32 results for Saunders, C., Book

  • Capital based sustainability indicators as a possible way for measuring agricultural sustainability

    Saunders, C.; Kaye-Blake, W.; Campbell, R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • Sustainable development and equity

    Dalziel, P.; Saunders, C.; Fyfe, R.; Newton, B.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report draws on the New Zealand experience to explore how intra-generational equity might relate to sustainable development in a New Zealand context. After a summary of different approaches to equity found in the international literature, the report considers Article 3 of the Treaty of Waitangi, which imparted to Māori all the rights and privileges of British subjects. The report then discusses how this Article’s widely accepted interpretation as implying that the Crown must equally protect the social rights of all New Zealand citizens, has been applied in the creation of a system of social security to protect New Zealand citizens against poverty and social exclusion. This discussion focuses on the central roles of employment, income support, housing, health and education. This is followed by a survey of a recent debate in New Zealand that focused specifically on pay and employment equity. This approach is adopted as the basis for the proposals towards an equity indicator made in the report. It takes the core elements of New Zealand’s social security – employment; income; housing; health and education – and defines standards for what would be meant by equity for each element. The chapter proposes a statistical series for measuring departures from each standard and then combines these statistics into a proposed equity index. The index is illustrated using New Zealand data in 1996, 2001 and 2006. Data for 2006 record almost no disparity between the male and female populations, but a substantial difference between the European/Pākehā and Māori opulations.

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  • Economic policy and cultural well-being: the New Zealand experience

    Dalziel, P.; Maclean, G.; Saunders, C.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    In 2002, the New Zealand government identified three sectors that would be the focus of public policy under its Growth and Innovation Framework. One of these three sectors was the creative industries, selected on the basis that ‘the creative industries can leverage New Zealand’s unique culture and as a knowledge based sector, it has the potential to generate wealth on a sustained basis and reposition New Zealand as a nation of new ideas and new thinking’. Also in 2002, New Zealand reformed its Local Government Act so that one of the two purposes of local government is to promote the social, economic, environmental, and cultural well-being of communities, in the present and for the future. This paper draws on New Zealand’s experiences under these policies to examine the links between economic policy and cultural well-being, highlighting the underlying principle that the use of cultural capital for economic benefit may damage cultural well-being if the cultural capital is not kept connected to its cultural context.

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  • EU positions in WTO : impact on the EU, New Zealand and Australian livestock sectors

    Santiago Albuquerque, J. D.; Saunders, C.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report reviews the European Union (EU) position on the World Trade Organisation (WTO) for the market access pillar of the Doha round agricultural negotiations, and its implications in the EU, NZ and Australia. Initially, the report reviews the developments in the WTO and the EU on market access. The report also reviews various studies that evaluated agriculture market liberalisation in the EU. The report then describes the LTEM (Lincoln Trade and Environment Model), a multi-commodity and country, partial equilibrium model. The basic framework of the LTEM trade model is described especially the modification of the model to include market protection through import tariffs. The model is then used to estimate the impact of different levels and forms of tariff cuts. Three tariff reduction alternatives are considered. The first applies a linear tariff cut of 39 per cent, the second a tiered formula with cuts ranging from 60, 50, and 45 to 35 per cent. The highest cuts are applied to the sectors with highest tariffs, such as beef, sheep and some of the dairy products. The third applies a 100 per cent tariff removal. The results are consistent with theory, other studies and expectations. Producer returns decrease for the EU in proportion to the level of tariff cut. The decreases are larger for beef and sheep. In dairy, the reductions in producer returns are lesser due to the small decrease in EU milk production. EU dairy production remains at its quota level in the first two scenarios. NZ and Australia benefit in all scenarios. The application of a tiered formula for tariff cuts in the second scenario leads to deeper reductions in the commodities where NZ and Australia are net exporters and therefore leads to higher returns than the linear reduction. Regarding commodities, the gains in producer returns for NZ and Australia are bigger for beef and sheep. In the case of the dairy sector, the gains for NZ and Australia are much more moderate. This is expected the cuts in import tariffs in the EU dairy sector are offset by other mechanisms in place.

