37 results for Apperley, Mark

  • Active templates: Manipulating pointers with pictures

    Lyons, Paul J.; Apperley, Mark; Bishop, A.G.; Moretti, G.S (1994)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Active templates are a semi-automatic visual mechanism for generating algorithms for manipulating pointer-based data structures. The programmer creates a picture showing the affected part of a data structure before and after a general-case manipulation. Code for the operation is compiled directly from the picture, which also provides the development environment with enough information to generate, automatically, a series of templates for other similar pictures, each describing a different configuration which the data structure may possess. The programmer completes the algorithm by creating matching after-pictures for each of these cases. At every stage, most of the picture-generation is automatic. Much of the tedious detail of conventional pointer-based data-structure manipulation, such as maintenance of current pointers, is unnecessary in a system based on active templates.

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  • Tracking battery state-of-charge in a continuous use off-grid electricity system

    Apperley, Mark; Alahmari, Mohammed Mushabab (2013-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The growing importance of batteries in the delivery of primary energy, for example in electric vehicles and isolated off-grid electricity systems, has added weight to the demand for simple and reliable measures of a battery’s remaining stored energy at any time. Many approaches to estimating this battery state-of-charge exist, ranging from those based on a full appreciation of the chemistry and physics of the storage and delivery mechanisms used, and requiring extensive data on which to base an estimate, to the naïve and simple, based only, for example, on the terminal voltage of the battery. None, however, is perfect, and able to deliver a simple percentage-full figure, as in a fuel gauge. The shortcomings are due to a range of complicating factors, including the impact of rate of charge, rate of discharge, battery aging, and temperature, to name just some of these. This paper presents a simple yet effective method for tracking state-of-charge in an off-grid electricity system, where batteries are in continuous use, preventing static parameter measurements, and where charge/discharge cycles do not necessarily follow an orderly sequence or pattern. A reliable indication of state-of-charge is, however, highly desirable, but need be only of fuel gauge precision, say to the nearest 12-20%. The algorithm described utilises knowledge of the past, and constantly adapts parameters such as charge efficiency and total charge capacity based on this knowledge, and on the occurrence of specific identifiable events such as zero or full charge.

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  • PICSIL: integrating graphic system design and automatic synthesis

    Pearson, Murray W.; Lyons, Paul J.; Apperley, Mark (1995-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    We present an approach to the design of complex logic ICs, developed from four premises. First, the responsibilities of a chip's major components, and the communication between them, should be separated from the detailed implementation of their functionality. Design of this abstract architecture should precede definition of the detailed functionality. Secondly, graphic vocabularies are most natural for describing abstract architectures, by contrast with the conventional textual notations for describing functionality. Thirdly, such information as can be expressed naturally and completely in the idiom of the abstract architecture should be automatically translated into more complex, lower-level vocabulary. Fourthly, the notations can be integrated into a single, consistent design-capture and synthesis system. PICSIL is a preliminary implementation of a design environment using this approach. It combines an editor and a synthesis driver, allowing a design's abstract architecture to be created using a graphical notation based on Data Flow Diagrams and state machines, and its functionality to be designed using a more conventional textual hardware description language. On request, it also translates a design into appropriate input for synthesis software, and controls the operation of that software, producing CIF files suitable for fabrication. Thus computer systems become appropriate for ab initio design production rather than post facto design capture.

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  • The orienting mouse: An input device with attitude

    Apperley, Mark; Rogers, Bill (2013-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper presents a modified computer mouse, the Orienting Mouse, which delivers orientation as an additional dimension of input; when the mouse is moved on a flat surface it reports, in addition to the conventional x, y translation, angular rotation of the device in the x, y plane. The orienting mouse preserves important properties of the standard mouse; all measurements are relative and movement is tracked only while the mouse is on its flat surface. If the user lets go of the mouse, leaving it on the surface, its position and orientation do not change until it is touched again. Picking the mouse up and putting it down in a different orientation leaves the angle and position unchanged. While the concept of sensing mouse rotation is not new, our work focuses on movement and navigation in 3D, rather than on precision positioning tasks. We describe a number of sample applications developed to test its effectiveness in this context. Specific features exploited and described include (i) an algorithm for calculating the mouse angle which cancels drift between the two sensors, and (ii) the use of angular gearing which avoids unnatural and uncomfortable hand positions when moving through large angles; informal user testing validates this idea.

