17 results for Lowe, David J., Book item

  • Appendix A: Maps showing the distributions of lakes in New Zealand and their grouping into distinct districts reflecting the predominance of particular geological processes

    Green, John D.; Lowe, David J. (1987-01-01)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    The large-scale maps of each of the lake districts show lakes with a maximum dimension ≥ c0.5 km.

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  • Appendix B: Some morphometric parameters of named lakes with areas [greater than or equal to] 1.0 km2, and some smaller lakes, in New Zealand

    Lowe, David J.; Green, John D. (1987-01-01)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Gaps indicate uncertainty or that accurate data are unavailable. Note that lakes with fluctuating levels e.g., those used for hydro-electric purposes, or near coasts have varying parameters. Table based mainly on Irwin (1975) with some data from Cunningham et al. (1953), Irwin (1972), Jolly & Brown (1975), Irwin & Pickrill (1983), Howard-Williams & Vincent 1984, Boswell et al. (1985), Livingstone et al. (1986), N.Z.O.I. Lake Chart series, N.Z. Topographical Map Series NZMS1 (1:63 360) and NZMS26O (1:50 000), and other sources.

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  • Far-flung markers

    Lowe, David J.; Alloway, Brent V.; Shane, Phil A.R. (2008)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Tephras are fragmentary materials that are blasted explosively into the air during volcanic eruptions. Distributed throughout Zealandia, tephras provide useful markers for connecting and dating land surfaces, sediment layers, and archaeological sites.

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  • Dusty horizons

    Lowe, David J.; Tonkin, Philip J.; Palmer, Alan S.; Palmer, Jonathan G. (2008)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Dust whipped up and deposited by wind forms sheets of loess, which drape over the land. These loess deposits and the soils formed within them yield insights into past climatic and environmental change.

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  • Alteration, formation, and occurrence of minerals in soils

    Churchman, G. Jock; Lowe, David J. (2012)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    This chapter, like Churchman (2000), seeks to bring readers up to date with information and understanding about the alteration of minerals and the nature of their products in the context of the formation and development of soils. It complements various articles by Bergaya et al. (2006), and the recent books by Velde and Meunier (2008) and Velde and Barré (2010). This current chapter differs from Churchman (2000) in that it discusses the manner in which minerals, and especially secondary minerals, actually occur in soils, i.e., it deals (in Section 20.3) with the occurrence, as well as the alteration and formation of minerals in soils.

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  • Far-flown markers

    Lowe, David J.; Alloway, Brent V.; Shane, Phil A.R. (2015)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Tephras are fragmentary materials that are blasted explosively into the air during volcanic eruptions. Distributed throughout Zealandia, tephras provide useful markers for connecting and dating land surfaces, sediment layers, and archaeological sites.

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  • Dusty horizons

    Lowe, David J.; Tonkin, Philip J.; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Lanigan, Kerri Miriam; Palmer, Alan S. (2015)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Dust whipped up and deposited by wind forms sheets of loess, which drape over the land. These loess deposits and the soils formed within them yield insights into past climatic and environmental change.

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  • Towards an understanding of thermodynamic and kinetic controls on the formation of clay minerals from volcanic glass under various environmental conditions

    Hodder, A.P.W.; Naish, T.R.; Lowe, David J. (1996-01-01)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    lmogolite is the kinetically and thermodynamically favoured weathering product from rhyolitic volcanic glass in the soil-forming environment. However, on thermodynamic grounds imogolite would also appear to be the favoured alteration product of rhyolitic glass deposited in the nearshore marine environment. On the basis that the rate of conversion of glass to clay minerals is a function of the solubility of the clay mineral, smectite is expected to be formed under mildly diagenetic conditions, and formed more rapidly than imogolite in soil. The derived activation energies for formation of imogolite from glass in soils are appropriate for a diffusion controlled reaction, and appear consistent with the diffusion of the tetrahedrally co-ordinated species Al[iv](OH)₂(H2Q)⁺. In the marine environment, however the mechanism for all reactions appear to be surface reaction control.

