9,926 results for University of Waikato

  • Framing thought: literacy and thinking tools

    Whitehead, David

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Creating order of our thoughts and the information we uncover is critical for all writers. David Whitehead believes that students cannot turn their minds to higher order thinking without the help of tools that give power to their thoughts. Here he explains how one such thinking tool, the Concept Frame, can benefit students.

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  • Online surveys-Possibilities, pitfalls and practicalities: The experience of the TELA evaluation

    Harlow, Ann (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Surveys are a commonly used strategy for gaining insights into teacher perspectives. They are often seen as cost effective in terms of time and resources required, but the challenges involved in conducting and processing paper-based surveys can be considerable. Online surveys offer an alternative, particularly now that people have better access to computers and the Internet, and also since the available software has recently become more user-friendly and in some cases, free to the user. In this paper, the research process used in a large longitudinal evaluation study is discussed, where teachers increasingly opted to participate in an online survey in preference to a paper survey. The possibilities of choosing to use an online survey were attractive but they came with pitfalls. The practical strategies that proved effective in engaging teachers in an online survey process and in managing online responses are discussed and considered in the light of current research literature.

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  • Evaluation of composite laminates interleaved with nanofibre and microfibre veils

    Collins-Gargan, Rosalie (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The research covered in this thesis aimed to investigate the use of nanofibre and microfibre veils in carbon fibre reinforced composites and assessed the potential of the veils to improve damage resistance during impact and fatigue loading. It was hypothesised that the interleavings would increase the amount of energy required for crack propagation because of toughening due to fibre reinforcement mechanisms such as crack deflection, fibre pull out and fibre breakage. The work was undertaken as a combined project between the University of Waikato (Hamilton, New Zealand) and Revolution Fibres Ltd (Auckland, New Zealand). During this investigation, six thermoplastic polymers were chosen (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA), polystyrene (PS), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC)) that could potentially be used for the electrospinning of polymer nanofibre veils. Nanofibre veils were successfully produced from PMMA, and a polymer blend of polyamide 6,6 (PA6,6) and PMMA, (referred to as 'nanoNyplex'). These veils, along with three other nanofibre veils (nanoPA6,6, poly vinyl butyral (nanoPVB), and poly ether sulfone (nanoPES)), three microfibre veils (polyphenylene sulfide (microPPS), polyetherimide (microPEI), and woven polyamide 6 (microtricot)) procured from other manufacturers, and three veils combining one of the nanofibre veils with each of the microfibre veils (microPPSnanoPA6,6, microPEInanoPA6,6, and microtricotnanoPA6,6) were then used as interleaves in the manufacture of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composite panels. Interleaves were placed between every ply of prepreg. After curing the panels, test specimens were created to assess fatigue, vibration damping and compression after impact performance. From the vibration damping study, it was found that the nanoNyplex interleaving improved damping the most. It was thought that energy dissipation was due friction brought about by the movement of the interleaving fibres in the matrix, resulting in friction due to weak adhesion between the nanoNyplex fibres and the epoxy matrix. From the compression after impact (CAI) section of this study, it was found that specimens interleaved with nanoPA6,6, microPPS and microPPSnanoPA6,6 had the highest CAI strengths. From optical inspection, it appeared (in general) that as the CAI strength of the specimen increased, the length of the damage region also increased. However, those identified with the highest CAI strengths had shorter damage regions. From the fatigue section of this study, it was found that the use of most interleavings, (apart from microtricot) increased the number of cycles to failure. Post fatigue test scanning electron microscopy confirmed that crack deflection was present for most interleaved specimens. Some evidence of pull out and breakage of the interleaving fibres was seen on the fracture surfaces of the nanoPA6,6, microPPS, microPEI, microPEInanoPA6,6 and microPPSnanoPA6,6 interleaved specimens. For both CAI and fatigue, it was found that improvement was generally greater with veils that had a large number of fibres per unit area and high adhesion strength with the matrix. However, for CAI it seems that high fracture toughness was also desirable.

