79 results for Hamilton, David P., Journal article

  • Lake restoration: Does sediment capping have post-application effects on zooplankton and phytoplankton?

    Özkundakci, Deniz; Duggan, Ian C.; Hamilton, David P. (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Although in situ sediment capping is frequently used to reduce internal loading of contaminants and nutrients, post-application assessment rarely includes the potential undesirable short-term effects on plankton species composition. We hypothesised that a modified zeolite (Z2G1) application as a sediment capping agent in Lake Okaro, New Zealand, could cause significant undesirable shifts in species composition of both zooplankton and phytoplankton due to burial of resting stages or interference with feeding for the zooplankton. Alternatively, we predicted that the capping agent might have no effect due to, for example, the coarse grain size of the material (1–3 mm). We used multidimensional scaling (MDS) and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) to identify any adverse effects of Z2G1 on zooplankton and phytoplankton species composition (i.e. shifts in community structure, including species loss) by comparing the community structure before and after the Z2G1 application. We found no significant differences in species composition before and after the Z2G1 application at the depths investigated (surface and 9 m). However, all of the analyses showed statistically significant differences among seasons, indicating seasonal variations in plankton composition far outweigh those that may have resulted from the Z2G1 application. Coarse particle size, low dose rate and a restricted area where the sediment capping agent was applied were considered to be the factors limiting potential adverse effects on plankton species. Considerations of finer-grained material to increase coverage and efficacy of phosphorus adsorption require assessment for their effects on zooplankton, however, and a direct mode of application into the hypolimnion is recommended to minimise effects on zooplankton and phytoplankton communities.

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  • Natural and anthropogenic lead in sediments of the Rotorua lakes, New Zealand

    Pearson, Lisa Kyle; Hendy, Chris H.; Hamilton, David P.; Pickett, Rachel Cara (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Global atmospheric sources of lead have increased more than 100-fold over the past century as a result of deforestation, coal combustion, ore smelting and leaded petroleum. Lead compounds generally accumulate in depositional areas across the globe where, due to low solubility and relative freedom from microbial degradation, the history of their inputs is preserved. In lakes there is rapid deposition and often little bioturbation of lead, resulting in an excellent depositional history of changes in both natural and anthropogenic sources. The objective of this study was to use sediments from a regionally bounded set of lakes to provide an indication of the rates of environmental inputs of lead whilst taking into account differences of trophic state and lead exposure between lakes. Intact sediment gravity cores were collected from 13 Rotorua lakes in North Island of New Zealand between March 2006 and January 2007. Cores penetrated sediments to a depth of 16–30 cm and contained volcanic tephra from the 1886 AD Tarawera eruption. The upper depth of the Tarawera tephra enabled prescription of a date for the associated depth in the core (120 years). Each core showed a sub-surface peak in lead concentration above the Tarawera tephra which was contemporaneous with the peak use of lead alkyl as a petroleum additive in New Zealand. An 8 m piston core was taken in the largest of the lakes, Lake Rotorua, in March 2007. The lake is antipodal to the pre-industrial sources of atmospheric lead but still shows increasing lead concentrations from <2 up to 3.5 μg g−1 between the Whakatane eruption (5530 ± 60 cal. yr BP) and the Tarawera eruption. Peaks in lead concentration in Lake Rotorua are associated with volcanic tephras, but are small compared with those arising from recent anthropogenic-derived lead deposition. Our results show that diagenetic processes associated with iron, manganese and sulfate oxidation-reduction, and sulfide precipitation, act to smooth distributions of lead from anthropogenic sources in the lake sediments. The extent of this smoothing can be related to changes in sulfate availability and reduction in sulfide driven by differences in trophic status amongst the lakes. Greatest lead mobilisation occurs in mesotrophic lakes during seasonal anoxia as iron and manganese are released to the porewater, allowing upward migration of lead towards the sediment–water interface. This lead mobilisation can only occur if sulfides are not present. The sub-surface peak in lead concentrations in lake sediments ascribed to lead alkyl in petroleum persists despite the diagenetic processes acting to disperse lead within the sediments and into the overlying water.