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  • Andisols

    McDaniel, Paul A.; Lowe, David J.; Arnalds, Olafur; Ping, Chen-Lu (2012)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Andisols are soils that typically form in loose volcanic ejecta (tephra) such as volcanic ash, cinders, or pumice. They are characterized by andic properties that include physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties that are fundamentally different from those of soils of other orders. These differences resulted in a proposal to recognize these soils at the highest level in the USDA soil classification system (Smith, 1978). In 1990, Andisols were added to Soil Taxonomy as the 11th soil order (Soil Survey Staff 1990; Parfitt and Clayden, 1991). A very similar taxonomic grouping, Andosols, is one of the 32 soil reference groups recognized in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (IUSS Working Group, 2006). Andisols (and Andosols) are classified on the basis of selected chemical, physical, and mineralogical properties acquired through weathering and not on parent material alone. Both soil names relate to two Japanese words, anshokudo meaning “dark colored soil” (an, dark; shoku, color or tint; do, soil) and ando meaning “dark soil”. Ando was adopted into western soil science literature in 1947 (Simonson, 1979).

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  • Parent materials of Yellow-brown loams in the Waikato-Coromandel district.

    Gibbs, H.S.; Lowe, David J.; Hogg, Alan G. (1982-01-01)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    The yellow-brown loams of the Waikato-Coromandel region are derived from weathered airfall volcanic materials. These materials may be either direct airfall deposits, or erosion products of these deposits, described as reworked ash in some publications. In the erosion products small amounts of other rocks may be included in the parent materials, and these additions may modify to a slight degree the chemical and physical properties of the soil as a yellow-brown loam. In larger amounts these additions result in the formation of intergrades to yellow-brown earths or gley soils.

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  • Tephrochronology

    Lowe, David J.; Alloway, Brent V. (2015-06-18)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Tephrochronology is the use of primary, characterized tephras or cryptotephras as chronostratigraphic marker beds to connect and synchronize geological, paleoenvironmental, or archaeological sequences or events, or soils/paleosols, and, uniquely, to transfer relative or numerical ages or dates to them using stratigraphic and age information together with mineralogical and geochemical compositional data, especially from individual glass-shard analyses, obtained for the tephra/cryptotephra deposits. To function as an age-equivalent correlation and chronostratigraphic dating tool, tephrochronology may be undertaken in three steps: (i) mapping and describing tephras and determining their stratigraphic relationships, (ii) characterizing tephras or cryptotephras in the laboratory, and (iii) dating them using a wide range of geochronological methods. Tephrochronology is also an important tool in volcanology, informing studies on volcanic petrology, volcano eruption histories and hazards, and volcano-climate forcing. Although limitations and challenges remain, multidisciplinary applications of tephrochronology continue to grow markedly.

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  • Origins and development of the lakes

    Lowe, David J.; Green, John D. (1987)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Because of a turbulent and complex recent geological history, New Zealand has an impressively diverse and dynamic landscape, and a correspondingly wide array of lake types, within a small land area (Irwin 1975a; Soons & Selby 1982;). The development of such an active geological environment in New Zealand has been governed largely by its location athwart the Australian and Pacific plate boundary, and its maritime mid-latitude position has made it particularly sensitive to the climatic fluctations and associated glaciations and sea level changes of the Quaternary Period (Suggate et al. 1978). At present, the rates of uplift and erosion of mountainous areas are among the fastest in the world. Earthquakes are common, and volcanism has characterised much of the North Island during the Quaternary with numerous volcanoes active in the last few thousand years. Large, explosive caldera volcanoes in central North Island have erupted repeatedly over the last million years, producing voluminous amounts of lava and widespread pyroclastic deposits. The landforms, soils and lakes are thus typically youthful, almost all being younger than two million years; indeed, much of the landscape is of late Pleistocene and Holocene age, and is still actively developing (Pillans et al. 1982). Our purpose in this chapter is to outline the relationship between these often violent and spectacular geological processes which have led to the formation and development of the various lake types in New Zealand. Against this background we describe the classification and distribution of the main lake types, their ages and mechanisms of formation. We also comment on lake sedimentation patterns, palaeolimnological studies, and on features of lake bathymetry and morphology.

