6 results for Ataria, J. M.

  • The development of biological effects based tests in eels and mice and their application

    Ataria, J. M.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Risk assessment methodologies that can distinguish between adverse and acceptable chemical induced biological effects will provide powerful tools for environmental agencies to use in conjunction with standardised technologies to manage chemical contamination effectively. To advance this technology in New Zealand, the following research describes a step-wise approach to develop and establish a suite of biological effect tests in the indigenous shortfinned eel (Anguilla australis) and the laboratory mouse (C57BL/6 strain). Mice were exposed to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) directly (via intraperitoneal [ip.] injection to benzo[a]pyrene [B[a]P or benz(a)anthracene [BA]), or indirectly (via clean soil spiked with B[a]P or BA and to soil from contaminated sites). Mice treated with multiple ip. doses of B[a]P (100mg/kg) had significantly increased liver microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and cytochrome P450 concentration (P450 content), and hepatic-somatic index (HSI) compared to control. In contrast, EROD activity following ip. exposure to BA (100mg/kg) was 1 0-15-fold less than for B[a]P, suggesting a higher affinity of B[a]P to the Ah receptor. When mice were exposed to soil artificially contaminated with two environmentally relevant doses of B[a]P and BA biomarker responses were not significantly different from controls. The inherent ability of soil to reduce chemical bioavailability, is probably the major contributing factor for this result. However, mice exposed to contaminated soil from a fuel loading site (MP 0) and soil, from the gasworks site (PW) resulted in a significant increase in EROD activity of 2-fold and 4-fold respectively, compared to the controls. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of MP 0 soil was two times higher than the PW soil, which also directly correlates to the difference in EROD activity between mice exposed to these two soils. Although PW soil had a total PAH loading that was two orders of magnitude greater than MP 0 soil, the body burdens in mice exposed to these two soils were similar. Eels were exposed to one of a range of compounds (B[a]P, Aroclor 1254, 17β-estradiol [E2], 4- nonylphenol [4-NP], or chlorpyrifos [CP]) via ip. injection, or caged at sites that were potentially contaminated. Liver microsomal EROD activity of eels treated with multiple doses of B[a]P (1 and 10mg/kg) and Aroclor 1254 (10 and 100mg/kg) was significantly increased compared to the controls. Total P450 levels followed similar trends to EROD activity, but were not statistically significant. The induction of eel plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) following multiple ip. doses of E2 (100mg/kg) was marked in ip. experiment 1. However, a reduction in Vtg induction following an identical E2 exposure in ip. experiment 2 suggests that other cues such as seasonal changes, and or, sexually immature dimorphism may be involved. A small increase in plasma Vtg concentration was measured following exposure to 4-NP but this was not significant. Plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of eel was slightly inhibited following ip. exposure to CP, but brain AChE was not affected by this or any other test compound. Similarly liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) did not respond to any treatments. Eels caged at a potentially impacted site on the Heathcote River showed significantly greater levels of EROD activity compared to an upstream site on the Heathcote River. While trends in the other biomarker responses were apparent in the eels caged at the potentially impacted Heathcote site, none were significant. Similarly, no significant differences between other potentially impacted and pristine sites were observed for any of the other biomarkers tested. The sensitivity of EROD activity to a range of compounds when exposed in the laboratory and field was demonstrated in both animal models. While mixed responses were observed for the other biomarkers, it is clear that further research is required to determine their suitability as a monitoring tool in these two test species.

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  • Updating and promoting a web-based database of information on 1080 and taonga species

    Ogilvie, S. C.; Miller, A.; Ataria, J. M.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The research was aimed at updating and expanding the current web-based database of information on 1080 impacts on non-target species, and converting it to web-based software. This was carried out between September 2007 and June 2008. This project was an extension of the 2006/07 project, “Creating and publicising a web-based database of 1080 and taonga species information”.