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  • North Canterbury : an analysis of the current economic base of the region

    Cross, T. A.; Dalziel, P.; Saunders, C.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This Report was commissioned by Enterprise North Canterbury (formally known as North Canterbury Economic Development Trust). It looks at the economic background, area demographics, natural resources of North Canterbury and physical infrastructure of the area. The report concludes with sector analysis including agriculture/horticulture, forestry, wine, tourism, and a detailed breakdown of employment data by sector.

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  • Selwyn District Council

    Cross, T. A.; Dalziel, P.; Saunders, C.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report provides an economic baseline report of the current level of resources in the Selwyn District and how they have changed over recent times. This includes the overall macro economic and policy context; the business sector and employment; population and how this is changing; as well as the natural resources and the infrastructure in the district.

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  • Lincoln Trade and Environment Model (LTEM) : linking trade and environment

    Cagatay, S.; Saunders, C.; Wreford, A.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This paper has reviewed the modification of the LTEM (Lincoln Trade and Environment Model) to incorporate production systems and their environmental consequences. This means that the impact of changes in trade policy and/or changes in environmental policy on the environment and trade can be assessed. Groundwater contamination from dairy farming is a serious problem, both in NZ and internationally. It is particularly sensitive to differing production systems, which are often affected by changes in trade policy. This paper attempts to model different dairy production systems explicitly and to quantify the linkages between agricultural production and groundwater nitrate contamination, as well as greenhouse gas emissions.

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  • The high-tech sector in Canterbury : a study of its potential and constraints

    Saunders, C.; Dalziel, P.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This research report was commissioned by New Zealand Trade and Industry to identify and assess factors that would enable high-tech industries in Canterbury to achieve their full potential. The research was comprised of two components. The first involved analysing the direct and indirect contributions of the electronics and software industries in Christchurch, to the Canterbury and the New Zealand economies. The second component involved interviews with senior managers in the Canterbury high-tech sector, including key support agencies, to determine what could help the sector develop to its full potential. Further discussion and recommendations are put forward on possible models for developing the high-tech sector, drawing on the local interviews and some overseas examples.

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  • Sustainable development and cultural capital

    Dalziel, P.; Saunders, C.; Fyfe, R.; Newton, B.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    It has become common for countries to create a framework of sustainable development indicators (SDI) to measure progress in raising the social, economic and environmental well-being of their regional and national communities. Standard practice is to focus on changes in stock measures of physical capital, financial capital, human capital, natural capital and social capital. An unusual feature of New Zealand’s approach is that it pays explicit attention to cultural well-being alongside social, economic and environmental well-being. This practice raises important issues about how measures related to cultural well-being can be incorporated into a national SDI framework. The research for this report explored whether cultural capital is best conceptualised as a component of social capital, or whether it warrants treatment as a separate category. In arguing for the latter the report proposes that cultural capital be defined as a community’s embodied cultural skills and values, in all their community-defined forms, inherited from the community’s previous generation, undergoing adaptation and extension by current members of the community, and desired by the community to be passed on to its next generation.

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  • Viability of a commercially sustainable West Coast horticulture industry

    Saunders, C.; Parsonson-Ensor, C.; Greer, G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The aim of this report is to assess the feasibility of establishing a horticultural industry on the West Coast. The industry should be intended to be of sufficient size to facilitate the development of an infrastructure to support the ongoing development and evolution of horticulture on the West Coast. The industry development should also be in the relatively short term and therefore it is not intended that new markets should be explored but rather this industry to take advantage of exiting supply channels, some scoping of which had already been done by stakeholders on the West Coast.

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  • Kiwifruit: the key elements of success and failure in the NZ kiwifruit industry

    Kilgour, M.; Saunders, C.; Scrimgeour, F.; Zellman, E.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The study explores the nature and performance of the New Zealand kiwifruit industry from 1980 to 2006. As almost 94 per cent of kiwifruit produced in New Zealand is exported, the focus of this study is on the export sector of the kiwifruit industry. Value chain theory is used to define the kiwifruit industry in New Zealand. The value chain links the key participants and organisations that ultimately bring kiwifruit to consumers. Therefore, it incorporates the three main stages from the orchard to market - growing kiwifruit, post harvest operations, and exporting. The examination of the industry since 1980 can be separated into the following key focus areas: 1. Changing market characteristics: production trends, target markets, changing consumer preferences and increasing competition. 2. Operating environment: how different factors have changed to impact on the industry. 3. Industry structure: changes at the firm and industry level in response to changing circumstances and environments. 4. Conduct and performance: analysis of broad performance measures, extent of sharing of information, knowledge and resources within the industry, and the degree of interdependence along the value chain. In particular this study explores the kiwifruit industry’s current single desk seller structure – Zespri. It examines how it evolved by looking at the structural developments that preceded its existence and the factors that influenced its formation. It also looks at the recent consolidation amongst post-harvest operators and explores the factors that have bought about this change. It reviews how the industry has responded to changing market conditions by producing new products and how the role of marketing (i.e. branded products) has influenced export turnover.