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  • Accommodating multiculturalism and biculturalism in Aotearoa New Zealand: Implications for language education

    May, Stephen (2002-01-01)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The field of language education in Aotearoa New Zealand, as elsewhere, has developed significantly since its early and almost exclusive focus on the acquisition of English literacy in schools. As the field has expanded, so too has the range of language education sectors addressed and the theoretical approaches and understandings employed in relation to language and literacy education. Both developments have resulted in a more coordinated literacy education policy - exemplified to date most clearly in the New Zealand Literacy Taskforce - and a more situated, less monolithic understanding of the widely different literacies available to learners. Despite these developments, however, one area still remains noticeably under-theorised and marginalized in relation to ongoing development of language and literacy education policy in Aotearoa - the place of second language learners within it. This paper explores this lacuna and the potential policy implications of addressing and integrating first and second language educational concerns within an evolving national literacy education policy. This has particular implications for the further development of bilingual education - both for Maori and, possibly, other minority groups - and for the related possibilities for multicultural education. It also requires a wider and clearer recognition of minority language education rights, as developed within both international law and political theory, in order to apply these rights appropriately to an Aotearoa New Zealand context which is currently witnessing rapid and extensive demographic (and linguistic) change.

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  • The first time-derivative of the EEG: A possible proxy for the order-parameter for the cerebral cortex

    Sleigh, James W.; Steyn-Ross, D. Alistair; Steyn-Ross, Moira L. (1998)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Many important aspects of the function of the cerebral cortex can be captured in a two dimensional lattice model. From this analogy, the change from the awake state to the unconscious state can be understood as a form of order/disorder phase transition . If this is so, there should exist an order-parameter that has zero value when the cortex is disordered (the anaesthetic state), and which rapidly climbs to an arbitrary positive value when the cortex becomes ordered (the awake state). Although the `spatially-meaned soma potential' v of the cortex, relative to its unconscious state value v0, can be considered to be the order-parameter, it is not possible to measure the mean soma potential directly. However, fluctuations in the soma potential give rise to the time-varying EEG signal v(t) which is easily measured.

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  • Researching in cross cultural contexts: A socially just process

    McNae, Rachel Elizabeth; Strachan, Jane (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In this paper, we explore culture and its relationship to cross cultural research. The context for this research is Vanuatu, a small South Pacific Island nation. The action research process used was a collaboration between two New Zealand academics, two Ni Vanuatu women researchers and 13 participants over a two year period. The focus of the action research was the design and delivery of a culturally appropriate educational leadership development programme for women. The collaborative research process raised a number of ethical and methodological considerations, for example, the importance of mutually respectful relationships, working in partnership, collaboration, capacity building, transparent communication and consideration of the local context. Using stories from the Vanuatu context, we illustrate how we navigated culture to be able to research in socially just ways. Being involved in socially just, cross cultural research calls for a thoughtful, well-designed and culturally informed approach throughout all stages of the research process, from initial planning through to follow up and capacity building and finally, the sharing of research findings.

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  • Tension and challenge in collaborative school-university research

    Fraser, Deborah (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Collaborative university and school research projects are inevitably labour intensive endeavours that require the careful negotiation of trust and the joint critique of current practice. While this raises tension it can also build generative communities of inquiry that enhance both theory and practice. This article refers to an arts project undertaken in eight primary schools between university staff and generalist teacher co-researchers, focusing on children's idea development in dance, drama, music and visual art. The two-year project is briefly outlined and some issues that arise in school research are explored. There were issues related to insider-outsider tensions, the familiarity all project members have with classrooms, and the associated difficulties with reconceptualising how things might be done. While there are many strengths in collaborative research, there are also tensions. Some of the tensions outlined in this paper include: the need to exercise healthy scepticism alongside interest in the arts; the different cultures of schools and universities and how these influence research; and issues of risk and trust, which are both sensitive areas of ongoing negotiation. These issues and paradoxes in collaborative research are considered alongside particular processes that build school and university partnerships.

