21 results for Cullen, R., Book

  • Public perceptions of New Zealand's environment: 2010

    Hughey, K.; Kerr, G.; Cullen, R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • Conservation and sustainable use of New Zealand flora: on non-conservation land

    Cullen, R.; Hughey, K. F. D.; Booth, K.; Crawford, K.; Allen, W.; Kilvington, M. J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • Public perceptions of New Zealand's environment: 2006

    Hughey, K. F. D.; Kerr, G. N.; Cullen, R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The fourth biennial survey of people’s perceptions of the state of the New Zealand environment was undertaken in February - March 2006. The survey is based on the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model of state of the environment reporting. It tests New Zealanders’ perceptions of all the main resource areas and in 2006 also looked more specifically at land transport environmental, social and related issues, and people’s perceptions of government and individual priorities. Two thousand people aged 18 and over were randomly selected from the New Zealand electoral roll. An effective response rate of 46% was achieved. Data have been analysed descriptively and the 2006 survey responses were compared with responses from the 2004, 2002 and 2000 surveys. Statistical analyses of the responses were completed to determine the roles of several demographic variables.

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  • Tourism, water and waste in Westland : implications of increasing demand on infrastructure

    Cullen, R.; Dakers, A.; Fairweather, J. R.; Simmons, D. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The growth of tourism, and its consequent benefits, are dependent on the maintenance, if not enhancement, of the West Coast's unique natural environment. Parts of this natural environment have been described as ecologically fragile. There are a range of tourist activities that consume water and produce solid waste and wastewater. An important issue is the tourists' additional demand for potable water and their production of additional wastewater. The major objectives of this research were to: develop models to estimate and project aggregated tourist water use and wastewater production at Hokitika, Harihari, Franz Josef, and Haast; and assess the adequacy and resourcing of the facilities to provide water, manage wastewater and solid wastes associated with tourism.

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  • Contingent valuation of improved water quality in the lower Waimakariri River

    Sheppard, R. L.; Kerr, G. N.; Cullen, R.; Ferguson, T.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • Option value: improving resource allocation efficiency

    Cullen, R.; Sharp, B. M. H.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Measuring consumer benefits associated with a policy or a project in a world where prices and outcomes are known with certainty is, at least in theory, straightforward. Changes in consumer surplus provide an appropriate measure of a policy's contribution to consumer welfare. But, in a world where prices and outcomes are uncertain, there is a strong case for concluding that measuring expected consumer surplus alone is inadequate (Bishop, 1982), and in many natural resource situations, uncertainty is the rule rather than the exception. Option value is the adjustment, if any, that is made to expected consumer surplus when there is uncertainty about the demand or supply of an environmental asset. The concept of option value is based on Weisbrod's (1964) argument that consumers, uncertain about their future demands for a commodity, would be willing to pay something above expected consumer surplus to maintain an option to consume the commodity in the future. As we have noted, this additional ""payment"" is option value. While Weisbrod's argument suggests that option value is positive, this need not be the case. A variety of authors have proven that option value can take either sign, depending on the specific circumstances, and especially on the type of uncertainty involved. We begin with an overview of the origin of option value in economics and its relevance to decision making under uncertainty. The next chapter considers compensation tests and identifies an ex ante compensation test as being appropriate for uncertain situations. Option value is then located within a total value framework that includes use values and existence values. Uncertainty in both demand and supply is then shown to provide justification for considering option value as an adjustment that individuals make to allow for uncertainty. However, we will show that there are few situations where the sign of option value can be unambiguously established in theory. The final chapters of the publication describe how option value can be measured and incorporated into cost-benefit analysis.

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  • Cost-effectiveness of different possum control methods

    Warburton, B.; Cullen, R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Although possums have been controlled by government agencies for more than 4 decades, there is little quantitative information available on the costs of controlling possums or the extent to which costs vary. A number of aerial and ground-based possum control operations were examined to ascertain which factors most influence control costs. As control funds are limited, it is imperative that the most cost-effective options are identified and considered along with other factors such as environmental concerns.

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  • Public perceptions of New Zealand's environment: 2004

    Hughey, K. F. D.; Kerr, G. N.; Cullen, R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The third biennial survey of people’s perceptions of the state of the New Zealand environment was undertaken in February - March 2004. The survey was based on the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model of state of the environment reporting. It tested New Zealanders’ perceptions of all the main resource areas and in 2004 also looked more specifically at freshwater and freshwater fishery issues. Two thousand people, aged 18 and over, were randomly selected from the New Zealand electoral roll. An effective response rate of 43% was achieved. Data have been analysed descriptively and the 2004 survey responses were compared with responses from the 2000 and 2002 surveys. Statistical analyses of the responses were completed to determine the roles of several demographic variables.

