42 results for Cunningham, Sally Jo, Working or discussion paper

  • Shared browsing and book selection in an academic library

    Timpany, Claire; Alqurashi, Hayat; Hinze, Annika; Cunningham, Sally Jo; Vanderschantz, Nicholas (2012)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    While there exist a small but growing body of naturalistic studies of collaborative searching and browsing in digital collections, the corresponding literature on behavior in the physical stacks is surprisingly sparse. Here, we add to this literature by conducting observations of the “retrieval journeys” of pairs of patrons in a university library. We specifically focus on interactions between patrons as they work together to browse and select books in physical collections, to further our understanding of collaborative information behaviour.

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  • Building a public digital library based on full-text retrieval

    Witten, Ian H.; Nevill-Manning, Craig G.; Cunningham, Sally Jo (1995-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Digital libraries are expensive to create and maintain, and generally restricted to a particular corporation or group of paying subscribers. While many indexes to the World Wide Web are freely available, the quality of what is indexed is extremely uneven. The digital analog of a public library a reliable, quality, community service has yet to appear. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a cost-effective collection of high-quality public-domain information, available free over the Internet. One obstacle to the creation of a digital library is the difficulty of providing formal cataloguing information. Without a title, author and subject database it seems hard to offer the searching facilities normally available in physical libraries. Full-text retrieval provides a way of approximating these services without a concomitant investment of resources. A second is the problem of finding a suitable corpus of material. Computer science research reports form the focus of our prototype implementation. These constitute a large body of high-quality public-domain documents. Given such a corpus, a third issue becomes the question of obtaining both plain text for indexing, and page images for readability. Typesetting formats such as PostScript provide some of the benefits of libraries scanned from paper documents such as paged-based indexing and viewing without the physical demands and error-prone nature of scanning and optical character recognition. However, until recently the difficulty of extracting text from PostScript seems to have encouraged indexing on plain-text abstracts or bibliographic information provided by authors. We have developed a new technique that overcomes the problem. This paper describes the architecture, the indexing, collection and maintenance processes, and the retrieval interface, to a prototype public digital library.

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  • Applications for bibliometric research in the emerging digital library

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Vallabh, Mahendra (1995-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    A large amount of research literature has recently become available on the Internet through "digital libraries". This migration of information from paper to electronic media promises to have a huge impact on the way that research is performed, as documents become more widely, cheaply, and quickly distributed than is possible through traditional publishing. A secondary use for these document repositories and indexes is as a platform for bibliometric research. We examine the extent to which the new digital libraries support conventional bibliometric analysis, and discuss shortcomings in their current forms. Interestingly, these electronic text archives also provide opportunities for new types of studies: generally the full text of documents are available for analysis, giving a finer grain of insight than abstract-only online databases; these repositories often contain technical reports or pre-prints, the "gray literature" that has been previously unavailable for analysis; and document "usage" can be measured directly by recording user accesses, rather than studied indirectly through document references.

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  • Predicting apple bruising relationships using machine learning

    Holmes, Geoffrey; Cunningham, Sally Jo; Dela Rue, B. T.; Bollen, A. F. (1998-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Many models have been used to describe the influence of internal or external factors on apple bruising. Few of these have addressed the application of derived relationships to the evaluation of commercial operations. From an industry perspective, a model must enable fruit to be rejected on the basis of a commercially significant bruise and must also accurately quantify the effects of various combinations of input features (such as cultivar, maturity, size, and so on) on bruise prediction. Input features must in turn have characteristics which are measurable commercially; for example, the measure of force should be impact energy rather than energy absorbed. Further, as the commercial criteria for acceptable damage levels change, the model should be versatile enough to regenerate new bruise thresholds from existing data. Machine learning is a burgeoning technology with a vast range of potential applications particularly in agriculture where large amounts of data can be readily collected [1]. The main advantage of using a machine learning method in an application is that the models built for prediction can be viewed and understood by the owner of the data who is in a position to determine the usefulness of the model, an essential component in a commercial environment.

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  • Understanding what machine learning produces - Part II: Knowledge visualization techniques

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Humphrey, Matthew C.; Witten, Ian H. (1996-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Researchers in machine learning use decision trees, production rules, and decision graphs for visualizing classification data. Part I of this paper surveyed these representations, paying particular attention to their comprehensibility for non-specialist users. Part II turns attention to knowledge visualization—the graphic form in which a structure is portrayed and its strong influence on comprehensibility. We analyze the questions that, in our experience, end users of machine learning tend to ask of the structures inferred from their empirical data. By mapping these questions onto visualization tasks, we have created new graphical representations that show the flow of examples through a decision structure. These knowledge visualization techniques are particularly appropriate in helping to answer the questions that users typically ask, and we describe their use in discovering new properties of a data set. In the case of decision trees, an automated software tool has been developed to construct the visualizations.