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  • Differentiated instruction in technology education

    Prankerd, Sheena; Lockley, John (2011)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Differentiated instruction is the concept of teaching to individual students acknowledging their individual strengths, weaknesses and learning styles. The call for differentiated instruction classrooms is echoed in both an appreciation of students as individuals as well as at the systems level through results of international exit surveys such as the PISA study. Differentiated learning calls for a move away from an industrialist model of the classroom, where the same programme (instructional activities and assessment structures) are applied to all students, to a model where we consider learning and assessment programmes to suit individual learners needs. A move to differentiated instruction to allow differentiated learning to occur in the classroom has implications on school structures and vision, professional learning for teachers and teacher practice at the classroom and departmental levels. The role of assessment in teaching and learning is also critical in the functioning of a differentiated learning classroom. This paper discusses the factors involved in setting up a differentiated learning classroom and is supported by a presentation of classroom examples.

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  • Guidebook for Pre-conference North Island Field Trip ‘Ashes and Issues’, 28-30 November, 2008

    Lowe, David J.

    Book
    University of Waikato

    Guidebook for Pre-conference North Island, New Zealand Field Trip ‘Ashes and Issues’, 28-30 November, 2008. The route goes progressively towards the locus of the most recently active volcanic centres in central North Island. Concepts of upbuilding pedogenesis in tephra-mantled terrains will be discussed. Topical issues relating to soil and water quality and land management of intensive horticulture, pastoral farming (especially dairying), plantation forestry and C budgeting and modelling, and municipal effluent disposal by land treatment, will be considered as well. The declining quality of water in lakes in the Rotorua region and in Lake Taupo (mainly as a result of increasing N and P), and large-scale land-use conversions from plantation forestry to dairy farming in the Taupo area, and implications, are examined on days 2 and 3 of the trip.

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  • Credit loss dynamics in Australasian banking

    Hess, Kurt

    Thesis
    University of Waikato

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the drivers and dynamics of credit losses in Australasian banking over an extended period of time in order to improve the means by which financial institutions manage their credit risks and regulatory bodies safeguard the stability and integrity of the financial system. The analysis is based on a specially constructed data base of credit loss and provisioning data retrieved from original financial reports published by Australian and New Zealand banks. The observation period covers 1980 to 2005, starting at the time when such information was published for the first time in bank financial statements. It moreover covers the time of major crises which occurred in both Australia and New Zealand in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The heterogeneity of reporting the data both amongst banks and through time requires the development of a reporting typology which allows data extraction with equivalent informational content. As a thorough study of credit risks requires long data series often not available from third party data providers, the method developed here will provide value to a range of researchers. Based on an evaluation of many alternative proxies which track a bank's credit loss experience (CLE), the thesis proposes a preferred model for impaired assets expense (as % of loans) as dependent variable, mainly because of its timely nature and good data availability. Explanatory variables include aggregate macro variables of which changes in unemployment and the return in the share markets are found to have the most significant influence on a bank's credit losses. Bank-specific control variables include a pre-provision earnings proxy whose significance points to the use of provisions for the purpose of income smoothing by Australasian banks. The model also controls for size and nature of lending as smaller, retail-oriented housing lenders, on average, exhibit lower loan losses. Clear results are found with regard to the effect of rapid expansion which appears to be followed by a surge of bad debt provisions 2 to 3 years later. Moreover, inefficient banks tend to suffer greater credit losses. An important part of the thesis looks at the characteristics of alternative CLE proxies such as stock of provisions, impaired assets and write-offs which have been used by earlier literature. Estimating the preferred model with such alternative CLE parameters confirms their peculiarities such as the memory character of stock of provisions and the delayed nature of write-offs. These measures correlate rather poorly amongst themselves which calls for caution in the comparative interpretation of earlier studies that use differing CLE proxies.