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  • Research on new toxins: striving for improvements in animal pest control

    Eason, C. T.; Ogilvie, S. C.; Van Schravendijk, C.; Ataria, J. M.

    Conference Contribution - Unpublished
    Lincoln University

    Introduced animal pests are destroying New Zealand’s biodiversity.This presentation outlines current solutions, then looks at new toxins and delivery systems.

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  • Creating and publicising a web-based database of 1080 and taonga species information: final report

    Ataria, J. M.; Waiwai, J.; Doherty, J.; Ogilvie Shaun, C.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The research was aimed at producing a web-based database of information on 1080 impacts on non-target species, identified as important by Maori. The research reported here was carried out between August 2006 and June 2007, and was undertaken by a collaborative team of researchers from Lincoln University, Landcare Research Ltd, Lake Waikaremoana Hapu Restoration Trust, and Tuhoe Tuawhenua Trust.

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  • Sodium fluoroacetate (compound 1080) uptake by Puha, a culturally-important food plant

    Miller, A.; Ogilvie Shaun, C.; Ataria, J. M.; Waiwai, J.; Doherty, J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Sodium fluoroacetate (Compound 1080) is a key tool in the control of possums, and the most extensively used vertebrate pesticide in New Zealand (Livingstone 1994; Morgan 1994a, b; Thomas 1994; Gillies and Pierce 1999; Powlesland et al. 1999; Sherley et al. 1999; Styche and Speed 2002). The most common method of control using this pesticide is via aerial application of cereal or carrot baits containing 1080 (Eason et al. 2000). This is a costeffective means of reducing possum populations by more than 90% (Eason et al. 1994, Veltman and Pinder 2001). Despite the efficiency of aerial 1080 application for reducing possum population numbers, support amongst Māori is mixed. In general, Māori oppose the use of toxins in the environment, despite the benefits to be had through the control of pests. In particular, there is much opposition around the aerial use of 1080 (Ogilvie et al. in press). Para (1999) documented concerns of Māori regarding the fate of 1080 in wild harvested kai (food) species. The risk of secondary poisoning of people using kai resources has previously been identified as key research by the Animal Health Board (AHB), Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA) and Māori. During aerial application of 1080 baits, there is the possibility that 1080 may leach from baits and be taken up by nearby plants (Atzert 1971; Rammel and Fleming 1978). More recent laboratory research has shown that 1080 can be taken up by terrestrial and aquatic plants, including Myriophyllum triphyllum, a native aquatic New Zealand plant (Ogilvie et al. 1995); Elodea canadensis, an introduced aquatic species (Ogilvie et al. 1996); and broadleaf and ryegrass, both terrestrial species (Ogilvie et al. 1998). In a field setting where a simulated aerial 1080 operation has been conducted, low concentrations of 1080 were found in Coprosma robusta, or karamuramu, a native species used as medicine by Māori; however no 1080 was found in Asplenium bulbiferum, or pikopiko, a native species commonly consumed by Māori (Ogilvie et al. 2006). This report is part of a research programme conducted to investigate the uptake and persistence of 1080 in watercress and puha. This report focuses only on data generated from the puha component of this work. The watercress component will be reported at a later date.

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  • Indigenous resilience through urban disaster: the Maori response to the 2010 and 2011 Christchurch Otautahi earthquakes

    Lambert, S.; Shadbolt, M.; Ataria, J. M.; Black, A.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    The scale of damage from a series of earthquakes across Christchurch Otautahi in 2010 and 2011 challenged all networks in the city at a time when many individuals and communities were under severe economic pressure. Historically, Maori have drawn on traditional institutions such as whanau, marae, hapu and iwi in their endurance of past crises. This paper presents research in progress to describe how these Maori-centric networks supported both Maori and non-Maori through massive urban dislocation. Resilience to any disaster can be explained by configurations of economic, social and cultural factors. Knowing what has contributed to Maori resilience is fundamental to the strategic enhancement of future urban communities - Maori and non-Maori.

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