2 results for Allen, A

  • Responsibility and School Governance

    Allen, A; Mintrom, Michael (2010-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The concept of responsibility is highly relevant to the organization of public schooling. Through public schools, adult citizens allow for the formal nurture and training of children to become full citizens, able to participate in our shared social, economic, and political life. With growing awareness of the importance of effective schooling to individual and collective well-being, wide-scale attempts have recently been made to reform school governance in the United States and internationally. The authors show how use of a responsibility framework can generate important insights into such reform efforts and their effects. Scholars and practitioners have done well incorporating accountability into the language of policy and practice. Little has been said about responsibility. The authors address this omission and apply their framework to interpret two distinctive reform strategies: (a) efforts to strengthen mayoral control over urban schools and (b) the creation of charter schools.

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  • Mammographic surveillance in women younger than 50 years who have a family history of breast cancer: tumour characteristics and projected effect on mortality in the prospective, single-arm, FH01 study

    Duffy, SW; Mackay, J; Thomas, S; Anderson, E; Evans, DG; Fielder, H; Fox, R; Gray, Jonathon; Gui, G; Macmillan, D; Moss, S; Rogers, C; Sainsbury, R; Sibbering, M; Boggis, C; Burn, J; Cuzick, J; Haward, B; Howell, A; Mansel, R; Cork, HM; Robertson, J; Patnick, J; Pharoah, P; Robinson, A; Sutton, S; Kataoka, M; Moyle, P; Wallis, M; Warren, R; Jones, EL; Austoker, J; Clements, A; Watson, E; Young, K; Allgood, P; Duffy, P; Gabe, R; Roberts, L; Warsi, I; Caunt, J; Brentnall, A; Dungey, F; Lorincz, A; Offman, J; Adams, M; Affen, J; Aldous, M; Allen, A; Ames, A; Audisio, R; Ashworth, S; Barnes, A; Botham, P; Brown, D; Bullard, S; Carpenter, R; Chorley, W; Christensen, D; Coleman, C; Coe, C; Collier, DSJ; Cooke, J; Cooke, TG; Crichton, R; Crockett, S; Dalgliesh, D; Davies, M; Deacon, C; Douglas, F; Drummond, S; Ebbs, S; Edwardson, J; Elliott, J; Evans, S; Farnon, C; Ferguson, J; Fowler, G; Gallegos, N; Gaskell, C; Gay, J; Gilbert, F; Thomas, KG; Greenhalgh, R; Hansell, D; Mackean, CH; Hartup, S; Hayman, J; Hill, P; Hodgson, S; Holcombe, S; Hogg, M; Hubbard, C; Izatt, L; Jacobs, C; Jmor, S; Jobson, I; Kanani, R; Kent, M; Knight, K; Lannigan, A; Lewis, C; MacArthur, S; Marano, C; Martin, L; Matheson, D; Maurice, A; McClement, J; McCarrick, J; Miedzybrodska, Z; Mortimer, C; Moss, L; Nejim, A; Pallister, D; Paterson, J; Rai, S; Ramm, J; Ravisekar, O; Read, F; Ridley, P; Roche, N; Rockall, L; Rogers, M; Rothnie, N; Rubin, G; Saad, Z; Sheppard, C; Shere, M; dos Santos Silva, I; Simpson, C; Smith, D; Stallard, S; Schuh, KS; Stebbing, A; Steel, J; Stewart, R; Stone, M; Strukowska, O; Tee, E; Taylor, A; Teh, W; Thompson, A; Thompson, WD; Thompson, WO; Toye, R; Turton, P; Vishwanath, L; Walsh, J; Williams, M; Williamson, J; Wise, J; Wise, M; Whitford, P; Zammit, C (2010-12-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Evidence supports a reduction in mortality from breast cancer with mammographic screening in the general population of women aged 40-49 years but the effect of family history is not clear We aimed to establish whether screening affects the disease stage and projected mortality of women younger than 50 years who have a clinically significant family history of breast cancerMethods In the single arm FH01 study, women at intermediate familial risk who were younger than 50 years were enrolled from 76 centres in the UK and received yearly mammography Women with BRCA mutations were not explicitly excluded but would be rare in this group To compare the FH01 cohort with women not receiving screening two external comparison groups were used the control group of the UK Age Trial (106971 women aged 40-42 years at recruitment from the general population [ie average risk] followed up for 10 years), and a Dutch study of women with a family history of breast cancer (cancer cases aged 25-77 years diagnosed 1980-2004) Study endpoints were size, node status and histological grade of invasive tumours and estimated mortality calculated from the Nottingham prognostic index (NPI) score, and adjusted for differences in underlying risk between the FH01 cohort and the control group of the UK Age Trial This study is registered with the National Research Register number N0484114809Findings 6710 women were enrolled between Jan 16 2003 and Feb 28,2007, and received yearly mammography for a mean of 4 years (SD 2) up until Nov 30,2009 surveillance and reporting of cancers is still underway 136 women were diagnosed with breast cancer 105 (77%) at screening 28 (21%) symptomatically in the interval between screening events and three (2%) symptomatically after failing to attend their latest mammogram Invasive tumours in the FH01 study were significantly smaller (p=0 0094) less likely to be node positive (p=0 0083) and of more favourable grade (p=0 0072) than were those in the control group of the UK Age Trial and were significantly less likely to be node positive than were tumours in the Dutch study (p=0 012) Mean NPI score was significantly lower in the FH01 cohort than in the control group of the UK Age Trial (p=0 00079) or the Dutch study (p<0 0001) After adjustment for underlying risk predicted 10 year mortality was significantly lower in the FH01 cohort (1 10%) than in the control group of the UK Age Trial (1 38%) with relative risk of 0 80 (95% CI 0 66-0 96 p=0 022)Interpretation Yearly mammography in women with a medium familial risk of breast cancer is likely to be effective in prevention of deaths from breast cancer

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