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  • Perceptions of conservation and the Department of Conservation: interim findings from the 2008 Environmental Perceptions Survey

    Hughey, K. F. D.; Kerr, G. N.; Cullen, R.; Cook, A. J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • Criteria to evaluate the application of policy instruments designed to internalise externalities from commercial fisheries : report to Ministry of Fisheries

    Cullen, R.; Hughey, K. F. D.; Kerr, G. N.; Memon, A.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    New Zealand has the world's fourth largest Exclusive Economic Zone and a very large commercial fishery. Arguably this fishery is one of the best managed in the world. Nevertheless, many problems remain to be solved, especially environmental problems. Many of these problems can be categorised as externalities from commercial fishing. We (Hughey et al. 2000) have identified a wide range of policy instruments which can be applied to the internalisation of these externalities. In this report we identify criteria against which each of these instruments should be evaluated before it is considered for implementation. The criteria are environmental, Treaty of Waitangi, socio-economic, recreational and management, respectively. We then evaluate the effectiveness of chosen instruments against these criteria. All of these tools can be used to enhance decision making in fisheries management and a framework for this decision making is proposed.

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  • Eco-tourism: An ally of nature conservation? Defining the rule and measuring the outcomes

    Booth, K. L.; Cullen, R.; Hughey, K. F. D.; Leppens, J.; Maher, P. T.; Simmons, D. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • Evaluating nature's services on Canterbury arable farmland: a summary of results for farmers participating in this research project

    Cullen, R.; Hale, R.; Sandhu, H. S.; Wratten, S. D.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The importance of ES or nature’s services is now very well established and ES have been demonstrated to be of very high economic value. However, intensification of agriculture in the last century has resulted in the substitution of many ES with chemical inputs. An example is the use of urea in place of nitrogen fixation and insecticides in place of pest-eating predators. This has resulted in some serious detrimental effects which have led to worldwide concerns about the environmental consequences of modern agriculture. Moreover as the world approaches ‘peak oil’, so called conventional agriculture may no longer be able to depend as heavily or as easily on oilderived ‘substitution’ inputs. Population growth and increasing food demands in the next 50 years also pose great challenges to the sustainability of modern farming practices. The current study recognises these challenges and in accordance with the maxim “what is measured, counts”, is designed to estimate the provisions of nature’s services on farmlands in Canterbury. It identifies and quantifies the extent of ES under different arable farming systems. In this study arable production systems in Canterbury are evaluated to provide estimates of their contribution towards the ‘natural capital’ of the nation. This research also calculates the economic value of key ES and thereby assesses their worth on farmland. Once the levels of ES are known, new eco-technologies based on novel and sound ecological knowledge can be targeted to enhance ES to improve farm incomes and replace unsustainable inputs. This ensures long- term sustainability of farms.

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  • Instruments for internalising the environmental externalities in commercial fisheries : report to Ministry of Fisheries

    Hughey, K. F. D.; Cullen, R.; Kerr, G. N.; Memon, A.; Robb, C.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Commercial fisheries in New Zealand having significant environmental externalities are identified and a framework for comparative Environmental Impact Assessment is proposed. From this analysis and from a survey of international literature covering the spectrum of resource sectors a range of 21 instruments within five broad categories is proposed as having potential for application within commercial fisheries management. These categories are: Regulatory approaches (9 instruments), Financial incentives (5 instruments), Voluntary approaches (4 instruments), Legal Remedies (1 instrument), and Education and Information Supply (2 instruments). Most of the regulatory and financial instruments have had some application in New Zealand, although 'environmental performance bonds' (used extensively in mining) might have potential for application to some fisheries. Voluntary approaches are being developed and there is potential for much further application in New Zealand, subject to auditing-type requirements. Legal remedies (tort law) and 'Informal regulation', including corporate environmental reporting, also offer potential as internalisation instruments. The major challenge facing fisheries managers is how to determine which instrument or combination of instruments is most likely to be effective in internalising the externality(s).

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  • Tourism, water and waste in Akaroa : implications of tourist demand on infrastructure

    Cullen, R.; Dakers, A.; McNicol, J.; Meyer-Hubbert, G.; Simmons, D. G.; Fairweather, J. R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    There are three components to this research project. The first is the quantitative analysis of the impact of tourist flows to Akaroa on the town's water supply services and wastewater management services. The second is the quantitative analysis of the impact of tourist flows to Akaroa on the town's solid waste management services. The third component is the investigation of the way in which water supply, wastewater and solid waste systems are funded. This analysis investigates whether there are alternative funding systems that are more efficient, moderate demands, and are more equitable than present funding systems. It also considers how best to allocate any additional costs of water supply if there is growth in tourist numbers.

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  • Perceptions of the state of New Zealand's environment: findings from the first biennial survey undertaken in 2000

    Hughey, K. F. D.; Kerr, G. N.; Cullen, R.; Cook, A. J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The main aims of the research are to measure, analyse and monitor changes in New Zealanders' perceptions, attitudes and preferences towards a range of environmental issues, ultimately contributing to improved state of the environment reporting. Specific objectives are to: • Implement a questionnaire, operated biennially, to measure and monitor New Zealanders' environmental attitudes, perceptions, and preferences; • Provide independent commentary on key issues of public concern as a medium for providing policy advice to government and others; • Provide space for individual researchers to derive one-off research data for individual areas of interest, including teaching purposes; and • To report biennially, via a published report and other research publications, on findings from the questionnaire.