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  • Effects of infaunal bivalve density and flow speed on clearance rates and near-bed hydrodynamics

    Jones, Hannah Frances Emily; Pilditch, Conrad A.; Bryan, Karin R.; Hamilton, David P. (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The influence of bed density (from 0 to 1000 ind. M⁻²) and flow speed (2, 5, and 15 cm s⁻¹, i.e. “low”, “medium” and “high”, respectively) on clearance rates (CR) of an infaunal suspension-feeding bivalve (Austrovenus stutchburyi) and boundary layer dynamics were investigated in annular flumes. Near-bed flow speeds decreased and bed shear stresses increased with bivalve density due to the bed roughness generated by the shallow burrowers. At low densities (< 500 ind. m⁻²) there was no detectable effect of feeding currents on bed shear stress, but at high densities (1000 ind. m⁻²) and at the low flow speed bed shear stress was almost 80% higher when Austrovenus were feeding (0.0016 N m⁻²), compared to when they were not feeding (0.0009 N m⁻²). These results suggest that bed roughness generated by Austrovenus and their feeding currents are capable of influencing food supply to the bed. Individual CR were significantly (p < 0.01) greater at the high flow speed (0.88 L h⁻¹ ind. ⁻¹), compared to the medium and low flow speeds (0.34 to 0.54 L h− 1 ind.− 1). With increasing bed density, individual CR was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced; at low densities CR ranged from 0.6 to 1.4 L h⁻¹ ind. ⁻¹, but at high densities they were 0.1 to 0.8 L h⁻¹ ind. ⁻¹. Bed CR (L h⁻¹ m− 2) did not scale proportionally with density, initially increasing up to 500 ind. m− 2 but remaining relatively constant thereafter. This was in part due to the negative effect of density on individual CR but also because the proportion of bivalves feeding decreased with increasing density. Our results demonstrate that recording the number of bivalves feeding is necessary to interpret the effect of density on bed CR. Moreover, if the effects of both bivalve density and flow speed are not considered, then scaling up individual CR obtained using animals at low densities will over estimate population filtration capacity. As high (but equivalent to in situ) densities reduced both the number of animals feeding and individual CR other factors may offset this negative interaction, such as protection from wave disturbance or enhanced resuspension of benthic microalgae.

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  • Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton in solar salt ponds in Shark Bay, Western Australia

    Segal, Richard D.; Waite, Anya M.; Hamilton, David P. (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The aim of this research was to examine nutrient limitation of phytoplankton in solar salt ponds of varying salinity at Useless Inlet in Western Australia. These ponds use solar energy to evaporate seawater for the purpose of commercial salt production. A combination of techniques involving water column nutrient ratios, comparisons of nutrient concentrations to concentration of magnesium ions and bioassays were used in the investigation. Comparisons of changes in dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphorus ratios and concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients against changes in concentrations of the conservative cation Mg²⁺ indicated that phytoplankton biomass was potentially nitrogen limited along the entire pond salinity gradient. Nutrient addition bioassays indicated that in low salinity ponds, phytoplankton was nitrogen limited but in high salinity ponds, phosphorus limited. This may be due to isolation of phytoplankton in bioassay bottles from in situ conditions as well as to changes in phytoplankton species composition between ponds, and the variable availability of inorganic and organic nutrient sources. The differences in limiting nutrient between methods indicate that phytoplankton cells may be proximally limited by nutrients that are not theoretically limiting at the pond scale. Dissolved organic nutrients constituted a large proportion of total nutrients, with concentrations increasing through the pond sequence of increasing salinity. From the change in nutrient concentrations in bioassay bottles, sufficient dissolved organic nitrogen may be available for phytoplankton uptake in low salinity ponds, potentially alleviating the dissolved inorganic nitrogen limitation of phytoplankton biomass.

