7 results for Armstrong, Karen F.

  • Barcoding and border biosecurity: identifying Cyprinid fishes in the aquarium trade

    Collins, Rupert A.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Meier, R.; Yi, Y.; Brown, Samuel; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Keeling, S.; Johnston, C.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Background: Poorly regulated international trade in ornamental fishes poses risks to both biodiversity and economic activity via invasive alien species and exotic pathogens. Border security officials need robust tools to confirm identifications, often requiring hard-to-obtain taxonomic literature and expertise. DNA barcoding offers a potentially attractive tool for quarantine inspection, but has yet to be scrutinised for aquarium fishes. Here, we present a barcoding approach for ornamental cyprinid fishes by: (1) expanding current barcode reference libraries; (2) assessing barcode congruence with morphological identifications under numerous scenarios (e.g. inclusion of GenBank data, presence of singleton species, choice of analytical method); and (3) providing supplementary information to identify difficult species. Methodology/Principal Findings: We sampled 172 ornamental cyprinid fish species from the international trade, and provide data for 91 species currently unrepresented in reference libraries (GenBank/Bold). DNA barcodes were found to be highly congruent with our morphological assignments, achieving success rates of 90–99%, depending on the method used (neighbour-joining monophyly, bootstrap, nearest neighbour, GMYC, percent threshold). Inclusion of data from GenBank (additional 157 spp.) resulted in a more comprehensive library, but at a cost to success rate due to the increased number of singleton species. In addition to DNA barcodes, our study also provides supporting data in the form of specimen images, morphological characters, taxonomic bibliography, preserved vouchers, and nuclear rhodopsin sequences. Using this nuclear rhodopsin data we also uncovered evidence of interspecific hybridisation, and highlighted unrecognised diversity within popular aquarium species, including the endangered Indian barb Puntius denisonii. Conclusions/Significance: We demonstrate that DNA barcoding provides a highly effective biosecurity tool for rapidly identifying ornamental fishes. In cases where DNA barcodes are unable to offer an identification, we improve on previous studies by consolidating supplementary information from multiple data sources, and empower biosecurity agencies to confidently identify high-risk fishes in the aquarium trade.

    View record details
  • Population structure of Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., B papayae and B. philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in southeast Asia: evidence for a single species hypothesis using mitochondrial DNA and wing-shape data

    Schutze, M.; Krosch, M.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Chapman, T.; Englezou, A.; Chomic, Anastasija; Cameron, S.; Hailstones, D.; Clarke, A.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Background: Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. is a pestiferous tephritid fruit fly distributed from Pakistan to the Pacific, with the Thai/Malay peninsula its southern limit. Sister pest taxa, B. papayae and B. philippinensis, occur in the southeast Asian archipelago and the Philippines, respectively. The relationship among these species is unclear due to their high molecular and morphological similarity. This study analysed population structure of these three species within a southeast Asian biogeographical context to assess potential dispersal patterns and the validity of their current taxonomic status.Results: Geometric morphometric results generated from 15 landmarks for wings of 169 flies revealed significant differences in wing shape between almost all sites following canonical variate analysis. For the combined data set there was a greater isolation-by-distance (IBD) effect under a 'non-Euclidean' scenario which used geographical distances within a biogeographical 'Sundaland context' (r2 = 0.772, P < 0.0001) as compared to a Euclidean scenario for which direct geographic distances between sample sites was used (r2 = 0.217, P < 0.01). COI sequence data were obtained for 156 individuals and yielded 83 unique haplotypes with no correlation to current taxonomic designations via a minimum spanning network. BEAST analysis provided a root age and location of 540kya in northern Thailand, with migration of B. dorsalis s.l. into Malaysia 470kya and Sumatra 270kya. Two migration events into the Philippines are inferred. Sequence data revealed a weak but significant IBD effect under the 'non-Euclidean' scenario (r2 = 0.110, P < 0.05), with no historical migration evident between Taiwan and the Philippines. Results are consistent with those expected at the intra-specific level.Conclusions: Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., B. papayae and B. philippinensis likely represent one species structured around the South China Sea, having migrated from northern Thailand into the southeast Asian archipelago and across into the Philippines. No migration is apparent between the Philippines and Taiwan. This information has implications for quarantine, trade and pest management. © 2012 Schutze et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