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  • Notes: an experiment in CSCW

    Apperley, Mark; Gianoutsos, Simon; Grundy, John C.; Paynter, Gordon W.; Reeves, Steve; Venable, John R. (1996-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Computer Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW) systems are complex, yet no computer-based tools of any sophistication exist to support their development. Since several people often need to work together on the same project simultaneously, the computer system often proves to be a bottleneck. CSCW tools are a means of allowing several users to work towards their goal. Systems development is essentially a team process, yet support for CSCW on these systems is in its infancy.

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  • Tree browsing

    Apperley, Mark; Chester, Michael (1996-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Graphic representations of tree structures are notoriously difficult to create, display, and interpret, particularly when the volume of information they contain, and hence the number of nodes, is large. The problem of interactively browsing information held in tree structures is examined, and a design for a tree browser proposed. This design is based on distortion-oriented display techniques and intuitive direct manipulation interaction. The tree layout is automatically generated, but the location and extent of detail shown is controlled by the user. It is suggested that these techniques could be extended to the browsing of more general networks.

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  • Use of video shadow for small group interaction awareness on a large interactive display surface

    Apperley, Mark; McLeod, Laurie; Masoodian, Masood; Paine, Lance; Phillips, Malcolm; Rogers, Bill; Thomson, Kirsten (2002-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper reports work done as part of the Large Interactive Display Surface (LIDS) project at the University of Waikato. One application of the LIDS equipment is distributed meeting support. In this context large display surfaces are used as shared workspaces by people at collaborating sites. A meeting with start with a shared presentation document, typically and agenda document with summary and detail on agenda items as required. During the meeting, annotations with be made on the shared document, and new pages will be added with notes and drawings. To prevent access collisions and generally mediate use of the shared space, mechanisms to provide awareness of actions of people at other sites are required. In our system a web camera is used to capture a low-resolution image of the person/people near the board on each side. Rather than transmit the image directly we computed a shadow/silhouette. The shadow is displayed behind other screen content. This provides awareness of position and impending write actions and allows intentional pointing to locations of the screen. It also has the advantage of being transmitted with low bandwidth, being relatively insensitive to low frame rates, and minimizing visual interference with substantive data being displayed on the screen.

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  • Supporting collaboration and engagement using a whiteboard-like display

    Apperley, Mark; Masoodian, Masood (2000)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Large interactive display surfaces have the potential to combine the simplicity, spontaneity and presence of a conventional whiteboard with the convenience, clarity, and archiving and retrieval capabilities of a computer display. Recent developments in display projection and large surface digitising have brought the cost of such displays to a level where they can be utilised to support a range of everyday activities. This paper describes the LIDS (Large Interactive Display Surfaces) project, recently commenced at the University of Waikato. LIDS focuses on the use of low-cost whiteboard-like shared interactive displays, and is exploring whiteboard metaphors and lightweight interaction techniques to support group collaboration and engagement. Three closely related application areas are being studied: (i) support for single and multiple site meetings and informal discussions, (ii) the use of such displays in teaching, and (iii) their use in personal information management.

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  • Why aren't we all living in Smart Homes

    Suppers, Joris; Apperley, Mark (2014)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Visions of the Future, like the Jetsons cartoons, show homes which are smart and able to control household appliances, to make living easier and more comfortable. Although much research has been carried out into the effectiveness of different visualisation techniques for conveying useful energy consumption information to householders, and in techniques for controlling the timing and coordination of appliance use, these techniques have failed to achieve widespread penetration, and the vision still seems far from a reality. This paper examines the reasons why smart home technologies have so far failed to have any real impact, which is intricately intertwined with the design of visualisations in this context, and why we are not already living in Smart Homes. It examines these questions under four sections: Technology, Consumers, Electricity retailers and Government agencies, using examples from New Zealand’s electricity sector.