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  • The influence of water quality and sediment geochemistry on the horizontal and vertical distribution of phosphorus and nitrogen in sediments of a large, shallow lake

    Trolle, Dennis; Zhu, Guangwei; Hamilton, David P.; Luo, Liancong; McBride, Chris G.; Zhang, Lu (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Distinct horizontal water column concentration gradients of nutrients and chlorophyll a (Chl a) occur within large, shallow, eutrophic Lake Taihu, China. Concentrations are high in the north, where some of the major polluted tributaries enter the lake, and relatively low in the south, where macrophytes generally are abundant. It is not clear, however, whether these water column concentration gradients are similarly reflected in spatial heterogeneity of nutrient concentrations within the bottom sediments. The main objective of this study was therefore to test if horizontal and vertical variations in the phosphorus and nitrogen content in bottom sediments of Lake Taihu are significantly related to (1) horizontal variations in overlying water column nutrient concentrations and (2) other sediment geochemical constituents. We measured the concentration of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in surficial sediments (0–2 cm) and TP, TN and Chl a concentrations in water column samples, collected from 32 sites in 2005. In 2006 sediment, TP, TN, carbon, iron and manganese concentrations were measured vertically at 2 cm intervals, extending to a depth of approximately 20 cm, at an additional eight sites. Linear correlation analysis revealed that surficial sediment TP concentrations across the 32 stations were related significantly, though weakly, to annual mean water column concentrations of TP, TN as well as Chl a. Correlations of surficial sediment TN with water column variables were, however, not significant (P[0.05).Amongst the geochemical variables tested, the vertical variability of sediment TP concentrations was most strongly related to sediment manganese and carbon concentrations. A multiple stepwise linear regression revealed that the combination of sediment manganese and carbon concentrations explained 91% of the horizontal variability in sediment TP concentrations and 65% of the vertical variability.

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  • Management strategies to optimise sustainable clam (Tapes philippinarum) harvests in Barbamarco Lagoon, Italy

    Spillman, C.M.; Hamilton, David P.; Imberger, J. (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Barbamarco Lagoon is a small lagoon adjoining the Northern Adriatic Sea and is the site of a commercially valuable clam (Tapes philippinarum) fishery. A three-dimensional (3D) coupled hydrodynamic–ecological model was applied to the lagoon with the objective of assessing impacts on clam food supply, commercial harvests and water quality of different clam rearing strategies, lagoon morphologies and flow regimes. Harvest and net growth to seeding ratios, total harvest value, clearance efficiencies and clam satiety were used to quantify the commercial success of different management strategies, while bottom dissolved oxygen concentrations were used as an indicator of ecosystem health. Increasing exchange with the Northern Adriatic Sea or increasing freshwater inputs into the lagoon improved clam food supply and increased both harvest production and ecosystem health in model simulations of the system. Results indicated that the high spatial and temporal variability of clam production and water quality responses must be considered for a holistic assessment of the outcomes of strategies in the context of ecological and production carrying capacity.

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  • Carbon dioxide emissions and sediment organic carbon burials across a gradient of trophic state in eleven New Zealand lakes

    Santoso, Arianto B.; Hamilton, David P.; Hendy, Chris H.; Schipper, Louis A. (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Lakes are known to be important to the global carbon balance as they are both CO₂ sources to the atmosphere and also accumulate large amounts of carbon in their sediment. CO₂ flux dynamics across the air–water interface in 11 lakes of varying trophic state in the Rotorua region, New Zealand, derived from measured alkalinity, pH and wind speed at given temperature, showed that lakes may shift from being atmospheric CO₂ sources to sinks due to seasonal changes in phytoplankton productivity and lake mixing dynamics. Decreases in trophic state (i.e. improved water quality) in some of the lakes over the eight-year monitoring period were associated with increased surface water CO₂ concentrations and, as a consequence, increased CO₂ flux to the atmosphere. Organic carbon content analysis of the bottom sediments revealed that lakes with high phytoplankton productivity, indicated by high chlorophyll a biomass, generally had high rates of carbon deposition to the sediments, but not all deposited carbon was permanently buried. Remineralization of the organic carbon accrued in productive lakes may potentially generate CO₂, as well as CH₄, which promotes these lakes to act as greenhouse gas emitters.

