurobranchaea maculata) could obtain TTX from a dietary source, and to attempt to identify this source through environmental surveys. Eighteen non-toxic P. maculata were maintained in aquariums and twelve were fed a TTX-containing diet. Three P. maculata were harvested after 1 h, 24 h, 17 days and 39 days and TTX concentrations in their stomach, gonad, mantle and remaining tissue/fluids determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tetrodotoxin was detected in all organs/tissue after 1 h with an average uptake of 32%. This decreased throughout the experiment (21%, 15% and 9%, respectively). Benthic surveys at sites with dense populations of toxic P. maculata detected very low or no TTX in other organisms. This study demonstrates that P. maculata can accumulate TTX through their diet. However, based on the absence of an identifiable TTX source in the environment, in concert with the extremely high TTX concentrations and short life spans of P. maculata, it is unlikely to be the sole TTX source for this species.

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  • Compatibilization of Protein Thermoplastics and Polybutylene Succinate Blends

    Ku-Marsilla, KI; Verbeek, Casparus Johan R. (2014-08-21)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Reactive extrusion was used to prepare blends of Novatein thermoplastic protein (NTP) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) compatibilized with poly-2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (PEOX) and polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI). PEOX improved the dispersion of NTP in PBS and in conjunction with pMDI led to improved water resistance and a tensile strength exceeding that of NTP and PBS. The secant modulus, elongation as well as energy to break were also improved. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of compatibilized blends remained unchanged, however, the melting enthalpy and temperature decreased. This suggested that the crystalline structure of PBS has been disrupted by NTP as a result of compatibilization.

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  • Acetylene reduction associated with Zostera novazelandica Setch. and Spartina alterniflora Loisel., in Whangateau Harbour, North Island, New Zealand

    Hicks, Brendan J.; Silvester, Warwick B.

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) was investigated in Zostera novazelandica Setch. and Spartina alterniflora Loisel., in the North Island of New Zealand. Moderate rates of acetylene reduction were found in sediments in which plants were growing (means ± 95% confidence limit: 15.2 ± 2.8 |jmol C2H4 nrr2 h~l for Zostera and 24.7 ± 4.6 |amol C2H4 m~2 h"1 for Spartina). Activity was closely correlated with the dry weight of root; (r2 = 0.65, N = 15 for Zostera, and r2 = 0.85, A' =10 for Spartina). Sediment close to the plant beds, but without plants, exhibited only low rates of acetylene reduction (2.9 ± 2.2 and 4.5 ± l.OjLtmol C2H4 m~2 h"1, respectively). Sediments associated with Z. novazelandica and S. alterniflora in New Zealand exhibit moderate rates of nitrogenase activity compared to rates found in other countries. N fixation may contribute significantly to the nutrition of these plants in New Zealand estuaries.

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  • 14C marine reservoir variability in herbivores and deposit-feeding gastropods from an open coastline, Papua New Guinea

    Petchey, Fiona; Ulm, Sean; David, Bruno O.; McNiven, Ian J.; Asmussen, Brit; Tomkins, Helene; Richards, Thomas; Rowe, Cassandra; Leavesley, Matthew; Mandui, Herman; Stanisic, John

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Herbivorous and deposit-feeding gastropods are a major component of archaeological shell middens worldwide. They provide a wealth of information about subsistence, economy, environment, and climate, but are generally considered to be less than ideal for radiocarbon dating because they can ingest sediment while they graze, inadvertently consuming terrestrial carbon in the process. However, few studies of 14C activity in herbivores or deposit-feeding gastropods have been conducted into this diverse range of animals that inhabit many environmental niches. Here, we present results investigating 14C variability in shells belonging to the families Strombidae and Potamididae from the Bogi 1 archaeological site, Caution Bay, southern coastal Papua New Guinea (PNG). These shells make up 39.3% of the shell MNI [minimum number of individuals] in the excavation units studied and some of these species are the most common taxa of neighboring sites. It would therefore be advantageous to establish if there are any 14C offsets associated with such animals, and identify those that can give reliable calendar ages. Our methodology combines a high-resolution excavation protocol, selection of short-lived samples identified to species level, and a tri-isotope approach using 14C, δ13C, and δ18O to evaluate the source of variability in shells. Our results indicate that considerable variation exists between different species of Strombidae with some inhabiting muddier environments that act as sinks for limestone-derived sediments with depleted 14C content. The magnitude of variation is, however, overshadowed by that measured in the mudwhelk, Cerithidea largillierti, which has the largest spread in 14C of any shellfish studied so far at Caution Bay. This animal ingests sediment within the estuary that contains 14C derived from both enriched and depleted sources.

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  • Māori leaders' well-being: A self-determination perspective

    Roche, Maree A.; Haar, Jarrod M.; Brougham, David M. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This research draws on interviews with 18 Māori leaders from various leadership positions within business, community, political and marae organisations, to garner an understanding of how their leadership roles interact with their own well-being. Analysis of interviews revealed that crosscultural developments in self-determination theory could be gained by incorporating Māoritikanga and values into a model of well-being for Māori leaders. Largely, the principles of tinorangatiratanga (autonomy and self-determination), mana (respect and influence), whānau (extended family), whakapapa (shared history) and whanaungatanga (kin relations, consultation and engagement), were united into a model of leader well-being. This ensured that mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge) informed our model of Māori leader well-being, while also drawing on the burgeoning Western research in the area of well-being, specifically self-determination theory. Overall, we find that similarities exist with self-determination theory and Māori tikanga and values. However, in contrast to self-determination theory, autonomy and competence are developed within relationships, which means that ‘others’ underpin Māori leaders’ well-being. From this perspective, we present a view of the psychological and well-being resources that Māori leaders draw on to guide them through complex times.