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  • Understanding what machine learning produces - Part I: Representations and their comprehensibility

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Humphrey, Matthew C.; Witten, Ian H. (1996-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The aim of many machine learning users is to comprehend the structures that are inferred from a dataset, and such users may be far more interested in understanding the structure of their data than in predicting the outcome of new test data. Part I of this paper surveys representations based on decision trees, production rules and decision graphs that have been developed and used for machine learning. These representations have differing degrees of expressive power, and particular attention is paid to their comprehensibility for non-specialist users. The graphic form in which a structure is portrayed also has a strong effect on comprehensibility, and Part II of this paper develops knowledge visualization techniques that are particularly appropriate to help answer the questions that machine learning users typically ask about the structures produced.

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  • Navigating the virtual library: a 3D browsing interface for information retrieval

    Rogers, Bill; Cunningham, Sally Jo; Holmes, Geoffrey (1994-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    An interface is described for graphically navigating a large collection of documents, as in a library. Its design is based on the metaphor of traversing a landscape. Documents are depicted as buildings, clustered to form 'towns'. A network of 'roads' connects these towns according to the classification hierarchy of the document set. A three-dimensional scene rendering technique allows the user to view this landscape from different perspectives, and at different levels of detail. At one level, the appearance of the buildings provides information like document size and age, at a glance. At higher levels, we provide the user with a visualisation of the structure and extent of the document set that is impossible with a traditional 'shelf' presentation. At all levels, a sense of physical context is maintained, encouraging and supporting browsing.

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  • A non-linear, criterion-referenced grading scheme for a computer literacy course

    Rogers, Bill; Treweek, Phillip; Cunningham, Sally Jo (1996-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The development of complex Information Systems requires the use of many Information Systems engineering tools. These diverse tools need to be integrated in order to be effectively used by multiple cooperating developers. In addition, the users of these environments require features that facilitate effective cooperation, such as support for collaboratively planning cooperative work, notification of changes to parts of a system under development (but only when necessary or desired), support for keeping aware of other developers' work contexts, and the ability to flexibly engineer or adapt development processes and methods. We describe an integrated Information Systems engineering environment which includes a work coordination tool supporting these requirements.

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  • Visual analogy in creative design: case study of fractals and crochet lace

    Cunningham, Sally Jo (1996-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    One powerful technique for supporting creativity in design is analogy: drawing similarities between seemingly unrelated objects taken from different domain. A case study is presented in which fractal images serve as a source for novel crochet lace patterns. The human designer searches a potential design space by manipulating the parameters of fractal systems, and then translates portions of fractal forms to lacework. This approach to supporting innovation in design is compared with previous work based on formal modelling of the domain with generative grammars.

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  • Authorship patterns in information systems

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Dillon, Stuart M. (1996-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper examines the patterns of multiple authorship in five information systems journals. Specifically, we determine the distribution of the number of authors per paper in this field, the proportion of male and female authors, gender composition of research teams, and the incidence of collaborative relationships spanning institutional affiliations and across different geographic regions.

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  • Obsolescence of computing literature

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Bocock, David (1995-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    A multisynchronous obsolescence study has been performed on two computing journals that publish on technical aspects of computer system management (networks and operating systems). This area of computer science is found to have a relatively high obsolescence rate (a median citation rate of four years). This rate is similar to that of fields in engineering and the technology-dependent "hard" sciences.

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  • Weka: Practical machine learning tools and techniques with Java implementations

    Witten, Ian H.; Frank, Eibe; Trigg, Leonard E.; Hall, Mark A.; Holmes, Geoffrey; Cunningham, Sally Jo (1999-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (Weka) is a comprehensive suite of Java class libraries that implement many state-of-the-art machine learning and data mining algorithms. Weka is freely available on the World-Wide Web and accompanies a new text on data mining [1] which documents and fully explains all the algorithms it contains. Applications written using the Weka class libraries can be run on any computer with a Web browsing capability; this allows users to apply machine learning techniques to their own data regardless of computer platform.

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  • Bibliomania: what can we learn from the research literature?

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Empson, Nic; Kamau, Rawinia (1995-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The field of bibliometrics provides a set of quantitative methods for understanding how scientific information is created and disseminated by examining the structure, rather than the content, of subject documents. Bibliographic information can be analyzed to give insights into the development of research fronts, methods of scientific communication, and characteristics of the scientific literature. This paper presents three case studies illustrating simple bibliometric techniques, as applied to management/computer science/information systems. These fields have been largely ignored by bibliometricians; an unfortunate omission, given the information on the nature and structure of these fields that bibliometric studies could provide.