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  • Quantifying temporal and spatial variations in sediment, nitrogen and phosphorus transport in stream inflows to a large eutrophic lake

    Abell, Jonathan Michael; Hamilton, David P.; Rutherford, J. C. (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    High-frequency sampling of two major stream inflows to a large eutrophic lake (Lake Rotorua, New Zealand) was conducted to measure inputs of total suspended sediment (TSS), and fractions of nitrogen and phosphorus (P). A total of 17 rain events were sampled, including three during which both streams were simultaneously monitored to quantify how concentration–discharge (Q) relationships varied between catchments during similar hydrological conditions. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations declined slightly during events, reflecting dilution of groundwater inputs by rainfall, whereas dissolved inorganic P (PO₄–P) concentrations were variable and unrelated to Q, suggesting dynamic sorptive behaviour. Event loads of total nitrogen (TN) were predominantly DIN, which is available for immediate uptake by primary producers, whereas total phosphorus (TP) loads predominantly comprised particulate P (less labile). Positive correlations between Q and concentrations of TP (and to a lesser extent TN) reflected increased particulate nutrient concentrations at high flows. Consequently, load estimates based on hourly Q during storm events and concentrations of routine monthly samples (mostly base flow) under-estimated TN and TP loads by an average of 19% and 40% respectively. Hysteresis with Q was commonly observed and inclusion of hydrological variables that reflect Q history in regression models improved predictions of TN and TP concentrations. Lorenz curves describing the proportions of cumulative load versus cumulative time quantified temporal inequality in loading. In the two study streams, 50% of estimated two-year loads of TN, TP and TSS were transported in 202–207, 76–126 and 1–8 days respectively. This study quantifies how hydrological and landscape factors can interact to influence pollutant flux at the catchment scale and highlights the importance of including storm transfers in lake loading estimates.

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  • Temporal and spatial variations in phytoplankton productivity in surface waters of a warm-temperate, monomictic lake in New Zealand

    von Westernhagen, Nina; Hamilton, David P.; Pilditch, Conrad A. (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Surface phytoplankton productivity measurements were carried out in morphologically complex Lake Rotoiti with the objective of defining variations between sites and seasons, and the dominant environmental drivers of these variations. Measurements were carried out monthly at two depths at each of three morphologically diverse stations for 1 year throughout the lake. Productivity at the surface of the shallow embayment was significantly higher in most months of the year compared with the surface of the other two stations but there were no significant differences from September to December 2004. There were no relationships between measured environmental variables and primary productivity or specific production. Inorganic nutrient concentrations at the surface of the shallow station were low throughout the whole year but at the other two stations they showed a typical pattern for monomictic lakes of higher levels during winter mixing and declining concentrations during thermal stratification. The high variability between sites found in this study indicates that it is important to account for local differences in productivity in morphologically diverse lakes, and that whole lake productivity estimates may vary greatly depending on the location and depth of productivity measurements.

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  • Nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of phytoplankton growth in New Zealand lakes: Implications for eutrophication control

    Abell, Jonathan Michael; Özkundakci, Deniz; Hamilton, David P. (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    We examine macronutrient limitation in New Zealand (NZ) lakes where, contrary to the phosphorus (P) only control paradigm, nitrogen (N) control is widely adopted to alleviate eutrophication. A review of published results of nutrient enrichment experiments showed that N more frequently limited lake productivity than P; however, stoichiometric analysis of a sample of 121 NZ lakes indicates that the majority (52.9%) of lakes have a mean ratio of total nitrogen (TN) to total phosphorus (TP) (by mass) indicative of potential P-limitation (>15:1), whereas only 14.0% of lakes have mean TN:TP indicative of potential N-limitation (<7:1). Comparison of TN, TP, and chlorophyll a data between 121 NZ lakes and 689 lakes in 15 European Union (EU) countries suggests that at the national scale, N has a greater role in determining lake productivity in NZ than in the EU. TN:TP is significantly lower in NZ lakes across all trophic states, a difference that is driven primarily by significantly lower in-lake TN concentrations at low trophic states and significantly higher TP concentrations at higher trophic states. The form of the TN:TP relationship differs between NZ and the EU countries, suggesting that lake nutrient sources and/or loss mechanisms differ between the two regions. Dual control of N and P should be the status quo for lacustrine eutrophication control in New Zealand and more effort is needed to reduce P inputs.

