13 results for Ayling, Diana

  • An exploration of the pedagogies employed to integrate knowledge in work-integrated learning

    Coll, Richard K.; Eames, Chris W.; Paku, Levinia K.; Lay, Mark C.; Hodges, Dave; Bhat, Ravi; Ram, Shiu; Ayling, Diana; Fleming, Jenny; Ferkins, Lesley; Wiersma, Cindy; Martin, Andrew (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article describes a three‐sector, national research project that investigated the integration aspect of work‐integrated learning (WIL). The context for this study is three sectors of New Zealand higher education: business and management, sport, and science and engineering, and a cohort of higher educational institutions that offer WIL/cooperative education in variety of ways. The aims of this study were to investigate the pedagogical approaches in WIL programs that are currently used by WIL practitioners in terms of learning, and the integration of academic‐workplace learning. The research constituted a series of collective case studies, and there were two main data sources — interviews with three stakeholder groups (namely employers, students, and co‐op practitioners), and analyses of relevant documentation (e.g., course/paper outlines, assignments on reflective practice, portfolio of learning, etc.). The research findings suggest that there is no consistent mechanism by which placement coordinators, off‐campus supervisors, or mentors seek to employ or develop pedagogies to foster learning and the integration of knowledge. Learning, it seems, occurs by means of legitimate peripheral participation with off‐campus learning occurring as a result of students working alongside professionals in their area via an apprenticeship model of learning. There is no evidence of explicit attempts to integrate on‐ and off‐campus learning, although all parties felt this would and should occur. However, integration is implicitly or indirectly fostered by a variety of means such as the use of reflective journals.

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  • Mentoring in the cooperative education workplace: A review of the literature

    Ayling, Diana (2004-03)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper reviews the literature exploring the mentoring relationship between students, their cooperative education workplace and their host supervisors. The literature review will focus on mentoring relationships generally, and consider the learning benefits from structured and informal mentoring. The literature review will form the basis of further research into "students’" and "host supervisors’" perceptions of the mentoring relationship, with a view to identifying key factors of a successful mentoring relationship. When students enter the cooperative education workplace, they are hungry for a mentoring environment. This hunger is the same as that experienced by any degree or high school graduate entering the workforce for the first time. As young adults new to work, there is potential to develop a mentoring environment to provide models and guides. Mentoring is an intentional, mutually demanding and meaningful relationship between two people. The benefits of a mentoring relationship are the provision of support, challenge and vision. Support enables the development of constructive relationships, and encouragement to meet new challenges. Challenge is a new opportunity or threat facing the student, for challenge to be productive as a learning experience, it needs to be just within the students reach. Vision is a key component of the mentoring environment, providing students with a view of the future and their place within it. For students encountering work culture and challenge for the first time, a mentoring environment can be crucial in finding work "flow". Flow tends to happen when the student is fully engaged in overcoming a challenge that is "just about manageable". When students reach a state of flow they are completely focused, with little room for distractions and irrelevancies. As Csikszentmihalyi (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997) explains: “When goals are clear, feedback relevant, and challenges and skills are in balance, attention becomes ordered and fully invested"(p. 31).

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  • Aiming high: Can the New Zealand Diploma in Business create the graduates it desires?

    Ayling, Diana (2007)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    The new NZDipBus is an interesting national qualification. Owned by the New Zealand Qualifications Authority (NZQA), it is not a unit standard based qualification, such as the National Diploma in Business nor is it grounded in any higher education provider as are business degrees. It is a stand alone qualification, not aligned to any specific institution or educational strategy. The graduate profile was developed by NZQA in an extensive and careful consultation process. Over the last two years NZQA, in conjunction with business representatives and academics, has developed a new version (Version 2) of the highly successful NZDipBus. This development process was in response to requests for curriculum update from higher education providers, the business community, the National Advisory Committee for Business Studies of the Institutes of Technology and the Polytechnics of New Zealand (ITPNZ) forum. The aim of this paper is firstly to explore whether the graduate profile is appropriate for developing business graduates for the 21st century and secondly to evaluate whether the graduate profile is embedded into the curricula to ensure it will produce graduates with the capability of demonstrating the graduate outcomes. The NZDipBus graduate profile while focusing on business skills and ethical awareness lacks focus in key areas. There is no specific acknowledgement of students need for knowledge to be of global use. The graduate profile does not address information and communication skills, personal development or reflective capacity or focus on developing the international capabilities of graduates. The graduate outcomes need further explanation to guide curricula developers as to how knowledge, skills, attributes and values are to be integrated and developed within the teaching and learning environment. Overseas governments and higher education providers are well aware of the impact of these trends on the qualifications and are taking deliberate steps to include specific graduate outcomes in qualifications. The NZDipBus graduate programme designers appear to have missed a wonderful opportunity to re-vision the qualification for the 21st century by acknowledging and incorporating these important trends into a popular business qualification. Curriculum developers have not embedded interpersonal and communication skills, ethical and cultural issues, working within teams into the curriculum of the courses reviewed. This is probably due to lack of direction from the programme developers. The curriculum appears to be almost singularly focused on knowledge and skills to the detriment of attributes and values. Furthermore, teaching and learning activities and assessment will not develop graduate outcomes unless there is a clear alignment between the graduate profile and the course learning outcomes. Essentially, the qualification is not delivering what is promised because of a lack of leadership and alignment.

