104 results for Howell, Bronwyn, Scholarly text

  • Competition and Regulation Policy in Antipodean Government-Funded UltraFast Fibre Broadband Markets

    Howell, Bronwyn (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Both the Australian and New Zealand governments have committed to spend substantial sums in order to bring forward the nationwide deployment of ultra-fast fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) broadband networks. With deployment proceeding apace, two significant questions have arisen regarding the economic, commercial and political rationale for the Australian and New Zealand governments‟ decisions. The first is why the respective governments are assuming a central role in the design, financing, deployment and (in Australia‟s case) operation of a nationwide network of a specific technology type, given that such intervention is at significant variance with both recent international industry policy and practice advocated by international agencies such as the OECD and the ITU, and the recent policy and regulatory history in both countries. The second is how these new Government-funded networks will affect the nature of competitive interaction in the telecommunications (broadband) industry in their respective countries. This paper addresses these questions. First it traces the development of the Australian and New Zealand fibre investment policies in the context of international competition policy orthodoxy. It then examines the competition and regulation policies that will govern the insertion of the respective government-funded fibre networks into environments where both legacy policies and technological developments have shaped, and will continue to shape, the evolution of the respective telecommunications sectors. The analysis finds that political, rather than economic imperatives have dominated the government investment decision in both countries. The Australian investment has been accompanied by a comprehensive set of competition and regulation policies aligned with maximising the likelihood of fibre uptake, but both the up-front costs and political risks are high. The New Zealand initiative is lower-cost initially, but lacks clear over-arching competition and regulation policy objectives to guide sector development. The result is a fragmented regulatory regime and a range of contradictory and confusing incentives for all sector participants that will inevitably increase the economic costs of the project and lead to delays in fibre network uptake. Consequently, the Antipodean „experiments‟ in government funding of fibre networks are unlikely to offer good models of either policy or process for other jurisdictions.

    View record details
  • Governments in the Telco Business: Prudental Investors or Bureaucratic Intruders?

    Howell, Bronwyn (2010)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Governments around the world are attempting to 'invest' in infrastructure for the perceived 'future needs' of their nations. Locally New Zealand and Australian governments have spent the past thirty years corporatising and privatising formerly government-owned incumbents and liberalising the telecommunications markets by removing regulatory barriers to competition and inducing private sector entry via mechanisms such as access regulation and local loop unbundling. Now government-funded National Broadband Networks are now being rolled out to cope with these future challenges real or imagined. What motivates these government investments that appear to be turning the industry ownership clock back 30 years? What are they likely to achieve? And why can't the market deliver such outcomes? Indeed what are the desirable outcomes?

    View record details
  • Linking Higher-Quality Infrastructure Regulation to Tomorrow's Economic Growth

    Howell, Bronwyn (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bronwyn Howell recently presented at the 5th Annual Regulatory Evolution Summit held in Wellington on 30 March 2011.

    View record details
  • Broadband in New Zealand: a market in search of a competition policy?

    Howell, Bronwyn (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bronwyn Howell's recent presentation at the Communications Day Auckland Summit 26-27 July 2011.

    View record details
  • Government Investment and Broadband Market Evolution in the Antipodes

    Howell, Bronwyn (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Presentation by Bronwyn Howell to OPTA Den Haag on 13 September 2011.

    View record details
  • Ultrafast Broadband: Feeding a Need for Speed or Funding a Fibre Arms Race?

    Howell, Bronwyn (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bronwyn Howell presents Ultrafast Broadband: Feeding a Need for Speed or Funding a Fibre Arms Race? at the Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (TUE) on 15 September 2011.

    View record details
  • From Providers to PHOs: an institutional analysis of nonprofit primary health care governance in New Zealand

    Howell, Bronwyn (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bronwyn Howell's presentation at the University of Missouri St Louis USA on 28 September 2011.

    View record details
  • Diverse Dimensions of the 'Digital Divide': Perspectives from New Zealand

    Howell, Bronwyn (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bronwyn Howell General Manager ISCR presented Diverse Dimensions of the 'Digital Divide': Perspectives from New Zealand at the session "Digital Divde in Asia-Pacific" at the Keio University Global COE Programme Conference on Designing Governance for Civil Society Tokyo on 5 February 2012.Click here to view the paper on which this presentation was based.

