3 results for Anderson, M.

  • The effect of landscape- and local-scale non-crop vegetation on arthropod pests and predators in vineyards

    Anderson, M.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Experiments were conducted to assess any influence of the landscape and local (‘field’ scale) non-crop vegetation on conservation biological control (CBC) via predation of insect pest eggs in vineyards. In the 19th Century, world industry including agriculture was based on coal. In the 20th Century, oil was the main energy source while many believe that this century, a bio-economy will become the norm. This not only applies to energy sources but to new and more sustainable ways of growing the world’s food and beverages. For example, the United Nations has produced a number of strategic reports on this topic, including the work of de Schutter (2010) http://www.unep.org/publications/ebooks/foresightreport/Portals/24175/pdfs/Foresigh t_Report-21_Issues_for_the_21st_Century.pdf. In this, it was strongly suggested that agro-ecology is the only way of feeding the human population of nine billion, which is expected in a few decades. De Schutter suggested that in developing countries, yields can double in one decade if this system were to be adopted. In ‘developed’ countries, the same conclusion applied although the absence of the appropriate government policies is currently restraining this approach. Vineyards worldwide are aspiring to a more sustainable approach to viticulture and a current worldwide surplus is accelerating moves in that direction, including the conversion of some vineyards to organic viticulture. A key driver for these changes is the need to reduce variable costs in vineyards (pesticide, herbicide, fungicide, fuel and labour). However, wine growers are largely bereft of appropriate and topical advice to help them in this. Although some specific pest-management protocols do exist (e.g., the deployment of flowering buckwheat; F. esculentum between vines to provide nectar for beneficial insects), little attention has been paid to whether or not these local, within-vineyard practices are the most appropriate way of enhancing ecosystem services (ES) such as insect biological control. This thesis, therefore, addresses a wider, landscape scale and investigates whether landscape features outside the vineyard itself influence the numbers and phenology of invertebrate pests, and predators and their predation efficacy. To investigate this, geographic information systems (GIS) were used to examine the relationship between the landscape of the Waipara Valley, New Zealand, in relation to the above variables. Invertebrate trapping was carried out but to address more accurately the dynamics of the system, surrogate prey comprising eggs of the light brown apple moth, E. postvittana and the tomato/corn ear/boll worm, H. zea were used in 25 vineyards. Egg disappearance rates were assessed by ‘before and after’ counts, usually after 24 hours and by infrared illuminated digital, movement-sensitive video. It was concluded that, in fact, there were few landscape effects on these measurements. Subsequent within-vineyard manipulation of the between-row flora, using herbicides, showed that such simple management techniques involving leaving some ‘weeds’ between the vine rows had a substantial effect on pest predation rate. This latter result means that viticulturalists who aspire to a non-monoculture vineyard have a readily available service-providing unit (SPU) at their disposal at low cost. This work also strongly supports the aspirations of the United Nations, among other international bodies, for farming to move towards being part of a bio-economy.

    View record details
  • Media portrayals of sportswomen : an analysis of six New Zealand magazines

    Anderson, M.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This research examined the portrayal of sportswomen in New Zealand magazines during the period January 1, 1991 to December 31, 1993. Qualitative content analysis was conducted on feature articles in six magazines: two general circulation, three women's and one sports magazine. Four questions were examined: the affect of target audiences on media portrayals; the portrayal of the 'gender-appropriateness' of sport; the use of language within articles and the meanings within photographs. Previous New Zealand media research has focused on the quantity of coverage accorded to women in sport and has determined that women receive less coverage than their male counterparts in both television and newspaper media. Research into the coverage of sportswomen in magazines is, however, limited, as is qualitative examination of media coverage. The current research addressed this shortcoming. The results illustrate that magazines portray sportswomen differently according to their target audiences. Women's magazines focused on personal issues rather than sporting achievements. General and sports magazines portrayed sportswomen in a more comprehensive manner. Photographs accompanying text had a non-sport emphasis. There was evidence of role conflict for athletes participating in sports classified as 'gender-inappropriate'. Portrayals of sportswomen in New Zealand magazines reinforce traditional notions of appropriateness and femininity. While the quantity of media coverage is slowly moving towards parity, the quality of coverage within magazine articles continues to reinforce conventional understandings of women's place in sport.

    View record details
  • Ecosystem Services in Productive Landscapes: New Zealand’s emerging agricultural pattern and land-use change

    Anderson, M.; Barnes, A. M.; Wratten, S. D.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    It is considered that New Zealand has the greatest rate of land-use change in the Western world (Penman 2008 pers. comm.). Although New Zealand’s land-use changes may be dynamic, reflecting overseas market needs in a business-agile way, the increase in agricultural intensification and in the diversity of crops grown over the last four decades is compounding the strain on the provision of ecosystem (nature’s) services (Costanza 1997, Daily et al 1997) that are necessary for long-term sustainable and profitable production. Higher animal stocking rates and yields, conversion to more intensive forms of agriculture, conversion to forestry and deer farming, increased mechanisation and increased use of fertilizers, pesticides and feedstock inputs are all indications of this steady trend (MacLeod et al 2006). In particular, the last decade has seen a rise in conversion from sheep and beef to dairy farming, a much more intensive activity. The dairy industry is currently striving to increase productivity by 4% per annum, to achieve a 50% increase in production by 2015 (MacLeod et al 2006). This policy depends increasingly on subsidies; more fertilizer, water, supplemental feeding – which may not be sourced from within the farm, or even from within New Zealand. This current trend for intensification may not be ecologically viable for the long term. Increased carbon dioxide emissions from higher fossil fuel use in mechanised intensive farming practices cannot be easily offset (Rhodes et al 2007). Conversion of rough grassland to ‘improved pasture’ has seen losses in biodiversity. Biodiversity is very valuable to agriculture, although the exact figure is difficult to ascertain (Costanza et al 1997, Sandhu et al 2007, Tilman et al 1996). New Zealand agriculture is diversifying as well as changing, examples being an increase in land use for vines and other specialty crops. Seed crops such as radish, have seen areas such as the Canterbury plains change markedly (MacLeod et al 2006). Forest plantations have seen a 110% increase in land area since 1980 (Brockerhoff et al 2008). This increase in forestry (mainly Pinus radiata) may have some biodiversity benefits.

    View record details