3 results for Ackerley, DF

  • Discovery and evaluation of Escherichia coli nitroreductases that activate the anti-cancer prodrug CB1954

    Prosser, GA; Copp, JN; Syddall, SP; Williams, EM; Smaill, Jeffrey; Wilson, William; Patterson, Adam; Ackerley, DF (2010-03-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) aims to achieve highly selective tumor-cell killing through the use of tumor-tropic gene delivery vectors coupled with systemic administration of otherwise inert prodrugs. Nitroaromatic prodrugs such as CB1954 hold promise for GDEPT as they are readily reduced to potent DNA alkylating agents by bacterial nitroreductase enzymes (NTRs). Transfection with the nfsB gene from Escherichia coli can increase the sensitivity of tumor cells to CB1954 by greater than 1000-fold. However, poor catalytic efficiency limits the activation of CB1954 by NfsB at clinically relevant doses. A lack of flexible, high-throughput screening technology has hindered efforts to discover superior NTR candidates. Here we demonstrate how the SOS chromotest and complementary screening technologies can be used to evaluate novel enzymes that activate CB1954 and other bioreductive and/or genotoxic prodrugs. We identify the major E. coli NTR, NfsA, as 10-fold more efficient than NfsB in activating CBI 954 as purified protein (k(cat)/K(m)) and when over-expressed in an E. coli nfsA(-)/nfsB(-) gene deleted strain. NfsA also confers sensitivity to CB1954 when expressed in HCT-116 human colon carcinoma cells, with similar efficiency to NfsB. In addition, we identify two novel E. coli NTRs, AzoR and NemA, that have not previously been characterized in the context of nitroaromatic prodrug activation. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • Advancing Clostridia to Clinical Trial: Past Lessons and Recent Progress

    Mowday, Alexandra; Guise, Christopher; Ackerley, DF; Minton, NP; Lambin, P; Dubois, LJ; Theys, J; Smaill, Jeffrey; Patterson, Adam (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Most solid cancers contain regions of necrotic tissue. The extent of necrosis is associated with poor survival, most likely because it reflects aggressive tumour outgrowth and inflammation. Intravenously injected spores of anaerobic bacteria from the genus Clostridium infiltrate and selectively germinate in these necrotic regions, providing cancer-specific colonisation. The specificity of this system was first demonstrated over 60 years ago and evidence of colonisation has been confirmed in multiple tumour models. The use of "armed" clostridia, such as in Clostridium Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (CDEPT), may help to overcome some of the described deficiencies of using wild-type clostridia for treatment of cancer, such as tumour regrowth from a well-vascularised outer rim of viable cells. Successful preclinical evaluation of a transferable gene that metabolises both clinical stage positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents (for whole body vector visualisation) as well as chemotherapy prodrugs (for conditional enhancement of efficacy) would be a valuable early step towards the prospect of "armed" clostridia entering clinical evaluation. The ability to target the immunosuppressive hypoxic tumour microenvironment using CDEPT may offer potential for synergy with recently developed immunotherapy strategies. Ultimately, clostridia may be most efficacious when combined with conventional therapies, such as radiotherapy, that sterilise viable aerobic tumour cells.

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  • Rational design of an AKR1C3-resistant analog of PR-104 for enzyme-prodrug therapy

    Mowday, Alexandra; Ashoorzadeh, Amir; Williams, EM; Copp, JN; Silva, S; Bull, Matthew; Abbattista, Maria; Anderson, Robert; Flanagan, Jack; Guise, CP; Ackerley, DF; Smaill, Jeffrey; Patterson, Adam (2016-09-15)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The clinical stage anti-cancer agent PR-104 has potential utility as a cytotoxic prodrug for exogenous bacterial nitroreductases expressed from replicating vector platforms. However substrate selectivity is compromised due to metabolism by the human one- and two-electron oxidoreductases cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3). Using rational drug design we developed a novel mono-nitro analog of PR-104A that is essentially free of this off-target activity in vitro and in vivo. Unlike PR-104A, there was no biologically relevant cytotoxicity in cells engineered to express AKR1C3 or POR, under aerobic or anoxic conditions, respectively. We screened this inert prodrug analog, SN34507, against a type I bacterial nitroreductase library and identified E. coli NfsA as an efficient bioactivator using a DNA damage response assay and recombinant enzyme kinetics. Expression of E. coli NfsA in human colorectal cancer cells led to selective cytotoxicity to SN34507 that was associated with cell cycle arrest and generated a robust 'bystander effect' at tissue-like cell densities when only 3% of cells were NfsA positive. Anti-tumor activity of SN35539, the phosphate pre-prodrug of SN34507, was established in 'mixed' tumors harboring a minority of NfsA-positive cells and demonstrated marked tumor control following heterogeneous suicide gene expression. These experiments demonstrate that off-target metabolism of PR-104 can be avoided and identify the suicide gene/prodrug partnership of E. coli NfsA/SN35539 as a promising combination for development in armed vectors.

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