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  • Forecast of skills demand in the high tech sector in Canterbury : phase two

    Dalziel, P.; Saunders, C.; Zellman, E.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report presents the results of a second survey carried out by the AERU research unit to map skills demand in the Canterbury ICT sector. This research was commissioned the Electrotechnology Industry Training Organisation (ETITO) Growth Pilot, funded by the Tertiary Education Commission, to develop mechanisms to ensure the timely delivery of an appropriate number of suitably qualified individuals required by enterprises in the Canterbury ICT sector. It builds on a similar survey in 2004.

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  • Preliminary economic evaluation of biopharming in New Zealand

    Kaye-Blake, W.; Saunders, C.; Ferguson, L.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    From the academic literature, this report derives an economic model or framework for considering biopharming. This model is based on a cost-benefit approach to valuing changes in products and production methods. The model indicates the product dimensions that are likely to be affected by biopharming methods and how these dimensions may affect the costs and benefits of production. It also identifies the uncertainties in existing analyses. Finally, it demonstrates a method by which careful analysis of the economic costs and benefits of biopharming could proceed. Two potential products are discussed using this model: recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) produced in cow’s milk and low-GI potatoes.

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  • Comparative energy and greenhouse gas emissions of New Zealand's and the UK's dairy industry

    Saunders, C.; Barber, A.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This research report builds upon the AERU Research Report No. 285 on Food Miles - Comparative energy/emissions performance of New Zealand's agriculture industry (Saunders et al. 2006). This report adds greenhouse gas emissions associated with methane and nitrous oxide to the emissions associated with energy use in the food miles report. The calculations of methane and nitrous oxide emissions use the same methodology, but country specific coefficients, for both the UK and NZ as was the case for energy emissions in the original food miles report. This found that the UK had 34 per cent more emissions per kilogram of milk solids and 30 per cent more per hectare than NZ for dairy production even including the shipping to the UK. The report assumes that it is possible for the UK and other countries to supply the UK market at current cost with production to replace NZ imports. This, of course, may not be the case given limited capacity of production and different production environments.

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  • Modelling the trade impacts of willingness to pay for genetically modified food

    Kaye-Blake, W.; Saunders, C.; Fairweather, J. R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The research had two objectives: first, to examine New Zealanders' intentions to purchase and willingness to pay for several specific genetically modified (GM) food products; and second, to use these results as input for a model of international trade to estimate potential impacts from trade on New Zealand. For the first part, a nationwide survey was administered and the resultant data analysed. The second part required using the results of the data analysis to estimate consumer and producer impacts of GM crops and the best adoption rate of GM crops for New Zealand agriculture, all of which became inputs for the trade model.

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  • The key elements of success and failure in the NZ kiwifruit industry

    Kilgour, M.; Saunders, C.; Scrimgeour, F.; Zellman, E.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The study explores the nature and performance of the New Zealand kiwifruit industry from 1980 to 2006. As almost 94 per cent of kiwifruit produced in New Zealand is exported the focus of this study is on the export sector of the kiwifruit industry. Value chain theory is used to define the kiwifruit industry in New Zealand. The value chain links the key participants and organisations that ultimately bring kiwifruit to consumers. Therefore it incorporates the three main stages from the orchard to market - growing kiwifruit, post harvest operations, and exporting. The examination of the industry since 1980 can be separated into the following key focus areas: 1. changing market characteristics: production trends, target markets, changing consumer preferences and increasing competition. 2. operating environment: how different factors have changed to impact on the industry. 3. industry structure: changes at the firm and industry level in response to changing circumstances and environments. 4. conduct and performance: analysis of broad performance measures, extent of sharing of information, knowledge and resources within the industry, and the degree of interdependence along the value chain. In particular this study explores the kiwifruit industry’s current single desk seller structure – Zespri. It examines how it evolved by looking at the structural developments that preceded its existence and the factors that influenced its formation. It also looks at the recent consolidation amongst post-harvest operators and explores the factors that have bought about this change. It reviews how the industry has responded to changing market conditions by producing new products and how the role of marketing (i.e. branded products) has influenced export turnover.