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  • Taking video cameras into the classroom

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Cowie, Bronwen; Maguire, Michael (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Research into the communication and interactions in classrooms need to take the multimodal nature of classrooms into account. Video cameras can capture the dynamics of teaching and learning, but the use of videos for research purposes needs to be well thought through in order to accommodate the challenges this tool holds. This article refers to three research projects where videos were used to generate data. It is argued that videos allow the researcher to hone in on the micro-details and, in contrast to other data generation tools, allows researchers who were not present at the time to view what has been witnessed. A video recording is a data source but not data by itself and the information that is discerned from a video is framed and shaped by the research paradigm and the questions asked.

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  • The politics of being an educational researcher: Minimising the harm done by research

    Thrupp, Martin (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Researchers have an obligation to reflect on the politics of their research and of whose interests it serves in order to take steps to minimise it being used in damaging ways. This article uses the problem of the "politics of blame"-- the way governments attempt to construct student or institutional "underperformance" or "failure" as the clear responsibility of schools and teachers--to illustrate the importance of researchers stepping back from specific research agendas to consider the overall positioning of their research. The case of the politics of blame illustrates the importance of researchers taking an independent stance rather than being steered too much by what is fashionable to research or what has political support from government. The article makes some suggestions about how researchers can take steps to pre-empt their research being used in damaging ways.

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  • Multimodal ways of eliciting students' voice

    Cowie, Bronwen; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Moreland, Judy

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    For some time researchers have been exploring how students might best be supported to express their ideas, opinions and feelings and to demonstrate what they know and can do. In this paper, we discuss some of the implications of sociocultural view of learning for how classroom research is conducted and describe some of the approaches we have used to generate information on student classroom experiences. Over the course of our work we have found that the use of multiple and multimodal data generation methods allows student with different interests and abilities to take an active part in research. We then detail some of the challenges and rewards involved in working with students in these ways as part of a research agenda focused on enhancing teaching and learning.

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  • Teacher-researcher relationships and collaborations in research

    Cowie, Bronwen; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Moreland, Judy; Jones, Alister; Cooper, Beverley; Taylor, Merilyn (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    To understand the complexity of the classroom in ways that might inform teaching research in needed that explains both why and how something works. Teacher-researcher collaboration is essential if this is to happen. Collaborative work can ensure that research builds on from what teachers know and can do. Researchers working with teachers to address their current concerns are more likely to generate insights into what teachers might do and where they might go next. Collaboration can contribute a warrant for relevance for research findings. At the same teachers deepen and enhance their own practice through engaging in the research process. This paper describes and discusses some approaches to collaboration that have enables researchers and teachers to access a diversity of ideas and expertise to their mutual benefit.

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  • Shared browsing and book selection in an academic library

    Timpany, Claire; Alqurashi, Hayat; Hinze, Annika; Cunningham, Sally Jo; Vanderschantz, Nicholas (2012)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    While there exist a small but growing body of naturalistic studies of collaborative searching and browsing in digital collections, the corresponding literature on behavior in the physical stacks is surprisingly sparse. Here, we add to this literature by conducting observations of the “retrieval journeys” of pairs of patrons in a university library. We specifically focus on interactions between patrons as they work together to browse and select books in physical collections, to further our understanding of collaborative information behaviour.

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  • Issues facing Southland’s wetlands - recommendations for future management

    Campbell, David I.; Clarkson, Beverley R.; Clarkson, Bruce D.