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  • Tracking battery state-of-charge in a continuous use off-grid electricity system

    Apperley, Mark; Alahmari, Mohammed Mushabab (2014)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    The growing importance of batteries in the delivery of primary energy, for example in electric vehicles and isolated off-grid electricity systems, has added weight to the demand for simple and reliable measures of a battery's remaining stored energy at any time. Many approaches to estimating this battery state-of-charge exist, ranging from those based on a full appreciation of the chemistry and physics of the storage and delivery mechanisms used, and requiring extensive data on which to base an estimate, to the naive and simple, based only, for example, on the terminal voltage of the battery. None, however, is perfect, and able to deliver a simple percentage-full figure, as in a fuel gauge. The shortcomings are due to a range of complicating factors, including the impact of rate of charge, rate of discharge, battery aging, and temperature, to name just some of these. This paper presents a simple yet effective method for tracking state-of-charge in an off-grid electricity system, where batteries are in continuous use, preventing static parameter measurements, and where charge/discharge cycles do not necessarily follow an orderly sequence or pattern. A reliable indication of state-of-charge is, however, highly desirable, but need be only of fuel gauge precision, say to the nearest 12-20%. The algorithm described utilises knowledge of the past, and constantly adapts parameters such as charge efficiency and total charge capacity based on this knowledge, and on the occurrence of specific identifiable events such as zero or full charge.

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  • A simulation study of the use of electric vehicles as storage on the New Zealand electricity grid

    Monigatti, Paul; Apperley, Mark; Rogers, Bill (2012-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper describes a simulation to establish the extent to which reliance on non-dispatchable energy sources, most typically wind generation, could in the future be extended beyond received norms, by utilizing the distributed battery capacity of an electric vehicle fleet. The notion of exploiting the distributed battery capacity of a nation’s electric vehicle fleet as grid storage is not new. However, this simulation study specifically examines the potential impact of this idea in the New Zealand context. The simulation makes use of real and projected data in relation to vehicle usage, full potential non-dispatchable generation capacity and availability, taking into account weather variation, and typical daily and seasonal patterns of usage. It differs from previous studies in that it is based on individual vehicles, rather than a bulk battery model. At this stage the analysis is aggregated, and does not take into account local or regional flows. A more detailed analysis of these localized effects will follow in subsequent stages of the simulation.

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  • Facilitating multiple copy/past operations

    Apperley, Mark; Baker, Jay; Fletcher, Dale; Rogers, Bill (1999-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Copy and paste, or cut and paste, using a clipboard or paste buffer has long been the principle facility provided to users for transferring data between and within GUI applications. We argue that this mechanism can be clumsy in circumstances where several pieces of information must be moved systematically. In two situations - extraction of data fields from unstructured data found in a directed search process, and reorganisation of computer program source text - we present alternative, more natural, user interface facilities to make the task less onerous, and to provide improved visual feedback during the operation. For the data extraction task we introduce the Stretchable Selection Tool, a semi-transparent overlay augmenting the mouse pointer to automate paste operations and provide information to prompt the user. We describe a prototype implementation that functions in a collaborative software environment, allowing users to cooperate on a multiple copy/paste operation. For text reorganisation, we present an extension to Emacs, providing similar functionality, but without the collaborative features.

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  • Simulating electricity consumption pattern for household appliances using demand side strategies - a review

    Ozoh, Patrick; Apperley, Mark (2015)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    This paper investigates research work related to the modelling and simulation of household electricity consumption with a view to developing a simulation to evaluate the effectiveness of demand-side management mechanisms. The eventual aim of the research is to be able to model household consumption down to the level of individual appliance use in order to explore and assess the impact of different demand-side strategies, both in individual household consumption, and on overall grid balance. The focus of this paper is to survey relevant research on simulation of household consumption, potential demand-side strategies and their impact, and modelling techniques for residential consumption. From this review, the paper provides a number of pointers for future effort in the area of modelling the impact of demand-side management strategies and techniques.