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  • Food markets: trade risks and trends

    Saunders, C.; Allison, G. M.; Wreford, A.; Emanuelsson, M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The aim of this report is to address the effects on past and future primary sector returns due to trade policy, changing consumer behaviour, market access and commodity prices. The importance of providing products that consumers demand has never been clearer in New Zealand (NZ), and this requires the creation of new production systems, or at least innovation within the existing systems. As consumers increasingly express these changes in demand, the signals to producers will also change. This paper aims to provide a background for these trends and the underlying factors which are driving them. The following section begins the report with a background to the NZ agricultural sector and the developments it has undergone in the last 50 years. International trade policy, with a particular emphasis on the policies of the European Union (EU) is then described, and the section concludes with an outline of the components of farm gate prices. Section 3 covers eco-labelling, and discusses and describes the role of eco-labels as environmental and policy tools, as well as marketing communications. The section continues with an analysis of the market for eco-labelled products, including organic products. The paper provides a background to the rationale of the economic research objective of the ARGOS Programme. The main focus of the economic objective in ARGOS is the relationship between agricultural markets and resource allocation in New Zealand. This includes a detailed understanding of the economics at farm level, industry level, as well as on a global trading level. The economic objective links with the overall rationale of the ARGOS Programme, to better understand how the environmental, social and economic aspects of different farming practices will help New Zealand achieve an enduring accommodation with the New Zealand environment and continue to satisfy the demands of markets and community stakeholders. Thus, ARGOS is very much geared towards working with industry to respond to market drivers, both in terms of long term trends and more immediate issues. This paper is the first in a series of reports providing information to stakeholders, to help them respond to market drivers.

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  • The agriculture research group on sustainability programme: a longitudinal and transdisciplinary study of agricultural sustainability in New Zealand

    Campbell, H.; Fairweather, J.; Manhire, J.; Saunders, C.; Moller, H.; Reid, J.; Benge, J.; Blackwell, G.; Carey, P.; Emanuelsson, M.; Greer, G.; Hunt, L. M.; Lucock, D.; Rosin, C.; Norton, D.; MacLeod, C.; Knight, B.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report provides an overview of the key design features of the Agriculture Research Group on Sustainability (ARGOS) programme. This ongoing long-term research project started in 2003, involving a group of around 20 social scientists, ecologists, economists, and farm management experts in New Zealand. The overarching mission of ARGOS is to understand the enablers and barriers to the sustainability and resilience of agriculture, so as to enhance New Zealand’s economic, social and environmental wellbeing. To achieve this mission, the ARGOS team has designed and implemented a well-replicated and long-term programme of longitudinal research on more than 100 whole working farms, across different agricultural sectors, comparing a wide range of variables between three different farming systems: conventional, integrated management (IM) and organic. The first funded phase of this research programme has taken a systems and transdisciplinary approach, with an emphasis on statistical rigour and standardisation of methods, structured around the basic null hypothesis that there are no differences between the three farming systems. The primary focus of this approach is to examine the efficacy of alternative quality assurance (QA) schemes in delivering sustainable outcomes. This working paper seeks to inform potential collaborators and other interested parties about the way the ARGOS research programme has been structured, and to describe the rationale for this design. To this end, the report first documents the formation of the ARGOS group and the development of the aims and basic features of the design of the first funded phase of the research programme. The process of selection of agricultural sectors and individual farms within those sectors is described, along with the rationale behind this selection process. We then describe the key objectives of the research programme, and the way these were approached by research teams from different disciplines. The importance of transdisciplinarity is then discussed, providing insight into the associated benefits and pitfalls, and the lessons that were learned in the process of designing and implementing a transdisciplinary research programme. Finally, we discuss a number of issues surrounding the key features of our study design, evaluating their respective benefits and costs, and describe the future research directions suggested by the findings of the first phase of the programme.