    View record details
  • Species delimitation and global biosecurity

    Boykin, L. M.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Kubatko, L.; De Barro, P. J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Species delimitation directly impacts on global biosecurity. It is a critical element in the decisions made by national governments in regard to the flow of trade and to the biosecurity measures imposed to protect countries from the threat of invasive species. Here we outline a novel approach to species delimitation, “tip to root”, for two highly invasive insect pests, Bemisia tabaci (sweetpotato whitefly) and Lymantria dispar (Asian gypsy moth). Both species are of concern to biosecurity, but illustrate the extremes of phylogenetic resolution that present the most complex delimitation issues for biosecurity; B. tabaci having extremely high intraspecific genetic variability and L. dispar composed of relatively indistinct subspecies. This study tests a series of analytical options to determine their applicability as tools to provide more rigorous species delimitation measures and consequently more defensible species assignments and identification of unknowns for biosecurity. Data from established DNA barcode datasets (COI), which are becoming increasingly considered for adoption in biosecurity, were used here as an example. The analytical approaches included the commonly used Kimura two-parameter (K2P) inter-species distance plus four more stringent measures of taxon distinctiveness, (1) Rosenberg’s reciprocal monophyly, (P(AB)),1 (2) Rodrigo’s (P(randomly distinct)),2 (3) genealogical sorting index, ( gsi),3 and (4) General mixed Yule- coalescent (GMYC).4,5 For both insect datasets, a comparative analysis of the methods revealed that the K2P distance method does not capture the same level of species distinctiveness revealed by the other three measures; in B. tabaci there are more distinct groups than previously identified using the K2P distances and for L. dipsar far less variation is apparent within the predefined subspecies. A consensus for the results from P(AB), P(randomly distinct) and gsi offers greater statistical confidence as to where genetic limits might be drawn. In the species cases here, the results clearly indicate that there is a need for more gene sampling to substantiate either the new cohort of species indicated for B. tabaci or to detect the established subspecies taxonomy of L. dispar. Given the ease of use through the Geneious species delimitation plugins, similar analysis of such multi-gene datasets would be easily accommodated. Overall, the tip to root approach described here is recommended where careful consideration of species delimitation is required to support crucial biosecurity decisions based on accurate species identification.

    View record details
  • Towards a global barcode library for Lymantria (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae) tussock moths of biosecurity concern

    deWaard, J.; Mitchell, A.; Keena, M.; Gopurenko, D.; Boykin, Laura; Armstrong, Karen F.; Pogue, M.; Lima, J.; Floyd, R.; Hanner, R.; Humble, L.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Background: Detecting and controlling the movements of invasive species, such as insect pests, relies upon rapid and accurate species identification in order to initiate containment procedures by the appropriate authorities. Many species in the tussock moth genus Lymantria are significant forestry pests, including the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L., and consequently have been a focus for the development of molecular diagnostic tools to assist in identifying species and source populations. In this study we expand the taxonomic and geographic coverage of the DNA barcode reference library, and further test the utility of this diagnostic method, both for species/subspecies assignment and for determination of geographic provenance of populations. Methodology/Principal Findings: Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) barcodes were obtained from 518 individuals and 36 species of Lymantria, including sequences assembled and generated from previous studies, vouchered material in public collections, and intercepted specimens obtained from surveillance programs in Canada. A maximum likelihood tree was constructed, revealing high bootstrap support for 90% of species clusters. Bayesian species assignment was also tested, and resulted in correct assignment to species and subspecies in all instances. The performance of barcoding was also compared against the commonly employed NB restriction digest system (also based on COI); while the latter is informative for discriminating gypsy moth subspecies, COI barcode sequences provide greater resolution and generality by encompassing a greater number of haplotypes across all Lymantria species, none shared between species. Conclusions/Significance: This study demonstrates the efficacy of DNA barcodes for diagnosing species of Lymantria and reinforces the view that the approach is an under-utilized resource with substantial potential for biosecurity and surveillance. Biomonitoring agencies currently employing the NB restriction digest system would gather more information by transitioning to the use of DNA barcoding, a change which could be made relatively seamlessly as the same gene region underlies both protocols.