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  • Refining personal and social presence in virtual meetings

    Dean, Jesse; Apperley, Mark; Rogers, Bill (2014)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Virtual worlds show promise for conducting meetings and conferences without the need for physical travel. Current experience suggests the major limitation to the more widespread adoption and acceptance of virtual conferences is the failure of existing environments to provide a sense of immersion and engagement, or of ‘being there’. These limitations are largely related to the appearance and control of avatars, and to the absence of means to convey non-verbal cues of facial expression and body language. This paper reports on a study involving the use of a mass-market motion sensor (Kinect™) and the mapping of participant action in the real world to avatar behaviour in the virtual world. This is coupled with full-motion video representation of participant’s faces on their avatars to resolve both identity and facial expression issues. The outcomes of a small-group trial meeting based on this technology show a very positive reaction from participants, and the potential for further exploration of these concepts.

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  • Casual mobile screen sharing

    Suppers, Joris; Apperley, Mark (2014)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    The concept of casual screen sharing is that multiple users can cast screen images from their personal hand-held devices on to a large shared local screen. It has applications in personal and business domains where documents or images need to be discussed in a shared environment. The ‘casual’ qualifier implies that the overheads of this sharing should be minimal. Implementation of casual screen sharing poses two general problems: sending content from multiple devices with minimal or no authentication/authorisation, and displaying this content on the larger screen. This paper proposes a solution and describes the development of a prototype, CasualShare.

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  • Visualizing a control strategy for estimating electricity consumption

    Ozoh, Patrick; Abd-Rahman, Shapiee; Labadin, Jane; Apperley, Mark (2014)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    This paper investigates the potential of applying different control measures on low power and high power appliances with the goal of evolving efficiency in electricity consumption. The research involves carrying out simulations on their power consumption readings to set up a control system. The study discovers savings on all appliances under study to be 12.8% Kw, not minding occupancy rate of the building. Air-conditioners have the greatest impact of a 6% Kw contribution on savings. This would lead to a substantial contribution when converted to pricing rates. The results from the study indicate that control measures should be extended to peak periods and power saving measures extended to more appliances.

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  • Video support for shared work-space interaction – an empirical study

    Masoodian, Masood; Apperley, Mark; Frederikson, Lesley (1995)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    A study has been carried out to identify the effects of different human-to-human communication modes on dyadic computer supported group work. A pilot study evaluated an available shared work-space software system, supplemented by face-to-face, telephone-based, and text-based communication modes between two users. The findings from this study were then used to design an extensive experiment to explore the relative impact of face-to-face, full motion video, slow motion video, and audio only communication modes when used in conjunction with the type of CSCW system. This paper describes the experiments, and examines the findings of this empirical study with the aim of establishing the importance of co-presence in CSCW, and the effectiveness of these various communication modes in achieving it.

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  • Reading text in an immersive head-mounted display: An investigation into displaying desktop interfaces in a 3D virtual environment

    Grout, Cameron; Rogers, Bill; Apperley, Mark; Jones, Steve (2015)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    This paper describes an experiment conducted as part of a larger project investigating the possibilities of using a virtual environment for users performing day-to-day computing tasks. The experiment is a user study analyzing the performance of reading tasks typical of a general purpose computing environment conducted in immersive virtual reality headsets. Results of this study are evaluated, and suggest that reading tasks can be performed with near equivalent performance in the virtual environment when compared to performance values obtained from baseline tasks on a traditional display.

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  • Computer-aided sketching to capture preliminary design

    Plimmer, Beryl; Apperley, Mark (2002)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This paper describes the vital role of freehand sketching in the design process. When designers first tackle a design problem they usually do so by sketching. We will explore the essential elements of sketching that make it so helpful to problem solving. We then examine how current computer interfaces interfere with the sketching process, and go on to establish the requirements for an environment to support sketching. Finally we describe a system under development to integrate sketching into a visual programming environment (Visual Basic).

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  • Usability in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Apperley, Mark; Nichols, David M. (2011)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    This chapter presents an overview of usability in Aotearoa/New Zealand, from the academic and industrial perspectives. It contains a brief description of the country and focuses on the development of HCI and its characteristics in New Zealand.

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