124 results for Lowe, David J., Journal article

  • "New Zealand Soil Classification” by A.E. Hewitt [Book review]

    Lowe, David J. (1992)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The publication of `New Zealand Soil Classification' by Dr Alan Hewitt this year (Hewitt 1992a) represents a major milestone in New Zealand soil science. That it was one of the final publications of the now defunct DSIR is somehow appropriate because, as classification systems should, it provides (in a mere 133 pages) a synthesis of much of what has been learnt about the soils of New Zealand over the past 60 years or more, The new classification was officially launched at the New Zealand Society of Soil Science Conference in Rotorua on 16 November, 1992.

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  • Colin George Vucetich (1918–2007)—pioneering New Zealand tephrochronologist

    Lowe, David J.; Tonkin, Philip J.; Neall, Vincent E.; Palmer, Alan S.; Alloway, Brent V.; Froggatt, Paul C. (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Many Quaternarists, tephrochronologists, and soil scientists mourned the passing in New Zealand of Colin Vucetich—gentle mentor, pedologist, and pioneering tephrochronologist—on 25 April (Anzac Day), 2007. Colin was in his 89th year. As well as forming a 25-year partnership with W.A. “Alan” Pullar, with whom he published three classic papers on tephrostratigraphy based on field work undertaken by the pair largely in their own time, Colin inspired and mentored numerous postgraduates in his later career as an academic at Victoria University of Wellington. There he taught pedology, soil stratigraphy, and tephrochronology until his retirement as Reader (Associate Professor) in 1982. In retirement he was an honorary lecturer and supervisor at Massey University (Palmerston North) until 1991 (Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3).

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  • Assessing drivers of plantation forest productivity on eroded and non-eroded soils in hilly land, eastern North Island, New Zealand

    Heaphy, Marie; Lowe, David J.; Palmer, David John; Jones, Hayden S.; Gielen, Gerty J. H. P.; Oliver, Graeme R.; Pearce, Stephen H. (2014-07-02)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Methods: The impact of soil erosion by mass movement on forest productivity was investigated in a paired plot trial in a planted forest in a mainly hilly to steepland catchment (Pakuratahi) near Napier, eastern North Island, New Zealand. Tree growth and form were measured and soil properties analysed to compare productivity and productivity drivers in adjacent non-eroded and eroded plots. Background: The effect of soil erosion on New Zealand production forestry is not well known and there has been no research prior to our study into the relationship between soil nutrient status and planted forests growing in eroded soils in steeplands. Results: Regression analysis showed that the decreased soil total nitrogen, total carbon, total phosphorus, and soil organic matter content in eroded plots had a negative impact on tree volume, resulting in a 10% decrease in measured tree volume. Based on an assessment of log quality, trees in the eroded plots were forecast to produce 16% less volume from high-quality pruned logs (with associated reduction in revenue of around $4000 per hectare), than trees in non-eroded plots. The total recoverable volume (TRV), estimated (for a 25-year rotation) from the measured Pinus radiata D. Don trees growing on the eroded sites, was valued at $68,500, about 9% less than the estimated TRV from trees measured on non-eroded plots ($76,000). Tree form and mean tree height in eroded and non-eroded plots were not significantly different. Conclusions: Soil erosion impacts production in planted forests. Afforestation of erodible land provides a valuable ecosystem service through land and soil stabilisation but this service is currently not reflected in the market prices for timber in New Zealand. Maintaining the productive capacity of erodible soils through practices such as fertilisation or continuous-cover forestry can add further costs to production forestry. To ensure that sustainable forest practices are carried out to protect the productivity of soils, financial incentives may be justified.