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  • Recent occurrence of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, in Waikato lakes of New Zealand.

    Ryan, E.F.; Hamilton, David P.; Barnes, Grant E. (2003-10-01)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a toxin-producing species of cyanobacteria that in autumn 2003 was recorded for the first time in three shallow (max. depth ≤5 m) Waikato lakes and a hydro-electric dam on the Waikato River, New Zealand. It formed water blooms at densities >100 000 cells/ml in Lakes Waahi and Whangape. Net rates of population growth >0.2 day-1 were recorded for C. raciborskii in Lakes Ngaroto, Waahi, and Karapiro, based on comparisons of low numbers (detection of cells/ml) from initial samples and its presence at bloom densities (>15 000 cells/ml) in the subsequent sample "x"-"y" days later. C. raciborskii may be well adapted to rapid proliferation in the Waikato lakes, which are eutrophic to hypertrophic, with high light attenuation, and where nitrogen (N) fixation may provide it with a competitive advantage over non-nitrogen fixing algae under N-limited conditions.

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  • Low-dose alum application trialled as a management tool for internal nutrient loads in Lake Okaro, New Zealand

    Paul, Wendy J.; Hamilton, David P.; Gibbs, Max M. (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Aluminium sulfate (alum) was applied to Lake Okaro, a eutrophic New Zealand lake with recurrent cyanobacterial blooms, to evaluate its suitability for reducing trophic status and bloom frequency. The dose yielded 0.6 g aluminium m–3 in the epilimnion. Before dosing, pH exceeded 8 in epilimnetic waters but was optimal for flocculation (6–8) below 4 m depth. After dosing, there was no significant change in water clarity, hypolimnetic pH decreased to 5.5, and soluble aluminium exceeded recommended guidelines for protection of freshwater organisms. Epilimnetic phosphate concentrations decreased from 40 to 5 mg m–3 and total nitrogen (TN):total phosphorus (TP) mass ratios increased from 7:1 to 37:1. The dominant phytoplankton species changed from Anabaena spp. before dosing, to Ceratium hirudinella , then Staurastrum sp. after dosing. Detection of effectiveness of dosing may have been limited by sampling duration and design, as well as the low alum dose. The decrease in hypolimnetic pH and epilimnetic TP, and increase in Al3+ and chlorophyll a, are attributed to the low alkalinity lake water and coincidence of alum dosing with a cyanobacterial bloom and high pH.

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  • Influence of Potamogeton crispus growth on nutrients in the sediment and water of Lake Tangxunhu

    Mi, W. J.; Zhu, Duanwei; Zhou, Y. Y.; Zhou, H. D.; Yang, Tewu; Hamilton, David P. (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    An incubation experiment was performed on Potamogeton crispus (P. crispus) using sediment collected from Lake Tangxunhu in the center of China, in order to determine the effects of plant growth on Fe, Si, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg, P, and Ca concentrations in the sediments and overlying waters. After 3 months of incubation, Ca, Mg, and Si concentrations in the water column were significantly lower, and P and Cu concentrations were significantly higher than in unplanted controls. The effect of P. crispus growth on sediment pore waters and water-extractable elements varied. Concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Fe, Cu, and Zn were significantly higher, and P was significantly lower, than in pore waters of the control. Water-extracted concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Si in the sediments were lower, and P was higher, than in the control. Presence of P. crispus generally enhanced concentration gradients of elements between pore waters and overlying waters but not for P. The growth of P. crispus was associated with an increase in water pH and formation of root plaques, resulting in complex effects on the sediment nutritional status.