    View record details
  • Isotopes and trace elements as natal origin markers of Helicoverpa armigera - An experimental model for biosecurity pests

    Holder, Peter W.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Van Hale, R.; Millet, M.-A.; Frew, R.; Clough, Timothy J.; Baker, J. A.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Protecting a nation's primary production sector and natural estate is heavily dependent on the ability to determine the risk presented by incursions of exotic insect species. Identifying the geographic origin of such biosecurity breaches can be crucial in determining this risk and directing the appropriate operational responses and eradication campaigns, as well as ascertaining incursion pathways. Reading natural abundance biogeochemical markers using mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for tracing ecological pathways as well as provenance determination of commercial products and items of forensic interest. However, application of these methods to trace insects has been underutilised to date and our understanding in this field is still in a phase of basic development. In addition, biogeochemical markers have never been considered in the atypical situation of a biosecurity incursion, where sample sizes are often small, and of unknown geographic origin and plant host. These constraints effectively confound the interpretation of the one or two isotope geolocation markers systems that are currently used, which are therefore unlikely to achieve the level of provenance resolution required in biosecurity interceptions. Here, a novel approach is taken to evaluate the potential for provenance resolution of insect samples through multiple biogeochemical markers. The international pest, Helicoverpa armigera, has been used as a model species to assess the validity of using naturally occurring δ2H, 87Sr/ 86Sr, 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/ 206Pb isotope ratios and trace element concentration signatures from single moth specimens for regional assignment to natal origin. None of the biogeochemical markers selected were individually able to separate moths from the different experimental regions (150-3000 km apart). Conversely, using multivariate analysis, the region of origin was correctly identified for approximately 75% of individual H. armigera samples. The geographic resolution demonstrated with this approach has considerable potential for biosecurity as well as other disciplines including forensics, ecology and pest management. © 2014 Holder et al.

    View record details
  • Predation by Ostenia robusta on Costelytra zealandica pupae

    Chynoweth, R. J.; Marris, John W. M.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Chomic, Anastasija; Linton, J.; Chapman, R. B.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Soil sampling in a cereal crop near Southbridge, Canterbury, revealed dipteran larvae attacking Costelytra zealandica (White) pupae. Approximately 50% of the pupae had larvae associated with them. DNA sequencing analysis of larval specimens indicated they most likely belonged to the family Dolichopodidae. Larval specimens were reared through to adults and were identified as Ostenia robusta (Hutton) (Diptera: Dolichopodidae). This is the first record of the association of O. robusta larvae with C. zealandica pupae. A general description of the adult and larva of this species is provided, along with DNA sequencing data and observations on its association with C. zealandica pupae. The potential role of O. robusta in regulating populations of C. zealandica is briefly considered.

    View record details
  • Invasion success of a scarab beetle within its native range: Host range expansion versus host-shift

    Lefort, Marie-Caroline; Boyer, Stephane; De Romans, S.; Glare, Travis; Armstrong, Karen F.; Worner, Susan P.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Only recently has it been formally acknowledged that native species can occasion-ally reach the status of 'pest or 'invasive species' within their own native range. The study of such species has potential to help unravel fundamental aspects of biological invasions. A good model for such a study is the New Zealand native scarab beetle, Costelytra zealandica (White), which even in the presence of its natural enemies has become invasive in exotic pastures throughout the country. Because C. zealandica still occurs widely within its native habitat, we hypothesised that this species has only undergone a host range expansion (ability to use equally both an ancestral and new host) onto exotic hosts rather than a host shift (loss of fitness on the ancestral host in comparison to the new host). Moreover, this host range expansion could be one of the main drivers of its invasion success. In this study, we investigated the fitness response of populations of C. zealandica from native and exotic flora, to sev-eral feeding treatments comprising its main exotic host plant as well as one of its ancestral hosts. Our results suggest that our initial hypothesis was incorrect and that C. zealandica populations occurring in exotic pastures have experienced a host-shift rather than simply a host-range expansion. This finding suggests that an exotic plant introduction can facilitate the evolution of a distinct native host-race, a phenomenon often used as evidence for speciation in phytophagous insects and which may have been instrumental to the invasion success of C. zealandica. © 2014 Lefort et al.

    View record details