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  • INTREPID Tephra-II: - 1307F

    Lowe, David J. (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The INTREPID Tephra project, “Enhancing tephrochronology as a global research tool through improved fingerprinting and correlation techniques and uncertainty modelling”, was an overarching project of the international community of tephrochronologists of the International Focus Group on Tephrochronology and Volcanism (INTAV), which in turn lies under the auspices of INQUA’s Stratigraphy and Chronology Commission (SACCOM). INTREPID’s main aim has been to advance our understanding and efficacy in fingerprinting, correlating, and dating techniques, and to evaluate and quantify uncertainty in tephrochronology, and thus enhance our ability to provide the best possible linking, dating and synchronising tool for a wide range of Quaternary research projects around the world. A second aim has been to re-build the global capability of tephrochronology for future research endeavours through mentoring and encouragement of emerging researchers in the discipline.

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  • An ashy septingentenarian: the Kaharoa tephra turns 700 (with notes on its volcanological, archaeological, and historical importance)

    Lowe, David J.; Pittari, Adrian (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Most of us are aware of the basaltic Tarawera eruption on 10th June 1886: the high toll on life (~120 people), landscape devastation, and loss of the Pink and White Terraces. But this was not the first time that Mt Tarawera produced an eruption of importance both to volcanology and human history. This edition of the GSNZ Newsletter marks the 700th anniversary of the Kaharoa eruption – its septingentenary to be precise – which occurred at Mt Tarawera in the winter of 1314 AD (± 12 years) (Hogg et al. 2003) (Fig. 1). The importance of the Kaharoa eruption is at least threefold. (1) It is the most recent rhyolite eruption in New Zealand, and the largest New Zealand eruption volumetrically of the last millennium. (2) The Kaharoa tephra is an important marker horizon in late Holocene stratigraphy and geoarchaeology (Lowe et al. 1998, 2000), and in particular helps to constrain the timing of settlement of early Polynesians in North Island (Newnham et al. 1998; Hogg et al. 2003; Lowe 2011). (3) There is a link between the soils that developed on the Kaharoa tephra, the animal ‘wasting’ disease known as ‘bush sickness’, and the birth of a government soil survey group as an independent organisation (Tonkin 2012).

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  • Mapping the productivity of radiata pine

    Palmer, David John; Watt, Michael S.; Kimberley, Mark O.; Hock, Barbara K.; Payn, Tim W.; Lowe, David J. (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Forest owners, investors and policy makers all want to know the spread and productivity of New Zealand’s current and future radiata plantation. David Palmer, a geo-spatial analyst at Scion, has combined advanced statistical techniques with mapping technology to predict radiata 300 Index and Site Index for any location in New Zealand. The 300 Index is an index of volume mean annual increment, and the Site Index is for height and growth. The map of Site Index and 300 Index was built using growth measurement data from trees in 1,146 radiata pine permanent sample plots, planted between 1975 and 2003. The data was combined with a number of climate, land use, terrain and environmental variables to predict forest productivity under a range of conditions.

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  • Don Hogg: soil chemist and gentleman

    Lowe, David J. (1997)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Donald Elvery Hogg, a former member of the New Zealand Society of Soil Science, died on 21 November 1996. This obituary is a tribute to Don and to some of the contributions he made to soil science during his thirty-year career as a soil chemist at Ruakura Agricultural Research Centre, Hamilton.

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  • Review of “Soil Description Handbook – Revised Edition” by J.D.G. Milne et al.

    Lowe, David J.; Balks, Megan R. (1996)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book "Soil Description Handbook – Revised Edition", by J.D.G. Milne, B. Clayden, P.L. Singleton, & A.D. Wilson.

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  • Hostile shores: catastrophic events in prehistoric New Zealand and their impact on Maori coastal communities [Book Review]

    Lowe, David J. (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book: “Hostile shores: catastrophic events in prehistoric New Zealand and their impact on Maori coastal communities”, by Bruct McFadgen.

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  • Niwashi - a new tool for pedology and cover-bed stratigraphy in New Zealand

    Lowe, David J. (2000)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The Japanese Niwashi - literally 'garden master' - is a new field tool for dressing soil profiles or cleaning down stratigraphic sections comprising sottish or unconsolidated cover-bed deposits. Used for many years by Japanese pedologists, tephrochronologists, and volcanologists, the Niwashi has now become available in New Zealand. We have tried it out on a range of soils and various deposits and found it to be an excellent tool for field work in many situations.