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  • Strategy Now! A review of the literature of ePortfolio use in work integrated learning

    Ayling, Diana (2013)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Since the arrival of Web 2.0 technologies use of ePortfolios in higher education has dramatically increased in all disciplines. These portfolios are used to encourage students to collate and curate their learning experiences. EPortfolios are sometimes used in assessment processes, and this is challenging as views are mixed as to how a fluid and dynamic portfolio of learning can be effectively assessed. Issues such as access, security, privacy and ownership are further complicating the use of portfolios. There is some use of ePortfolios in work integrated education, and while some practitioners are convinced of the benefits for students, host organisations and academic institutions, other point to significant challenges in implementation and creating positive student learning experiences. This paper is a summary of the writing and emerging issues from implementation of ePortfolios in work integrated learning. EPortfolios offer a range of advantages over traditional methods of collation and curation of learning experiences and development. Within an ePortfolio students have the opportunity to collate artifacts, reflect on their practice and plan their professional development. They can tailor their portfolios for different purposes and audiences.

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  • Ethical challenges from the real world: Student experiences in cooperative education placements

    Ayling, Diana (2007)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Developing a moral business person is not easy. Universities and polytechnics have always undertaken some degree of responsibility for teaching ethics. Increasingly students are exposed to real world work issues when assigned to cooperative education placements. The workplace demands graduates not only consider ethical issues, but also requires them to consider ethical action. In this research project the author reviewed the ethical requirements of the Industry Based Learning course in the Bachelor of Business at Unitec, Auckland with a view to informing teaching and learning practice. The aim of the research was to evaluate student learning in ethical issues and learn more about student experiences and how delivery and student support mechanisms for students could be improved. The author examined student writing (learning journals and reflective essays) and interview text to explore student knowledge of ethical values, their decision making processes and their ability to take ethical action. Students were completely comfortable with the ethical values on which the research was based. They spoke articulately about the ethical issues they found in their placements. Students used a variety of decision making processes with mixed success. Most students reported feeling vulnerable in taking ethical action and that their emotions prevented them from acting as professionals in the workplace. Ethics is an essential part of business education for both professional and non professional graduates. In the Industry Based Learning course in the Bachelor of Business placements gave students a unique opportunity to explore their ethical understandings, to practice their reasoning skills and to experiment with taking ethical action in a guided and supported environment. As a result of the research the course coordinator introduced a variety of teaching and learning strategies to support students in their placements and prepare them for the changing and variable nature of the workplace.

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  • Fostering moral courage: What do business students learn about professional ethics in cooperative education placements?

    Ayling, Diana (2006-04)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper examines recent literature and research into business students’ experiences in cooperative education placements with a view to exploring their experiences and learning of professional ethics. In recent times, the business world has been rocked by scandals such as Enron, WorldCom and Parmalat. At the heart of these business collapses is the realization that the business world has fallen short in terms of professional and business ethics. As cooperative education students enter the workforce for the first time, they have the opportunity to learn from their colleagues’ and mentors’ attitudes and behaviors that will influence them for a life time. These may be positive strong attitudes to ethical behavior and practice or poor attitudes and questionable practices. This examination of the recent literature and research will serve as a foundation for a small research project into students learning and experiences of professional ethics in their cooperative education placements.

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  • Is the village common in a cloud? Cooperative education and social networking

    Ayling, Diana (2010)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Background: In this paper communication and content issues which arise in cooperative communication courses are identified from a discussion of recent literature. Issue: Often administrators and managers of cooperative education courses struggle to manage the complex interactions of students, staff and hosts. In recent years, email, learning management systems, such as Moodle and Blackboard, and Internet Sites have provided mechanisms for communication and sharing of information. However, as Web 2.0 becomes Web 3.0, and there are more online applications which allow increased user participation and collaboration are social networking applications such as Ning and SocialGo more appropriate in a cooperative education environment? Could online social networking sites enhance a practice based learning course? Could social networking in cooperative education provide a competitive advantage for institutions? Discussion: Social networking concepts and ideas are explored in relation to cooperative education. The advantages and disadvantages of social networking are identified from the perspectives of students, staff and hosts. Information and communication technology enhanced teaching and learning (ICTELT) is introduced as a model. The added value opportunities for tertiary education institutions from social networking activity are discussed. Conclusions: More research is needed into the use of social networking applications, the effectiveness of ICTELT and possible additional advantages for tertiary education institutions. Implications: The results of research into social networking use in cooperative education courses will provide valuable insights for course managers.

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  • Defining workplace harassment: Who is the bully?