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  • A mass balance evaluation of the ecological significance of historical nitrogen fluxes in Lake Kinneret

    Nishri, A.; Hamilton, David P. (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Lake Kinneret (LK) is a monomictic lake that has undergone significant biological and chemical changes over the last three decades of the twentieth century. The transition between the 1970s and the 1980s attracted a lot of scientific attention as it was marked by significant changes in the ecology of the lake. In the early 1980s, phytoplankton biomass increased, apparently in response to an increase in the external soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) load. This period was marked by a rise in hypolimnetic levels of ammonium (NH4) and SRP as well as surface water dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH. Cconcomitantly, in surface waters in winter levels of NH4 increased and NO₃ decreased. In this study interrelationships amongst these observations were examined with a mass balance modelling approach, including simulation of individual nutrient sources and sinks, focusing on nitrogen fluxes in winter. The step-like rise in phytoplankton biomass in 1981 may have been triggered by the increase in winter external loads of SRP, as P is likely to be the growth-limiting nutrient during this season. The additional P load led to a sequence of changes including greater summer phytoplankton biomass, followed by enhanced sedimentation of organic matter. Furthermore, higher organic matter mineralization fluxes within the hypolimnion resulted in elevated levels of NH4 and SRP in this layer through the 1980s, with a feedback to productivity in the trophogenic zone following seasonal destratification in early winter. In an apparent transition period (late 1970s to early 1980s), an increase in the modelled rate of nitrate (NO₃) production occurred via nitrification together with increased uptake of the additional nitrate by phytoplankton. These results are consistent with increased phytoplankton abundance and elevated levels of surface water NH4 and DO during this period. Through this period the increase in phytoplankton uptake of NO₃ predominated over the increase in nitrification, and NO₃ concentrations in the 1980s were reduced compared with the previous decade, with increased partitioning of N in biomass and NH₄.

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  • Relationships between land use and nitrogen and phosphorus in New Zealand lakes

    Abell, Jonathan Michael; Özkundakci, Deniz; Hamilton, David P.; Miller, Steven D. (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Developing policies to address lake eutrophication requires an understanding of the relative contribution of different nutrient sources and of how lake and catchment characteristics interact to mediate the source–receptor pathway. We analysed total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) data for 101 New Zealand lakes and related these to land use and edaphic sources of phosphorus (P). We then analysed a sub-sample of lakes in agricultural catchments to investigate how lake and catchment variables influence the relationship between land use and in-lake nutrients. Following correction for the effect of co-variation amongst predictor variables, high producing grassland (intensive pasture) was the best predictor of TN and TP, accounting for 38.6% and 41.0% of variation, respectively. Exotic forestry and urban area accounted for a further 18.8% and 3.6% of variation in TP and TN, respectively. Soil P (representing naturally-occurring edaphic P) was negatively correlated with TP, owing to the confounding effect of pastoral land use. Lake and catchment morphology (zmax and lake : catchment area) and catchment connectivity (lake order) mediated the relationship between intensive pasture and in-lake nutrients. Mitigating eutrophication in New Zealand lakes requires action to reduce nutrient export from intensive pasture and quantifying P export from plantation forestry requires further consideration.

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  • Challenges and opportunities for integrating lake ecosystem modelling approaches