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  • Toward creating simpler hydrological models: a LASSO subset selection approach

    Bardsley, W. Earl; Vetrova, V. V.; Liu, S. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A formalised means of simplifying hydrological models concurrent with calibration is proposed for use when nonlinear models can be initially formulated as over-parameterised constrained absolute deviation regressions of nonlinear expressions. This provides a flexible modelling framework for approximation of nonlinear situations, while allowing the models to be amenable to algorithmic simplification. The degree of simplification is controlled by a user-specified forcing parameter λ. That is, an original over-parameterised linear model is reduced to a simpler working model which is no more complex than required for a given application. The degree of simplification is a compromise between two factors. With weak simplification most parameters will remain, risking calibration overfitting. On the other hand, a high degree of simplification generates inflexible models. The linear LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) is utilised for the simplification process because of its ability to deal with linear constraints in the over-parameterised initial model.

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  • A pepstatin-insensitive aspartic proteinase from a thermophilic Bacillus sp.

    Toogood, H.S.; Prescott, Mark; Daniel, Roy M. (1995)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Bacillus sp. strain Wp22.A1 produced a cell-associated aspartic proteinase which was purified to homogeneity using phenyl-Sepharose (hydrophobic and affinity chromatography) and Mono Q. The proteinase has a molecular mass of 45 kDa by SDS/PAGE and a pI of 3.8. It is insensitive to pepstatin, but is sensitive to the other aspartic proteinase-specific inhibitors diazoacetyl-DL-norleucine methyl ester (DAN) and 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane. Inactivation by DAN was only partial, suggesting that it had non-specifically modified an aspartate residue at a site other than the active site. The enzyme was not inhibited by any of the serine or cysteine proteinase inhibitors tested. Maximum proteolytic activity was observed at pH 3.5. The proteinase had a higher activity with haemoglobin, but was more specific (Vmax./Km) for cytochrome c. Substrate inhibition was observed with both these substrates. The cleavage of oxidized insulin B chain tended to occur at sites where the P1 amino acid was bulky and non-polar, and the P1' amino acid was bulky and polar, such as its primary cleavage site of Val2-Asn3. The proteinase was stable in the pH range 2.5-5.5. Thermostability was increased in the presence of Ca2+, although to a lesser extent at higher temperatures. The thermostabilities at 60, 70, 80 and 90 degrees C were 45 h, 102, 21 and 3 min respectively in the presence of Ca2+.

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  • Cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes functional above 100℃

    Ruttersmith, L.D.; Daniel, Roy M.; Simpson, H.D. (1992)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Cellulases and hemicellulases have a variety of potential industrial applications, including the production of fermentable sugars from biomass and enzyme-assisted pulp bleaching. There are several advantages, in industrial terms, to be gained from employing thermostable enzymes in processes operating at elevated temperatures. For example, the lignin component of hemicellulose, which often blocks enzyme access, softens and melts over the temperature range 90-180°C.

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  • A correlation between protein thermostability and resistance to proteolysis.

    Daniel, Roy M.; Cowan, Don A.; Morgan, Hugh W.; Curran, M.P. (1982)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The loss of activity due to proteolysis of purified L-asparaginase and beta-galactosidase from different sources correlates with the thermal instability of the enzymes. A similar correlation is found when populations of soluble proteins from micro-organisms grown at different temperatures are compared for proteolytic susceptibility and thermal stability. It is proposed that there is a general correlation between the thermostability of proteins and their resistance to proteolysis.

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  • Thermus filiformis sp. nov., a Filamentous Caldoactive Bacterium

    Hudson, J. Andrew; Morgan, Hugh W.; Daniel, Roy M. (1987)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In a preliminary investigation the isolation of a caldoactive filamentous microorganism from a New Zealand hot spring was reported. This organism is described here as a new species belonging to the genus Thermus, namely, Thermus filiformis, based on ultrastructural, phenotypic, and anomalous Gram type characteristics. The cell wall of T. filiformis resembles that of Thermus aquaticus apart from the presence of an extra layer. The Thermus species tested, including T. filiformis, are negative for the aminopeptidase test, which is unusual for a gram-negative genus. T. filiformis is nonproteolytic, unlike most other Thermus strains, and also differs radically from other strains in morphology when it is observed by using phase-contrast microscopy. The single strain of the species has been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection as strain ATCC 43280T (T = type strain).

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  • An extremely thermostable xylanase from the thermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga.

    Simpson, H.D.; Haufler, U.R.; Daniel, Roy M. (1991)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Endo-1,4-beta-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) was isolated from the culture supernatant of Thermotoga sp. strain FjSS3-B.1, an extremely thermophilic anaerobic eubacterium which grows optimally at 80 degrees C. Activity was purified 165-fold by anion-exchange and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The enzyme has an Mr of 31,000 as determined by SDS/PAGE and 35,000 by analytical gel filtration. The optima for activity and stability for purified xylanase were between pH 5.0 and 5.5. At pH 5.5, which is the optimum pH for thermostability, t1/2 (95 degrees C) is 90 min. The thermostability was improved by immobilization of the xylanase on to porous glass beads; t1/2 (105 degrees C) is 10 min. Several additives, such as sorbitol and xylan, were also found to increase the thermostability. At 130 degrees C, the half-life of immobilized xylanase in the presence of 90% sorbitol was 1.3 min. At 130 degrees C in molten sorbitol half of the enzyme denatured rapidly, but the remainder appeared to have a half-life of about 60 min.

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