    Ayling, Diana (2002-09)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper provides a brief overview of approaches to development of legal definitions of bullying and harassment in the workplace. The paper discusses the early definitions in Sweden and reviews recent developments in the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. Definitions from the European Commission and the International Labour Organisation are discussed together with the material from the on-line “bullybusting” campaigns. Definitions are analysed with a view to finding the best definition for the modern organisation. The paper includes some suggestions for confronting bullying and harassment in the short and long-term.

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  • A portfolio model of learning: Reframing assessment practices in a business cooperative education course

    Ayling, Diana; Hodges, Dave (2007)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper examines a portfolio model of learning in the assessment of student workplace learning. Using an interpretivist framework, an holistic assessment model is outlined in the context of a co-operative education course within an undergraduate business degree. The model involves the key stakeholders contributing to student learning, development and assessment through a ‘long conversation of informed dialogue’. In developing the model, attention is given to the prevailing positivist influences on assessment and the underlying assumptions made about ‘truth’ in learning. The paper argues that while criterion referencing may have progressed our assessment practices, positivist assumptions often underpin and limit our approaches to assessment in co-operative education. The model is presented within a social constructivist framework, arguing that cognitive and social development are key inter-connecting components of student’s workplace learning and therefore must be recognised and incorporated into assessment.

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  • Growing the Business Practitioner: The nature and purpose of legal studies for the non lawyer

    Ayling, Diana; Finlayson, Patricia (2013)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Lyman Johnson explained the tenuous relationship between business people and the law in his paper, Corporate Law Teachers as Gatekeepers (2009). He draws upon the work of Milton Friedman explaining that ‘executives must also conform not only to the law but also to rules “embodied in ethical custom”’. Recent global corporate collapse has demonstrated that while many business practitioners complied with the law, they did not embody the ethical custom of their time. The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) has caused business people, governments and educators to consider the nature of business education and how is serves the wider community. Of particular focus is the nature and extent of ethical education in our business schools. This paper explores the current nature of business education and suggests that future graduate profiles should include statements which reflect the specific behavioural requirements of graduates’ workplaces. Students should be provided with the opportunity to experience and explore values in team learning situations, work integrated learning and significant projects. Teachers are challenged to create assessments which will measure student learning achievement and success in a broader business perspective. This will require a change in curriculum design to incorporate affective behaviours in business practice and embody an ethical framework reflecting society’s growing expectations of a socially responsible business community.

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  • Thinking, researching and living in virtual professional development community of practice

    Ayling, Diana; Owen, Hazel; Flagg, Edward (2012)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper is a comparative case study of two virtual professional development (VPD) communities of practice established and maintained to support teachers in their learning and development. Each community was studied and evaluated by its facilitator. The purpose of those studies was to identify behaviours and capture shifts in educators‟ professional identity as they engaged in VPD. The researchers were interested in those practices that indicated embedding of practice, co-construction of knowledge, and development of skills and values. Many of the factors identified in the VPD initiatives explored the link to the wider conversations that are occurring around education in general in a time of change.

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  • An exploration of the pedagogies employed to integrate knowledge in work-integrated learning in New Zealand higher education institutions

    Ram, Shiu; Coll, Richard K; Eames, Chris; Paku, Levinia; Lay, Mark; Ayling, Diana; Hodges, Dave; Bhat, Ravi; Fleming, Jenny; Ferkins, Dr Lesley; Wiersma, Cindy; Martin, Andrew (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Work-integrated learning or cooperative education is an educational strategy in which students undergo conventional academic learning at a higher educational institution and combine this learning with some time spent in a workplace relevant to their program of study and career aims (Groenewald, 2004). A key aspect of work-integrated learning is the notion that it entails the integration of knowledge and skills gained in the higher education institution and in the workplace. This has two features - the student takes what he or she has learned on-campus into the workplace when going on a work placement, and likewise what they learn in the workplace becomes related to, or incorporated into, the next phase of academic learning when the student returns to study after completing a work-placement.

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  • Legal Studies and the Changing Business Environment

    Finlayson, Patricia; Ayling, Diana (2009)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Anecdotal evidence suggests business students find the study of law difficult, and that they do not understand the relevance of it to their business degrees. Law teachers' response has been to question the curriculum design and methods of delivery in law teaching to non‐vocational students. As there is little scientifically robust research into students' perceptions of the place of law in business degrees the authors suggest that we need a clearer definition of why, and to what extent, students perceive legal studies as difficult and irrelevant before law teachers embark on a search for the holy grail of the perfect law teaching method for non‐vocational legal studies. As a start to this journey the authors designed this study to survey all of the students in both the undergraduate diploma course and two degree courses in law offered within the departments of Accountancy and Finance and Management and Marketing at Unitec New Zealand. Administered after the first two weeks of the semester, the survey collected both demographic data and data on the students' perceptions of law studies. This paper reviews the results from the initial data set which suggests that our multinational sample of students has, as a group, a moderately positive perception of the relevance of law in business degrees but some reservations about their having the skill set to use that legal knowledge in a constructive manner in business. The paper suggests legal studies curriculum developers should consider how they can improve student competencies to ensure graduate gain ''legal astutenes'' for global economies.

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