    Mooij, Wolf M.; Trolle, Dennis; Jeppesen, Erik; Arhonditsis, George B.; Belolipetsky, Pavel V.; Chitamwebwa, Deonatus B.R.; Degermendzhy, Andrey G.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Domis, Lisette N. De Senerpont; Downing, Andrea S.; Elliott, J. Alex; Fragoso, Carlos Ruberto, Jr.; Geadke, Ursula; Genova, Svetlana; Gulati, Ramesh D.; Hakanson, Lars; Hamilton, David P.; Hipsey, Matthew R.; Hoen, Jochem't; Hulsmann, Stephan; Los, F. Hans; Makler-Pick, Vardit; Petzoldt, Thomas; Prokopkin, Igor G.; Rinke, Karsten; Schep, Sebastiaan A.; Tominaga, Koji; Van Dam, Anne A.; Van Nes, Egbert H.; Wells, Scott A.; Janse, Jane H. (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A large number and wide variety of lake ecosystem models have been developed and published during the past four decades. We identify two challenges for making further progress in this field. One such challenge is to avoid developing more models largely following the concept of others (‘reinventing the wheel’). The other challenge is to avoid focusing on only one type of model, while ignoring new and diverse approaches that have become available (‘having tunnel vision’). In this paper, we aim at improving the awareness of existing models and knowledge of concurrent approaches in lake ecosystem modelling, without covering all possible model tools and avenues. First, we present a broad variety of modelling approaches. To illustrate these approaches, we give brief descriptions of rather arbitrarily selected sets of specific models. We deal with static models (steady state and regression models), complex dynamic models (CAEDYM, CE-QUAL-W2, Delft 3D-ECO, LakeMab, LakeWeb, MyLake, PCLake, PROTECH, SALMO), structurally dynamic models and minimal dynamic models. We also discuss a group of approaches that could all be classified as individual based: super-individual models (Piscator, Charisma), physiologically structured models, stage-structured models and trait-based models. We briefly mention genetic algorithms, neural networks, Kalman filters and fuzzy logic. Thereafter, we zoom in, as an in-depth example, on the multi-decadal development and application of the lake ecosystem model PCLake and related models (PCLake Metamodel, Lake Shira Model, IPH-TRIM3D-PCLake). In the discussion, we argue that while the historical development of each approach and model is understandable given its ‘leading principle’, there are many opportunities for combining approaches. We take the point of view that a single ‘right’ approach does not exist and should not be strived for. Instead, multiple modelling approaches, applied concurrently to a given problem, can help develop an integrative view on the functioning of lake ecosystems. We end with a set of specific recommendations that may be of help in the further development of lake ecosystem models.

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  • Water quality assessment, trophic classification and water resources management

    Parparov, Arkadi; Gal, Gideon; Hamilton, David P.; Kasprzak, Peter; Ostapenia, Alexandr (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Quantification of water quality (WQ) is an integral part of scientifically based water resources management. The main objective of this study was comparative analysis of two approaches applied for quantitative assessment of WQ: the trophic level index (TLI) and the Delphi method (DM). We analyzed the following features of these conceptually different approaches: A. similarity of estimates of lake WQ; B. sensitivity to indicating disturbances in the aquatic ecosystem structure and functioning; C. capacity to reflect the impact of major management measures on the quality of water resources. We compared the DM and TLI based on results from a series of lakes covering varying productivity levels, mixing regimes and climatic zones. We assumed that the conservation of aquatic ecosystem in some predefined, “reference”, state is a major objective of sustainable water resources management in the study lakes. The comparison between the two approaches was quantified as a relationship between the DM ranks and respective TLI values. We show that being a classification system, the TLI does not account for specific characteristics of aquatic ecosystems and the array of different potential uses of the water resource. It indirectly assumes that oligotrophication is identical to WQ improvement, and reduction of economic activity within the lake catchment area is the most effective way to improve WQ. WQ assessed with the TLI is more suitable for needs of natural water resources management if eutrophication is a major threat. The DM allows accounting for several water resource uses and therefore it may serve as a more robust and comprehensive tool for WQ quantification and thus for sustainable water resources management.