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  • Kainui silt loam: how the lepard changed its spots

    Lowe, David J. (1991)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The Kainui silt loam occurs on low rolling hills in the northern part of the Hamilton Basin, and is well expressed in Hamilton City.

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  • Measuring radiation in the environment following the Fukushima nuclear disaster, Japan

    Lowe, David J. (2012)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A group of scientists and technical staff from Toshiba Company, including Dr Hirokazu Kanai, undertook field trials at the station using a newly-developed, portable, two-dimensional gamma-ray visualization system known as a “Gamma Camera”.

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  • Holocene fluctuations of a meromictic Lake in southern British Columbia

    Lowe, David J.; Green, John D.; Northcote, Tom G.; Hall, Ken J. (1997)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Holocene deposits of Mahoney Lake, a meromictic saline lake located in a closed basin in the semi-arid Okanagan Valley, contain evidence of frequent and marked changes in lake depth (up to >12 m/100¹⁴C yr) probably caused by short-term changes in effective precipitation. We studied a 5.45-m-long core comprising a basal layer of inorganic mud overlain by a succession of layers of calcareous laminated and nonlaminated organic mud, marl, and sand. We used Mazama tephra to adjust nine radiocarbon ages for the hardwater effect. Meromixis developed ca. 9000¹⁴C yr B.P., and the lake has been episodically meromictic for about half the time since. Because of close linkages between sediments and depositional environments in meromictic and saline lakes, we infer that laminated sediments indicate meromictic conditions and high lake levels (>ca. 12 m water depth), whereas thick marl layers and nonlaminated sediments indicate nonmeromictic conditions and thus low lake levels (<ca. 8 m depth). Many of the inferred short-term climatic changes have not been identified in previous studies in northwestern North America, perhaps because of insensitive climatic proxies, inadequate temporal resolution, or discounting of anomalous findings.

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  • Quaternary environmental change in New Zealand: a review

    Newnham, Rewi M.; Lowe, David J.; Williams, Paul W. (1999)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The discovery that orbital variations are the driving force behind Quaternary climate change provides an impetus to set local and regional records of environmental change into the global context, a principle that has been strongly embraced by Quaternary scientists working in New Zealand. Their major achievements and significant current initiatives are reviewed here. The importance of the New Zealand Quaternary stems from its geographical context: a climatically sensitive, remote oceanic, southern location spanning 17 degrees of the mid-latitudes; an obliquely convergent plate boundary setting resulting in a high mountain range athwart the prevailing westerlies, active volcanism, a youthful and dynamic landscape, and mountains high enough to maintain glaciers today; and a remarkably short prehistory. The resultant records show marked environmental changes due not only to climatic oscillations but also to vigorous, active tectonism and volcanism. The Taupo Volcanic Zone, containing the world's strongest concentration of youthful rhyolitic volcanoes, has produced at least 10 000 km3 of magma in the last 2 Ma. Climatic interpretations of records from marine sediments in the New Zealand region, together with several long sequences of alternating marine and terrestrial sediments, indicate broad synchrony with Northern Hemisphere events (within limitations of dating), although there are differences in detail for shorter-term climatic events. It is not yet certain that glacial advances coincided precisely with those in the Northern Hemisphere or were of similar duration. Late Cainozoic glaciation commenced c. 2.6-2.4 Ma but the record of glacial deposits is fragmentary and poorly dated except for the most recent events. The Last (Otira) Glaciation, from c. 100-10 ka, was characterized by at least five glacial advances including during the Last Glacial Maximum from 25 to 15 ka, when snowlines fell by 600-800 m. New Zealand evidence for cooling during the Younger Dryas stade is equivocal whilst isotopic records from speleothems, and other data, indicate warmer and wetter conditions from 10-7 ka, broadly conforming with records from mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere locations. Future advances will require sampling at shorter timescales, improvements in the accuracy and precision of existing dating methods and the development of new ones, extension of palaeoecological techniques to cover the full potential of New Zealand's diverse biota, and a stronger emphasis on quantification of palaeoclimatic parameters.