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  • Consumer attitudes to New Zealand food product attributes and technology use in key international markets

    Saunders, C.; Guenther, M.; Driver, T.; Tait, P.; Dalziel, P.; Rutherford, P.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The study described in this paper builds on the research above. It is a pilot survey of 100 consumers each in the United Kingdom (UK), India, China, Indonesia, Japan and Korea. The survey gathers information on attitudes and preferences of consumers for attributes in food products in these countries. The first part of the survey assessed the importance of key attributes in food products in these markets. These attributes were selected based on prior research examining international consumer trends (Saunders et al. 2010, Driver et al. 2011, Saunders et al. 2013, Miller et al. 2014). This study expanded previous research by including more countries, by increasing the number of attributes considered, and by assessing important factors underpinning these key attributes in food products. The survey then explores how consumers in these markets were using new personal technologies in relation to food information and purchase intentions. The results from this study 1 are aimed to better inform New Zealand’s export industries, allowing for enhanced value garnered throughout the value chain. A full survey will take place in 2015. This study is also part of a wider research programme “Maximising Export Returns (MER)”, a Ministry of Business, Innovation and Enterprise (MBIE) funded three-year project undertaken by the Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit (AERU) at Lincoln University. This project aims to explore how export firms can capture price premiums by including and communicating credence attributes in products for overseas markets.

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  • Maximising export returns: consumer attitudes towards attributes of food and beverages in export markets relevant to New Zealand

    Guenther, M.; Saunders, C.; Dalziel, P.; Rutherford, P.; Driver, T.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The aim of this study is to explore consumer preferences towards selected key attributes in food, beverage, and other products in China, India, Indonesia, Japan and the United Kingdom (UK). The targeted consumer groups are the middle and upper class consumers in each country who are expected to be more likely to be willing to pay premium for these attributes in food and beverages, hence informing the New Zealand industries of possible opportunities for maximising their export returns. This study is part of a wider research project ‘Maximising Export Returns (MER)’, a three year project undertaken by the Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit (AERU) at Lincoln University funded by the New Zealand Ministry for Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE). This project aims to explore how export firms can obtain price premiums by considering credence attributes in their products for overseas markets. This research builds on previous work of the AERU which showed that overseas consumers (including those in the UK, China, and India) value different attributes in food products (Saunders et al. 2013). The study assessed consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) and preferences for the certification of certain attributes in lamb and dairy products; results showed that food safety was the most important attribute. Not surprisingly, India and China rated food safety certification as more important than respondents from the UK. However, more surprisingly, in most cases Indian and Chinese consumers valued other credence attributes more than consumers in the UK, including organic, environmental quality, animal welfare and recyclability (Saunders et al. 2013). In a pilot study, further surveying expanded the research to firstly include more countries such as Indonesia, Japan and Korea and secondly to assess in more detail the importance of factors affecting key credence attributes in food products and the relationships between them. The pilot survey explored consumer attitudes towards seven attributes in food products and then selected four of them for more detailed analysis; these were animal welfare, environmental quality, health food and food safety. Survey participants were asked to rate the importance of a range of factors underpinning these four attributes, which suggested some associations between them. Environmental quality, for example, was listed in the three developing countries as one of the top five factors associated with food safety (Saunders et al. 2015). The information gained from the pilot survey assisted the development of the scope of this study. In this study, the selection of credence attributes is expanded to ten key attributes in food and beverages that are important to consumers in five New Zealand exports markets, then six of these attributes are selected to assess underpinning factors in more detail as the pilot study showed that the factors influencing these key credence attributes differed across markets. The six key attributes are food safety, environmental condition, animal welfare & health, human health enhancing foods, social responsibility and the role of traditional cultures. The method of this study included a structured and self-administered online survey. Primary data was collected using Qualtrics™, a web-based survey system. Five surveys were conducted in March/April 2015 to assess consumers’ attitudes towards attributes in food and beverage products. The surveys were distributed in two developed countries (Japan and the UK) and three developing countries (China, India and Indonesia) and had a sample size of 1,000 consumers in each country. The survey also included a choice experiment to assess consumers’ willingness –to – pay (WTP) for attributes in different types of food and beverages, however these results are not in the focus of this report. Additionally, the WTP results will be used to estimate the potential benefits to New Zealand through modelling different scenarios using the Lincoln Trade and Environment model LTEM; a partial equilibrium trade model which forecasts the international trade, production and consumption of agricultural commodities.

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