    Report
    University of Waikato

    In this report we provide an overview of the issues facing Southland’s wetlands as we perceive them and record our recommendations for future management

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  • Investigating diet as the source of tetrodotoxin in Pleurobranchaea maculata

    Khor, Serena; Wood, Susanna A.; Salvitti, Lauren R.; Taylor, David I.; Adamson, Janet E.; McNabb, Paul; Cary, S. Craig (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The origin of tetrodotoxin (TTX) is highly debated; researchers have postulated either an endogenous or exogenous source with the host accumulating TTX symbiotically or via food chain transmission. The aim of this study was to determine whether the grey side-gilled sea slug (Pleurobranchaea maculata) could obtain TTX from a dietary source, and to attempt to identify this source through environmental surveys. Eighteen non-toxic P. maculata were maintained in aquariums and twelve were fed a TTX-containing diet. Three P. maculata were harvested after 1 h, 24 h, 17 days and 39 days and TTX concentrations in their stomach, gonad, mantle and remaining tissue/fluids determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tetrodotoxin was detected in all organs/tissue after 1 h with an average uptake of 32%. This decreased throughout the experiment (21%, 15% and 9%, respectively). Benthic surveys at sites with dense populations of toxic P. maculata detected very low or no TTX in other organisms. This study demonstrates that P. maculata can accumulate TTX through their diet. However, based on the absence of an identifiable TTX source in the environment, in concert with the extremely high TTX concentrations and short life spans of P. maculata, it is unlikely to be the sole TTX source for this species.

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  • Compatibilization of Protein Thermoplastics and Polybutylene Succinate Blends

    Ku-Marsilla, KI; Verbeek, Casparus Johan R. (2014-08-21)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Reactive extrusion was used to prepare blends of Novatein thermoplastic protein (NTP) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) compatibilized with poly-2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (PEOX) and polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI). PEOX improved the dispersion of NTP in PBS and in conjunction with pMDI led to improved water resistance and a tensile strength exceeding that of NTP and PBS. The secant modulus, elongation as well as energy to break were also improved. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of compatibilized blends remained unchanged, however, the melting enthalpy and temperature decreased. This suggested that the crystalline structure of PBS has been disrupted by NTP as a result of compatibilization.

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  • Acetylene reduction associated with Zostera novazelandica Setch. and Spartina alterniflora Loisel., in Whangateau Harbour, North Island, New Zealand

    Hicks, Brendan J.; Silvester, Warwick B.

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) was investigated in Zostera novazelandica Setch. and Spartina alterniflora Loisel., in the North Island of New Zealand. Moderate rates of acetylene reduction were found in sediments in which plants were growing (means ± 95% confidence limit: 15.2 ± 2.8 |jmol C2H4 nrr2 h~l for Zostera and 24.7 ± 4.6 |amol C2H4 m~2 h"1 for Spartina). Activity was closely correlated with the dry weight of root; (r2 = 0.65, N = 15 for Zostera, and r2 = 0.85, A' =10 for Spartina). Sediment close to the plant beds, but without plants, exhibited only low rates of acetylene reduction (2.9 ± 2.2 and 4.5 ± l.OjLtmol C2H4 m~2 h"1, respectively). Sediments associated with Z. novazelandica and S. alterniflora in New Zealand exhibit moderate rates of nitrogenase activity compared to rates found in other countries. N fixation may contribute significantly to the nutrition of these plants in New Zealand estuaries.

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  • Fish biomass and gonad development in the Rotopiko (Serpentine) lakes.

    Wu, Nicholas; Daniel, Adam Joshua; Tempero, Grant Wayne

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The Rotopiko (Serpentine) lake complex is one of the Waikato region’s few peat lake systems that contains primarily native aquatic plants. Retaining the natural state of the lakes has been considered a high priority by the Department of Conservation (DOC) and extensive efforts have taken place to prevent nutrient leaching and to control invasive organisms in the lakes. The University of Waikato was contracted to investigate the biomass of introduced and native fish in the Rotopiko lakes in order to determine if the fish removal with rotenone, a chemical piscicide, was required as proposed by DOC. Fish were collected using a variety of traps and nets prior to making and release. Following a dispersal period, each lake was then fished a second time and fish biomass was estimated using a capture-mark-release-recapture study design; population estimates were derived using the Lincoln-Petersen method (Nichols 1992).

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