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  • Unravelling upbuilding pedogenesis in tephra and loess sequences in New Zealand using tephrochronology

    Lowe, David J.; Tonkin, Philip J. (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The genesis of soils developed in either tephra or loess on stable sites differs markedly from that of soils developed on rock because classical topdown processes operate in conjuction with geological processes whereby material is added to the land surface so that the soils form by upbuilding pedogenesis. Understanding the genesis of such soils (typically Andisols and Alfisols, respectively) often requires a stratigraphic approach combined with an appreciation of buried soil horizons and polygenesis. In New Zealand, calendrically-dated tephras provide an advantage for assessing rates of upbuilding through chronostratigraphy. Many Andisol profiles form by upbuilding pedogenesis as younger tephra materials are deposited on top of older ones. The resultant profile character reflects interplay between the rate at which tephras are added to the land surface and topdown processes that produce andic materials and horizons. In loess terrains, upbuilding pedogenesis since c. 25,000 years ago is associated with maximum rates of loess accumulation c. 3 10 mm per century, sufficiently slow for soil-forming processes to continue to operate as the land surface gradually rises. Thus, Alfisol subsoil features are only weakly developed and Bw or B(x) horizons typically are formed. In contrast, topdown pedogenesis is associated with minimal or zero loess accumulation, the land surface elevation remains essentially constant, and subsoil features become more strongly developed and Bg, Bt, or Bx horizons typically are formed.

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  • Old bones tell new tales

    Lowe, David J. (2006)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Of all the so-called evidence that has been presented in support of human settlement in New Zealand before the second millennium, only a set of radiocarbon-dated rat bones has appeared scientifically credible. Now even that is coming under close scrutiny.

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  • The Anthropocene: an Australasian perspective and survey.

    Lowe, David J.; Bostock, Helen C. (2015-06-02)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In 2000, Crutzen and Stoermer suggested that the Holocene (the geological period of time since 11,700 years ago: Walker et al., 2009) had finished and that humanity had now entered the “Anthropocene”. As summarised by Steffen et al. (2011) and Wolfe et al. (2013), these scientists were referring to the Anthropocene as the interval of demonstrable human alteration of global biogeochemical cycles, beginning subtly in the late 18th Century following James Watt’s invention of the coal-fired steam engine, and accelerating markedly in the mid-20th Century (called “The Great Acceleration”).

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  • Andisols of New Zealand and Australia.