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  • Perceptions of the state of the environment: the 2002 survey of public attitudes, preferences and perceptions of the New Zealand environment

    Hughey, K. F. D.; Kerr, G. N.; Cullen, R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The second biennial survey of people's perceptions of the state of the New Zealand environment was undertaken in February 2002. The survey is based on the Pressure-State-Response model of state of the environment reporting. It tests perceptions of all the main resource areas, and in 2002 looked more specifically also at coastal management issues. Two thousand people, aged 18 and over, were randomly selected from the New Zealand electoral roll. An effective response rate of 45% was achieved. Data has been analysed descriptively and subject to statistical analyses in terms of comparing the 2002 survey response with that from 2000 and in terms of analyzing responses by several demographic variables.

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  • Public perceptions of New Zealand's environment: 2013

    Hughey, K.; Kerr, G.; Cullen, R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The seventh (having begun in 2000) survey of people’s perceptions of the state of the New Zealand environment was undertaken over February-March 2013. The survey is based on the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model of environmental reporting and remains the only long-running survey of this type in the world. For the first time this survey was undertaken only electronically and this has made it challenging to compare results with the earlier paper-based surveys. New Zealanders’ perceptions of all the main resource areas (e.g., air, freshwater, biodiversity) were tested. Statistical analyses identified the roles of several socio-demographic variables.

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  • Public perceptions of New Zealand's environment: 2008

    Hughey, K.; Kerr, G.; Cullen, R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Beginning in 2000 Lincoln University has completed biennial surveys of people's perceptions of the state of the New Zealand environment. The surveys use the Pressure-State-Response framework for state of the environment reporting to assess resources such as air quality, native plants and animals, native forest and bush, soils, beaches and coastal waters, marine fisheries, marine reserves, freshwaters, national parks, wetlands, urban environments, and the natural environment compared to other developed nations. They also examine participation in environmentally friendly activities, the most important environmental issues facing New Zealanders and a range of other issues. Individual case studies are also undertaken: in 2000 natural hazards; in 2002 the coastal marine environment, marine recreational fishing and preferences for expenditure on environmental matters; in 2004 freshwater and recreational angling; in 2006 transport and policies to internalise transport externalities. This paper reviews this research programme and its contribution to understanding state of the New Zealand environment and its management.

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  • Enhancing financial and economic yield in tourism: public sector: central government benefits and costs of tourism

    Cullen, R.; Becken, S.; Butcher, G.; Lennox, J.; Simmons, D. G.; Taylor, N.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report describes the national public sector direct inputs, and outline society’s indirect inputs, into tourism production and consumption. The public sector and societal benefits that accrue from tourism will also be assessed. A subsequent report (Yield report 11) examines local government costs and benefits alongside the regional yield (value added) generated from tourism. This report is one of a series of reports within the government funded research programme “Enhancing the financial and economic yield for tourism”. The research follows two streams: an analysis of private sector investment and management and a parallel analysis of public sector benefit and costs arising from the operation of the tourism sector in New Zealand. It is towards this latter objective that the current report is directed. It aims to quantify the level of the public sector (local, regional, and national) direct inputs, and outline society’s direct and indirect inputs, into tourism production and consumption. The public sector and societal benefits that accrue from tourism are also assessed.

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  • Ecosystem services review of water storage projects in Canterbury: the Opihi River case

    Hearnshaw, E. J. S.; Cullen, R.; Hughey, K. F. D.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    There is an ever‐increasing demand for freshwater that is being used for the purposes of irrigation and land use intensification in Canterbury. But the impact of this demand has lead to unacceptable minimum river flows. In an effort to resolve these problems water storage projects that hydrologically modify rivers are considered. In order to consider the full range of values of the impact of impounding rivers, local and regional governments are considering the use of an ecosystem services approach. Ecosystem services are the various benefits that people can obtain from ecosystems. In this report an ecosystem services review is undertaken using a method that evaluates each ecosystem service with a selection of indicators. Specfically, in order to adequately capture ecosystem services, both biophysical and socio‐economic indicators need to be considered. To demonstrate an ecosystem services review, the method is used to assess the impact of the Opuha Dam on the ecosystem services provided by the Opihi River. A summary table of the impacts of the Opuha Dam is developed. It shows that there is conclusive evidence for a positive impact on only one ecosystem service, that of Freshwater Supply. The impact on other ecosystem services is uncertain, mixed or inconclusive. The inconclusiveness in the ecosystem services review about the impact on many ecosystem services occurs because only a few ecosystem services are adequately captured by both biophysical and socio‐economic indicators. Hence, efforts are needed to develop further indicators for many ecosystem services. Once these indicators are developed, an ecosystem services index can be established to quantify changes to the level of ecosystem services.

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