4 results for Acosta, ML

  • Retinal development and ommin pigment in the cranchiid squid Teuthowenia pellucida (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida)

    Evans, AB; Acosta, ML; Bolstad, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    The cranchiid Teuthowenia pellucida, like many deep-sea squid species, possesses large eyes that maximise light sensitivity in a nearly aphotic environment. To assess ontogenetic changes in the visual system, we conducted morphometric and histological analyses of the eyes using specimens from New Zealand collections. While the ratio between eye diameter and mantle length maintained a linear relationship throughout development, histological sections of the retina revealed that the outer photoreceptor layer became proportionally longer as the animal aged, coincident with a habitat shift into deeper, darker ocean strata. Other retinal layers maintained the same absolute thickness as was observed in paralarvae. Granules of the pigment ommin, normally located in the screening layer positioned at the base of the photoreceptors, were also observed at the outer end of the photoreceptor segments throughout the retina in young and mid-sized specimens. Early developmental stages of this species, dwelling in shallow waters, may therefore rely on migratory ommin to help shield photoreceptors from excess light and prevent over-stimulation. The oldest, deeper-dwelling specimens of T. pellucida examined had longer photoreceptors, and little or no migrated ommin was observed; we suggest therefore that short-term adaptive mechanisms for bright light conditions may be used primarily during epipelagic, early life stages in this species.

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  • Functional activation of glutamate ionotropic receptors in the human peripheral retina

    de Souza, CF; Kalloniatis, M; Polkinghorne, PJ; McGhee, Charles; Acosta, ML (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Glutamate is the major neurotransmitter in the vertebrate retina. Neurons involved in the glutamate pathway express a-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA), kainic acid (KA) and Nmethyl- D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Functional characterization of these ionotropic glutamate receptors can be achieved by using a cation channel permeating probe named agmatine (1-amino-4-guanidobutane; AGB). Retinal mapping using this guanidinium analog has certain advantages including the immunocytochemical identification of a whole population of neurons expressing functional glutamate gated receptor channels. We have extended AGB studies into the functionality of ionotropic receptors in peripheral aged human retina to serve as a comparison for functional analysis of retinopathies such as retinal detachment. We probed the human retina with AGB after activation with AMPA, KA and NMDA. The results showed patterns of AGB entry into neurons consistent with those previously observed in subunit localization studies in adult mammalian retinae including primates. Application of 30 mMAMPA activated receptors in virtually all calretinin immunoreactive AII amacrine cells in the mid-peripheral human retina. About half of the AII amacrine cells showed AGB permeation after incubation with 50 mM KA. Some bipolar cells including DB3 OFF bipolar cells displayed functional KA receptors. Colocalization of AGB with parvalbumin labeled horizontal cells revealed functional KA and AMPA receptors with no responsiveness to NMDA activation. NMDA activation resulted in AGB labeling of ganglion cells and amacrine cells. The present study provides a description of functional ionotropic glutamate receptors in the aged mid-peripheral human retina.

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  • Retinal metabolic state of the proline-23-histidine rat model of retinitis pigmentosa.

    Acosta, ML; Shin, YS; Ready, S; Fletcher, EL; Christie, David; Kalloniatis, M (2010-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We determined the metabolic changes that precede cell death in the dystrophic proline-23-histidine (P23H) line 3 (P23H-3) rat retina compared with the normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat retina. Metabolite levels and metabolic enzymes were analyzed early in development and during the early stages of degeneration in the P23H-3 retina. Control and degenerating retinas showed an age-dependent change in metabolite levels and enzymatic activity, particularly around the time when phototransduction was activated. However, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was significantly higher in P23H-3 than SD retina before the onset of photoreceptor death. The creatine/phosphocreatine system did not contribute to the increase in ATP, because phosphocreatine levels, creatine kinase, and expression of the creatine transporter remained constant. However, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-Ca(2+)-ATPase activities were increased in the developing P23H-3 retina. Therefore, photoreceptor apoptosis in the P23H-3 retina occurs in an environment of increased LDH, ATPase activity, and higher-than-normal ATP levels. We tested the effect of metabolic challenge to the retina by inhibiting monocarboxylate transport with alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid or systemically administering the phosphodiesterase inhibitor sildenafil. Secondary to monocarboxylate transport inhibition, the P23H-3 retina did not demonstrate alterations in metabolic activity. However, administration of sildenafil significantly reduced LDH activity in the P23H-3 retina and increased the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUPT nick end-labeled photoreceptor cells. Photoreceptor cells with a rhodopsin mutation display an increase in apoptotic markers secondary to inhibition of a phototransduction enzyme (phosphodiesterase), suggesting increased susceptibility to altered cation entry.

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  • Comments on: Retinal metabolic state of the proline-23-histidine rat model of retinitis pigmentosa

    Acosta, ML; Shin, Y; Ready, S; Fletcher, EL; Christie, DL; Kalloniatis, M (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    REPLY: B. Winkler questions the validity of some of our conclusions in relation to a mutant model of retinitis pigmentosa (Proline-23-Histidine rat) published in a recent issue (1). He bases his objections on three issues: ...

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