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  • Derivation of lake mixing and stratification indices from high-resolution lake buoy data

    Read, Jordan S.; Hamilton, David P.; Jones, Ian D.; Muraoka, Kohji; Winslow, Luke A.; Kroiss, Ryan; Wu, Chin H.; Gaiser, Evelyn (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Lake Analyzer is a numerical code coupled with supporting visualization tools for determining indices of mixing and stratification that are critical to the biogeochemical cycles of lakes and reservoirs. Stability indices, including Lake Number, Wedderburn Number, Schmidt Stability, and thermocline depth are calculated according to established literature definitions and returned to the user in a time series format. The program was created for the analysis of high-frequency data collected from instrumented lake buoys, in support of the emerging field of aquatic sensor network science. Available outputs for the Lake Analyzer program are: water temperature (error-checked and/or down-sampled), wind speed (error-checked and/or down-sampled), metalimnion extent (top and bottom), thermocline depth, friction velocity, Lake Number, Wedderburn Number, Schmidt Stability, mode-1 vertical seiche period, and Brunt-Väisälä buoyancy frequency. Secondary outputs for several of these indices delineate the parent thermocline depth (seasonal thermocline) from the shallower secondary or diurnal thermocline. Lake Analyzer provides a program suite and best practices for the comparison of mixing and stratification indices in lakes across gradients of climate, hydro-physiography, and time, and enables a more detailed understanding of the resulting biogeochemical transformations at different spatial and temporal scales.

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  • Increasing Microcystis cell density enhances microcystin synthesis: a mesocosm study

    Wood, Susanna A.; Dietrich, Daniel R.; Cary, S. Craig; Hamilton, David P. (2012)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    An experimental protocol using mesocosms was established to study the effect of Microcystis sp. cell abundance on microcystin production. The mesocosms (55 L) were set up in a shallow eutrophic lake and received either no (control), low (to simulate a moderate surface accumulation), or high (to simulate a dense surface scum) concentrations of Microcystis sp. cells collected from the lake water adjacent to the mesocosms. In the low- and high-cell addition mesocosms (2 replicates of each), the initial addition of Microcystis sp. cells doubled the starting cell abundance from 500 000 to 1 000 000 cells mL⁻¹, but there was no detectable effect on microcystin quotas. Two further cell additions were made to the high-cell addition mesocosms after 60 and 120 min, increasing densities to 2 900 000 and 7 000 000 cells mL-1, respectively. Both additions resulted in marked increases in microcystin quotas from 0.1 pg cell-1 to 0.60 and 1.38 pg cell⁻¹, respectively, over the 240 min period. Extracellular microcystins accounted for <12% of the total microcystin load throughout the whole experiment. The results of this study indicate a relationship between Microcystis cell abundance and/or mutually correlated environmental parameters and microcystin synthesis.

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  • Enhanced sample preparation for quantitation of microcystins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation–time of flight mass spectrometry

    Puddick, Jonathan; Prinsep, Michèle R.; Wood, Susanna A.; Cary, S. Craig; Hamilton, David P. (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Introduction: Microcystins (MCs) are a group of cyanotoxins which pose a serious health threat when present in aquatic systems. Quantitative analysis of MCs by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation–time of flight (MALDI–TOF) mass spectrometry has potential for the processing of large numbers of samples quickly and economically. The existing method uses an expensive internal standard and protocols that are incompatible with automated sample preparation and data acquisition. Objective: To produce a MALDI–TOF sample preparation technique for the quantitation of MCs that not only maintains reproducibility and sensitivity, but is also compatible with an automated work-flow. Methodology: Seven different MALDI–TOF sample preparations were assessed for signal reproducibility (coefficient of variation) and sensitivity (method detection limit) using a cost-effective internal standard (angiotensin I). The best preparation was then assessed for its quantitative performance using three different MC congeners ([Dha7] MC-LR, MC-RR and MC-YR). Results: The sensitivity of six of the preparations was acceptable, as was the reproducibility for two thin-layer preparations performed on a polished steel target. Both thin-layer preparations could be used with a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer that automatically acquires data, and one could be used in an automated sample preparation work-flow. Further investigation using the thin-layer spot preparation demonstrated that linear quantification of three different MC congeners was possible. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that with different sample preparation methods and modern instrumentation, large numbers of samples can be analysed rapidly for MCs at low cost.

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