5 results for Anderson, C.

  • Biofortified fodder - an environmentally sustainable mechanism to supplement livestock with trace elements?

    Anderson, C.; Robinson, B.; West, D.; Clucas, L.; Portmann, D.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    New Zealand agriculture utilises trace element supplements to protect livestock from fungal infection. For example Zinc (as zinc oxide) administered as an oral drench or intraruminal bolus, is used extensively to protect sheep and cattle from facial eczema. A large percentage of administered Zn is however excreted in faeces and there is published evidence to show that Zn levels in pastoral soils are increasing with time. The long-term environmental affect of this ongoing Zn input to soil is unknown. In this paper we describe research into the efficacy of fodder with an elevated Zn concentration as a potential prophylaxis against facial eczema in sheep relative to a conventional drench. Our hypothesis is that Zn protection afforded by biofortified fodder may be realised at a relatively lower dose, thus limiting transfer of Zn into the pastoral environment. This may represent a more environmental sustainable mechanism to supplement livestock with trace elements than conventional options. Our mechanism of Zn administration can be described as the biofortification of food with essential trace elements.

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  • The Relationship Between Submental Surface Electromyography and Hyo-Laryngeal Kinematic Measures of Mendelsohn Maneuver Duration

    Azola, A.M.; Greene, L.R.; Taylor-Kamara, I.; Macrae, P.; Anderson, C.; Humbert, I. (2015)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Purpose: The Mendelsohn maneuver (MM) is a commonly prescribed technique that is taught to individuals with dysphagia to improve swallowing ability. Due to cost and safety concerns associated with videofluoroscopy (VFS) use, submental surface electromyography (ssEMG) is commonly used in place of VFS to train the MM in clinical and research settings. However it is unknown whether ssEMG accurately reflects the prolonged hyo-laryngeal movements required for execution of the MM. The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship among ssEMG duration, duration of laryngeal vestibule closure, and duration of maximum hyoid elevation during MM performance. Method: Participants included healthy adults and patients with dysphagia due to stroke. All performed the MM during synchronous ssEMG and VFS recording. Results: Significant correlations between ssEMG duration and VFS measures of hyolaryngeal kinematic durations during MM performance ranged from very weak to moderate. None of the correlations in the group of stroke patients reached statistical significance. Conclusions: Clinicians and researchers should consider that the MM involves novel hyo-laryngeal kinematics that may be only moderately represented with ssEMG. Thus, there is a risk that these target therapeutic movements are not consistently being trained.

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  • Determinants of major non-communicable diseases in the elderly: The pilot Freemasons health study

    Anderson, C.; Mhurchu, C.N.; Mann, J.; Abas, M.; Bennett, D.; Feigin, V. (2002)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. Aim: To present preliminary results of the pilot phase of the Freemasons Health Study. Methods: A prospective cohort study, in which determinants of occurrence of stroke and dementia in the elderly will be investigated. Results: The pilot study (n = 507) showed substantial heterogeneity in risk factor levels among participants and suggested outcome rates that would allow a study of 6000 individuals aged 65 years and over to produce statistically reliable results within a few years of follow up. Preliminary results of the pilot study suggest that the demographic (age, sex) and risk factor (namely blood pressure levels and ranges of body mass index) profile of the projected sample of the Freemasons population is similar to that of the general elderly New Zealand population. Conclusions: The pilot study confirmed that the collection of baseline data from the New Zealand Freemasons population and their spouses is feasible, and that the prevalence of major vascular risk factors in the elderly Freemasons population is similar to that of the general New Zealand population of comparable age. In addition to contributing to our understanding of the aetiology of major non-communicable diseases in the elderly, the proposed major study provides a unique opportunity to investigate the determinants of health and requirements for care in an elderly New Zealand population.

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  • Diurnal, weekly, and seasonal variations in stroke occurrence in a population-based study in Auckland, New Zealand

    Anderson, N.; Feigin, V.; Bennett, D.; Broad, J.; Pledger, M.; Anderson, C.; Bonita, R. (2004)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. Aims: To determine (via a population-based study in Auckland, New Zealand) if there are diurnal, weekly, or seasonal variations in the occurrence of stroke. Methods: All new stroke events in Auckland residents were traced. Time of onset of the stroke was defined as the time when neurological symptoms were first noticed. The day of the week and month of onset were analysed for all strokes. Results: 1711 patients were registered over 1 year. The rate ratios for the onset of stroke in each 6-hourly interval compared with reference interval (1800-2359 hours) were 0.74 (95% CI: 0.61-1.10) for 0000-0559 hours, 2.88 (95% CI: 2.48-3.34) for 0600-1159 hours and 1.74 (95% CI: 1.49-2.05) for 1200-1759 hours. Rate ratios of the seasonal occurrence of stroke compared with spring were 0.75 (95% CI: 0.65-0.86) for summer, 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73-0.95) for autumn and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.96-1.23) for winter. No weekly pattern of stroke occurrence was observed. Conclusions: Strokes were less likely to occur during the summer and autumn than in the winter or spring. There was an increase in the occurrence of stroke in the late morning. The results have implications for the provision of acute stroke services in the community and in hospital.

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  • The Acute Stroke Unit at Middlemore Hospital: An evaluation in its first year of operation

    Di, Matteo, M.; Anderson, C.; Ratnasabapathy, Y.; Green, G.; Tryon, K. (2004)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. Aim: Despite strong evidence of benefit, few stroke units exist in New Zealand. In this paper, we describe the process and outcome for the country's first, comprehensive Acute Stroke Unit (ASU), established at Middlemore Hospital in 2001. Methods: The evaluation comprised: (a) two independent 'before and after' audits of medical records of a random selection of patients (2 x n=100) identified from Diagnostic Related Group (DRG) discharge codes for stroke in 1999 (12 months) and 2001-02 (9 months); (b) a review of all DRG stroke outcome data and internal cost analyses for the study periods; and (c) a 'time-in-motion' study of nursing care requirements. Results: The DRG data showed an increase in separations (538 vs 613); stable re-admissions (8% vs 7%); and declines in average length of stay (6.1 vs 5.4 days), deaths (14.0% vs 8.8%), and referrals for rehabilitation (127 vs 67); while the audit indicated shorter times from admission to brain imaging, and swallow and allied health assessments, for stroke from 1999 to 2001-02. A 1:4 nurse:patient ratio seems to provide an optimum level of care for costs. Conclusions: The introduction of the ASU has been associated with improvements in several key indicators of quality of care for patients with stroke.

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