    View record details
  • UFBI 2.0: Revised separation boundaries may partially address pricing and uptake limitations in New Zealand fibre broadband model, but significant competition policy problems remain

    Heatley, David; Howell, Bronwyn (2010)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    On July 1 2010, the Minister of Communications Steven Joyce announced fundamental changes to the structure and regulation of the New Zealand Government's Ultra-Fast Broadband Initiative. The changes were deemed necessary in order to achieve uptake targets sufficient to underpin the business case for both government and private sector investment. Whilst the changes would appear to enable progress towards the ability to access productive scale efficiencies and competitive pricing structures that will induce some degree of substitution, lack of clarity about the future competitive environment still exposes investors in the sector to significant uncertainties and potential perverse outcomes. Consequently, overall sector investment will likely be inhibited, and the evolution of broadband sector institutions substantially constrained.

    View record details
  • Competition and Regulation Policy in Antipodean Government-Funded Ultrafast Broadband Network Markets

    Howell, Bronwyn (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bronwyn Howell's presentation to the International Telecommunications Society European Regional Conference held in Budapest 20-22 September 2011.

    View record details
  • Competition & Government Network Subsidies: Enemies or Allies?

    Howell, Bronwyn (2013)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This presentation looks at: Discussion of peculiarly grid regulation issues A quick stock take of the state of 'onr market': particularly concerning the interisland link Competition and pricing the HVDC interconnection

    View record details
  • Competition and Government Network Subsidies: Enemies or Allies?

    Howell, Bronwyn (2013)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Presented at the Technical University of Eindhoven November 7, 2013

    View record details
  • Injecting Change into Primary Health Care: The NZ Experience Part 1 Patient Subsidies from: Co-payments to Insurance Premiums

    Howell, Bronwyn (2005)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bronwyn Howell presented Injecting Change into Primary Health Care: The NZ Experience Part 1 Patient Subsidies from: Co-payments to Insurance Premiums in an ISCR two part Primary Health Care seminars: Patient Subsidies: from Co-Payments to Insurance Premiums and Competting for Governance in July 2005.

    View record details
  • Restructuring Primary Heath Care Markets in NZ: Efficiency and Equity Implications of Provider-Insurers

    Howell, Bronwyn (2005)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bronwyn Howell presented Restructuring Primary Heath Care Markets in NZ: Efficiency and Equity Implications of Provider-Insurers at the Australian Conference of Health Economists conference held in Auckland in September 2005.

    View record details
  • International Telecommunications Society - Perth August 16-18, 2009

    Howell, Bronwyn (2009)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bronwyn Howell recently attended the International Telecommunications Society conference in Perth. Attached are copies of her presentations to the conference including slides of her involvement in a Policy Roundtable.

    View record details
  • Paying for the Doctors Strike and the Waiting List Cull at the GP's Surgery

    Howell, Bronwyn (2006)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bronwyn Howell presented Paying for the Doctors Strike and the Waiting List Cull at the GP's Surgery at LEANZ in August 2006.

    View record details
  • From Competition to Regulation: New Zealand Telecommunications Sector Performance 1987-2007

    Howell, Bronwyn (2008)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Using an efficiency-based framework this paper analyses the performance of New Zealand's telecommunications sector under competition law-based sector governance (the period from 1987 to 2001) and under industry-specific regulation (2001 to 2007). The framework considers the productive allocative and dynamic efficiency effects of each regime and the nature of the strategic interaction of sector participants. The analysis reveals that substantial gains in all forms of efficiency were achieved during the 1990s both compared to historic New Zealand and contemporary OECD benchmarks. Under industry-specific regulation however transfers to consumers appear to have reduced transaction costs have increased and delays are being incurred in the deployment of new applications and technologies relative to the competition law regime as participants engage in strategic gaming with politicians and the regulator and respond predictably to the range of incentives offered under the regulatory regime. The paper concludes that on balance in the New Zealand circumstances the regime based predominantly upon competition law appears to have outperformed the industry-specific regulatory regime albeit due in large part to sector participant interaction shaped by contractual obligations imposed by the government on the incumbent which have prevailed unchanged under both regimes.