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  • Machine learning and statistics: a matter of perspective

    Cunningham, Sally Jo (1995-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Information has become an important commercial commodity-indeed, possibly the most important product of the future. While we have well-developed technologies to store data, the analysis to extract information is time-consuming and requires skilled human intervention. Machine learning algorithms augment statistical analysis by providing mechanisms that automate the information discovery process. These algorithms also tend to be more accessible to end-users and domain experts. The two analysis methods are converging, and the fields have much to offer each other.

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  • Applying machine learning to subject classification and subject description for information retrieval

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Summers, Brent (1995-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper describes an experiment in applying standard supervised machine learning algorithms (C4.5 and Induct) to the problem of developing subject classification rules for documents. These algorithms are found to produce surprisingly concise models of document classifications. While the models are highly accurate on the training sets, evaluation over test sets or through cross-validation shows a significant decrease in classification accuracy. Given the difficult nature of the experimental task, however, the results of this investigation are promising and merit further study. An additional algorithm, 1R, is shown to be highly effective in generating lists of candidate terms for subject descriptions.

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  • A comparative transaction log analysis of two computing collections

    Mahoui, Malika; Cunningham, Sally Jo (2000-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Transaction logs are invaluable sources of fine-grained information about users’ search behavior. This paper compares the searching behavior of users across two WWW-accessible digital libraries: the New Zealand Digital Library’s Computer Science Technical Reports collection (CSTR), and the Karlsruhe Computer Science Bibliographies (CSBIB) collection. Since the two collections are designed to support the same type of users-researchers/students in computer science a comparative log analysis is likely to uncover common searching preferences for that user group. The two collections differ in their content, however; the CSTR indexes a full text collection, while the CSBIB is primarily a bibliographic database. Differences in searching behavior between the two systems may indicate the effect of differing search facilities and content type.

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  • A New Zealand digital library for computer science research

    Witten, Ian H.; Cunningham, Sally Jo; Vallabh, Mahendra; Bell, Timothy C. (1995-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    A large amount of computing literature has become available over the Internet, as university departments and research institutions have made their technical reports, preprints, and theses available electronically. Access to these items has been limited, however, by the difficulties involved in locating documents of interest. We describe a proposal for a New Zealand-based index of computer science technical reports, where the reports themselves are located in repositories that are distributed world-wide. Our scheme is unique in that it is based on indexing the full text of the technical reports, rather than on document surrogates. The index is constructed so as to minimize network traffic and local storage costs (of particular importance for geographically isolated countries like New Zealand, which incur high Internet costs). We also will provide support for bibliometric/scientometric studies of the computing literature and our users.

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  • How Maui captured the sun: using a MUD for educational simulation

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Williams, Warren (1995-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    MUDs (Multi-User Dungeons) are text-based, multi-user communication and modelling programs. This paper investigates the potential of a popular extensible MUD, the LambdaMOO system, as a tool for second language training and for educational simulation gaming.

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  • Digital libraries based on full-text retrieval

    Witten, Ian H.; Nevill-Manning, Craig G.; Cunningham, Sally Jo (1996-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Because digital libraries are expensive to create and maintain, Internet analogs of public libraries-reliable, quality, community services-have only recently begun to appear. A serious obstacle to their creation is the provision of appropriate cataloguing information. Without a database of titles, authors and subjects, it is hard to offer the searching and browsing facilities normally available in physical libraries. Full-text retrieval provides a way of approximating these services without a concomitant investment of human resources. This presentation will discuss the indexing, collection and maintenance processes, and the retrieval interface, to public digital libraries.

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  • Towards the digital music library: tune retrieval from acoustic input

    McNab, Rodger J.; Smith, Lloyd A.; Witten, Ian H.; Henderson, Clare L.; Cunningham, Sally Jo (1995-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Music is traditionally retrieved by title, composer or subject classification. It is possible, with current technology, to retrieve music from a database on the basis of a few notes sung or hummed into a microphone. This paper describes the implementation of such a system, and discusses several issues pertaining to music retrieval. We first describe an interface that transcribes acoustic input into standard music notation. We then analyze string matching requirements from ranked retrieval of music and present the results of an experiment which tests how accurately people sing well known melodies. The performance of several string matching criteria are analyzed using two folk song databases. Finally, we describe a prototype system which has been developed for retrieval of tunes from acoustic input.

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