    Lowe, David J.; Palmer, David John (2005-01-01)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    During the Quaternary, much of central North Island, New Zealand, was repeatedly overwhelmed or modified by emplacement of ignimbrites and especially by multiple rhyolitic and andesitic tephra fallout deposits, and reworked derivatives, that successively mantled landsurfaces forming buried paleosols in multisequal profiles. Relatively thick proximal deposits buried and isolated antecedent soils, forming compound soil profiles, whereas relatively thin tephra fallout at medial and distal sites resulted in composite or aggrading profiles, their character determined by the interplay of upbuilding and topdown pedogenesis. Scoriaceous basaltic tephras erupted in northern North Island were locally distributed. Andisols, of the 'allophanic' type with andic soil properties dominated by short-range-order (SRO) clays rather than Al-humus complexes, cover ~32, 100 km² and comprise about 12.5% of New Zealand soils. They consist of three groups : (1) 'Entic' Udands or Cryands occur on mainly andesitic eruptives (Tephric Recent Soils in New Zealand Soil Classification ; ~1200 km² , ~0.5%) ; (2) Vitrands occur in central-eastern North Island on glassy, rhyolitic pumiceous deposits mainly from the Taupo eruption c. 232 AD and the Kaharoa eruption c. 1314 AD (Pumice Soils ; ~17, 200 km² , ~6.5%) ; and (3) Udands occur typically on composite, multiple tephra deposits of varying ages in Taranaki (mainly andesitic tephras), King Country-western Waikato (mixed andesitic-rhyolitic), eastern Waikato-western Bay of Plenty-Coromandel (mainly rhyolitic), and Auckland-Northland (basaltic), the age span of sola increasing towards distal sites as constituent tephra layers become thinner and shallower (Allophanic Soils ; ~13, 700 km² , ~5.5%). Moisture and temperature regimes are mainly udic and mesic, thermic, or cryic. Udands are pre-eminent among New Zealand's most versatile, high-quality soils because they provide valuable soil ecosystem services including sorption, water storage and supply, natural fertility, and foundation support. Andisols are currently known only in the Mt Gambier area of southeast South Australia, and comprise ~85 km² (~0.001%) of Australian soils. Intraplate basaltic volcanoes at Mts Gambier and Schank erupted c. 5000 years ago and the resultant localised tephras contain both exotic crystalline material, derived from underlying limestone and calcareous dunes, and juvenile basaltic material. Sand fractions at Mt Gambier are dominated by exotic, silicic crystalline material (≥80%) and relatively little glass (<20%) but at Mt Schank unaltered Al-rich glass predominates (≥50%). Vitrixerands and Haploxerands with pHs 6.4-8.0 have been formed under xeric moisture and mesic temperature regimes (Andic, Chernic Tenosols in Australian Soil Classification). The parent mineralogies have influenced clay mineral formation : SRO clays at Mt Schank (up to 20% allophane, 7% ferrihydrite, fine-earth basis) are more abundant than at Mt Gambier (≤12% allophane, 4% ferrihydrite) because the glass at Mt Schank weathers more rapidly than the Al-poor crystalline material at Mt Gambier, releasing Al. Seasonal Si-leaching has also been influential: where leaching is sufficient to remove silica, and CaCO3 content is low (in upper soil horizons at Mt Gambier; in most horizons at Mt Schank), Al-rich allophane has formed ; where leaching is weak (intermediate horizons), Si-rich allophane and layer silicate minerals (but not halloysite) have formed; and where leaching barely occurs (in lowest horizons), smectite has formed. The Xerands are versatile soils.

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  • How the Marsden Fund has failed to achieve its full potential in the ESA panel: evidence of limitations in scope, biased outcomes, and futile applications

    Bryan, Karin R.; Lowe, David J. (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    We have analysed the scope of proposals funded by the ‘Earth Sciences and Astronomy’ (ESA) panel of the Marsden Fund for the period 2004 to 2013. The scope of proposals funded is very limited and does not reflect the full remit of the panel: the successful projects fail to encompass the quality and quantity of research being undertaken within the Earth sciences community in New Zealand, and a number of sub-disciplines that seek to address fundamental and important problems within the Earth sciences are largely excluded. Moreover, nearly 50% of the funded proposals for the past decade have been made to just two institutions. To address these limitations, we suggest that: (1) a review is undertaken to examine and widen the scope of the panel to encompass sub-disciplines that demonstrably are never or rarely funded; (2) the composition of panel members be examined and modified to reflect a much wider scope of sub-disciplines within the Earth sciences; and (3) a review of the wide discrepancies in funding distributions on an institutional basis be undertaken. We want to ensure that a more representative range of sub-disciplines, in keeping with modern and realistic definitions of the Earth sciences, is funded through this panel, and so we also recommend the formation of a new panel for ‘Environmental and Earth-system Sciences’ that could encompass the research involving modern-day processes so that applications in these sub-disciplines are not pointless. In addition, it is clear that a very substantial increase in funding to the Marsden Fund must be sought.

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  • Towards a climate-event stratigraphy for New Zealand for the past 30,000 years - An evaluation of the 2005 NZ-INTIMATE meeting

    Lowe, David J. (2005)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    More than 30 geoscientists representing a range of disciplines met at the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS) Rafter Laboratory in Lower Hutt in early July to present new developments in the quest to prepare a definitive climate-event stratigraphy for the New Zealand (NZ) region since 30 ka (all ages in calendar years unless noted otherwise). The meeting, ably convened by Brent Alloway (GNS) and Jamie Shulmeister (Canterbury University), was the second to be held by the NZ-INTIMATE (NZ-INT) palaeoclimate community.

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