3 results for Arnold, P

  • Enhancing students' inferential reasoning: From hands-on to "movies"

    Arnold, P; Pfannkuch, Maxine; Wild, Christopher; Regan, Matthew; Budgett, Stephanie (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Computer simulations and animations for developing statistical concepts are often not understood by beginners. Hands-on physical simulations that morph into computer simulations are teaching approaches that can build students’ concepts. In this paper we review the literature on visual and verbal cognitive processing and on the efficacy of animations in promoting learning. We describe an instructional sequence, from hands-on to animations, developed for 14 year-old students. The instruction focused on developing students’ understanding of sampling variability and using samples to make inferences about populations. The learning trajectory from hands-on to animations is analyzed from the perspective of multimedia learning theories while the learning outcomes of about 100 students are explored, including images and reasoning processes used when comparing two box plots. The findings suggest that carefully designed learning trajectories can stimulate students to gain access to inferential concepts and reasoning processes. The role of verbal, visual, and sensory cues in developing students' reasoning is discussed and important questions for further research on these elements are identified.

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  • Enhancing students’ inferential reasoning: From hands-on to “movies”

    Arnold, P; Pfannkuch, Maxine; Wild, CJ; Regan, M; Budgett, S (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Computer simulations and animations for developing statistical concepts are often not understood by beginners. Hands-on physical simulations that morph into computer simulations are teaching approaches that can build students’ concepts. In this paper we review the literature on visual and verbal cognitive processing and on the efficacy of animations in promoting learning. We describe an instructional sequence, from hands-on to animations, developed for 14 year-old students. The instruction focused on developing students’ understanding of sampling variability and using samples to make inferences about populations. The learning trajectory from hands-on to animations is analyzed from the perspective of multimedia learning theories while the learning outcomes of about 100 students are explored, including images and reasoning processes used when comparing two box plots. The findings suggest that carefully designed learning trajectories can stimulate students to gain access to inferential concepts and reasoning processes. The role of verbal, visual, and sensory cues in developing students' reasoning is discussed and important questions for further research on these elements are identified.

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  • Experiment-to-causation inference: Understanding causality in a probabilistic setting

    Pfannkuch, Maxine; Budgett, Stephanie; Arnold, P (2015)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Research on students’ understanding of experiment-to-causation inference is limited despite the randomized experiment being prevalent in high school and introductory statistics courses. Using design research we: Determined conceptual foundations, created a two-lesson learning trajectory incorporating dynamic visualization software for the randomization test, implemented the trajectory in large introductory statistics classes (n ⇡ 450) and a workplace class, and analyzed student data from pretests and posttests and interviews to ascertain their reasoning processes in order to inform future teaching and learning approaches. In this chapter we have mainly focused on six students to explore their reasoning processes as they moved from the observed data and randomization test to making an experiment-to-causation inference. Our findings suggested that the dynamic visualization software assisted students to recall and understand the processes underpinning the randomization test. Student inference argumentation, however, needed further development.

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