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  • The effect of climate on lake mixing patterns and temperatures

    Green, John D.; Viner, A.B.; Lowe, David J. (1987)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    The maritime geographical location has been said to give distinctive characteristics of water mixing to lakes (Hutchinson 1957, pp. 443-444), but such effects have never been described in detail. New Zealand's lakes should exemplify well these maritime distinctions, and in this chapter features of water column mixing and temperature changes are identified which can distinguish New Zealand lakes from those elsewhere.

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  • Lakes

    Lowe, David J.; Green, John D. (1992-01-01)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Lakes have always held an aesthetic fascination for people; they figure prominently in both art and literature and have even been endowed with spiritual qualities. For example, the nineteenth century American writer Henry D. Thoreau (1854) considered a lake to be 'the landscape's most beautiful and expressive feature. It is the earth's eye; looking into which the beholder measures the depth of his own nature'. More prosaically, lakes are also of considerable geomorphological interest as dynamic landfonns originating in varied and often complex ways.

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  • The middle Waikato Basin and hills

    Selby, Michael J.; Lowe, David J. (1992-01-01)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    The middle Waikato (or Hamilton) Basin is a roughly oval-shaped depression more than 80 km north to south and more than 40 km wide. The basin, except in the south, is almost completely surrounded by ranges up to 300 m high, broken by only a few gaps. In the south the basin floor rises gradually and merges with the dissected plateaux of the King Country.

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  • A dramatic landscape

    Lowe, David J.; King, Carolyn M. (2015)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    This chapter introduces the story of Pureora Forest Park (PFP), in the central North Island, New Zealand, by describing the extremely violent Taupo eruption of c. AD 232 and its consequences for the surrounding forests and mountains. It gives a broad-scale local geological history, detailing the origins of some important local sedimentary rocks and landforms with a bearing on the story, including limestone caverns and coal deposits. It describes the location of the future PFP on the western edge of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, and how the history of volcanic activity, together with erosion, have determined much of the character of its landscape, the radial drainage pattern and deep entrenchment of its rivers, the distribution of its vegetation, and its long isolation from human access and permanent settlement.

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  • Carbon storage and DNA absorption in allophanic soils and paleosols

    Huang, Yu-Tuan; Lowe, David J.; Churchman, G. Jock; Schipper, Louis A.; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Cooper, Alan (2014)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Andisols and andic paleosols dominated by the nanocrystalline mineral allophane sequester large amounts of carbon (C), attributable mainly to its chemical bonding with charged hydroxyl groups on the surface of allophane together with its physical protection in nanopores within and between allophane nanoaggregates. C near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra for a New Zealand Andisol (Tirau series) showed that the organic matter (OM) mainly comprises quinonic, aromatic, aliphatic, and carboxylic C. In different buried horizons from several other Andisols, C contents varied but the C species were similar, attributable to pedogenic processes operating during developmental upbuilding, downward leaching, or both. The presence of OM in natural allophanic soils weakened the adsorption of DNA on clay; an adsorption isotherm experiment involving humic acid (HA) showed that HA-free synthetic allophane adsorbed seven times more DNA than HA-rich synthetic allophane. Phosphorus X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra for salmonsperm DNA and DNA-clay complexes indicated that DNA was bound to the allophane clay through the phosphate group, but it is not clear if DNA was chemically bound to the surface of the allophane or to OM, or both. We plan more experiments to investigate interactions among DNA, allophane (natural and synthetic), and OM. Because DNA shows a high affinity to allophane, we are studying the potential to reconstruct late Quaternary palaeoenvironments by attempting to extract and characterise ancient DNA from allophanic paleosols

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