    View record details
  • Telecommunications Usage in New Zealand: 1993-2003

    Howell, Bronwyn; Obren, Mark (2003)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This report suggests that the telecommunications market in New Zealand is surprisingly mature. We infer that the potential for growth is limited. There has been negligible growth in any of the number of fixed lines either business or residential since 2000. The number of residential lines is growing only in proportion to the number of households indicating that household penetration is now saturated. Business line connections have been constant since approximately August 1999 although there is evidence of substitution away from Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) connections towards Independently Switched Digital Network (ISDN) connections in this market. ISDN is predominantly used for voice access by New Zealand businesses with less than 0.1% of connections being used for data communications in January 2002.While the number of mobile connections has been increasing the total volume of voice-based telephony traffic (local and long distance fixed line and mobile) has settled at a constant level. Diffusion of mobile telephony sits at approximately 75% of the population over 10 years of age and while still growing the rate of growth appears to be slowing implying that this technology is close to saturation as well. Average usage per mobile account is declining indicating that the connection growth that is being recorded is related to users with lower than average demand for the service.The data offer significant evidence of substitution between technologies (fixed line to mobile) for voice traffic. Thus the presumption that mobile and fixed line telephony are separate markets must be questioned. This is particularly evident in the residential market; as the evidence supporting substitution coincides with the introduction of prepay accounts which have been targeted at residential consumers.The only telephony volume to show significant growth is that of dial-up Internet traffic. However even this traffic is showing signs of slowing both on measures of volume per fixed line and volume per Internet Service Provider (ISP) account. Diffusion of this technology is also widespread with nearly 60% of households having connections. Thus this technology may also be approaching maturity in the New Zealand market as with mobile technology new connections represent users with lower than average demand. Whilst there is some evidence of substitution of dial-up Internet access technology with DSL in the business market in the residential market substitution still appears to be dominated by learning effects associated with the applications that consumers use and the individual valuation of time.

    View record details
  • Health Sector Failures in New Zealand: Act of God, Act of Man or Inadequacies in Control Design

    Howell, Bronwyn (2001)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    While the Cartwright Duffy and Cull inquiries investigated in some detail the health system processes that led to the specific instances of malpractice that prejudiced the health states of the main 'whistleblowers' a key element of these processes - the design incentives and monitoring of the contracts both explicit and implicit that make up these processes - has been consistently overlooked. New insights can be found in a systematic exploration of both the individual contracts and the nexus of contracts that makes up the publicly funded health system in New Zealand. This paper utilises the economic theory of contracts to examine the ways in which contracts between patients and their practitioners for the delivery of services and between the public and their political agents politicians and public servants and public servants and health practitioners for the funding of services interact. In particular the paper examines ways in which these contracts and the information asymmetries that are associated with them both facilitate and frustrate the flows of information required to monitor and enforce performance of the myriad of contracts involved. The paper also analyses the incentives associated with monitoring and enforcing contract performance in an environment where there may be considerable distancing of the incentives to monitor and enforce the contract from the information necessary to do so.Evidence from the Duffy Inquiry is used to show how failure to address the systemic interrelationships between contracts both implicit and explicit in the design of the New Zealand National Cervical Screening Programme (NCSP) resulted in the creation of obstacles that actively prevented the nexus of contracts from performing either efficiently or effectively in the interests of the patients concerned. Further this example illustrates that the use of a contracting model reliant upon practitioner and public servant monitoring and enforcement of service provision processes inside a public funding model reliant upon monitoring and enforcement of political process performance without due consideration given to the information necessary for adequate monitoring and enforcement led to a system where patients were left with few avenues via which to discipline their errant agents irrespective of whether it was the political agent or the medical agent who had erred. Thus the 'problem' is found to lie not in the corporate contracting model of the 1990s but within the inconsistent alignment of incentives monitoring and enforcement within the publicly-funded model.

    View record details
  • Fit for Purpose? Examining the Current State of Broadband Regulation in NZ', presented by Howell, Bronwyn on 6 March 2013

    Howell, Bronwyn (2013)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Presentation of Fit For Purpose? Examining the Current State of Broadband Regulation in New Zealand

    View record details