31 results for Simmons, D. G., Book

  • Evolving role of local government in promoting sustainable tourism development on the West Coast

    Cameron, A. M.; Memon, A.; Simmons, D. G.; Fairweather, J. R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The objective of this study is to examine the perspectives West Coast tourism stakeholders hold about the local government's emerging roles and responsibilities for tourism planning in the region. Local government authorities examined include the Buller, Grey and Westland District Councils, the West Coast Regional Council and Tourism West Coast, (the Regional Tourism Organisation, which forms the promotional 'arm' of the three District Councils). 'Tourism stakeholders' includes tourism-related businesses and NGOs as well as local government staff.

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  • Tourism in Westland : challenges for planning and recommendations for management

    Simmons, D. G.; Fairweather, J. R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report provides a synthesis of nine separate reports on key aspects of tourism in Westland, and makes recommendations for the future management of the sector.

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  • Tourism in Rotorua : destination evolution and recommendations for management

    Simmons, D. G.; Fairweather, J. R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report provides a synthesis of seven separate reports into key aspects of tourism in Rotorua, and makes recommendations for the future management of the sector. The overall conclusion of this study is that tourism in Rotorua appears to be at an economically, environmentally and socially sustainable level at present. While future growth seems assured in the short-term there are a number of challenges in maintaining the long-term sustainability of the sector, and its role in regional social and economic development. The key areas of risk are those associated with the broader institutional, environmental and social elements of tourism management. The main thrust of the results from this research programme is that tourism planning needs to focus at a broad level. However, this report also has specific implications for the marketing of tourism some of which are noted here. Many of our recommendations therefore apply to those organisations with a broader societal and environmental mandate than tourism alone.

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  • Tourism, water and waste in Westland : implications of increasing demand on infrastructure

    Cullen, R.; Dakers, A.; Fairweather, J. R.; Simmons, D. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The growth of tourism, and its consequent benefits, are dependent on the maintenance, if not enhancement, of the West Coast's unique natural environment. Parts of this natural environment have been described as ecologically fragile. There are a range of tourist activities that consume water and produce solid waste and wastewater. An important issue is the tourists' additional demand for potable water and their production of additional wastewater. The major objectives of this research were to: develop models to estimate and project aggregated tourist water use and wastewater production at Hokitika, Harihari, Franz Josef, and Haast; and assess the adequacy and resourcing of the facilities to provide water, manage wastewater and solid wastes associated with tourism.

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  • Evolving community response to tourism and change in Rotorua

    Horn, C.; Simmons, D. G.; Fairweather, J. R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The aim of this report is to outline how the Rotorua community experiences tourism and tourism development and how they have adapted to it. The objectives are to: give an historical account of the history of the development of tourism in Rotorua; give an account of broader community issues which influence the community's attitudes to tourism development in their town; record the perceptions that residents have of tourism and show how these have changed over time; describe how the host community copes with the type of tourism development that exists in the area; and suggest what factors might be important in influencing residents' perceptions of tourism and their adaptation to it. This report argues that the community in Rotorua is generally very accepting of tourism, and that tourism in the town is well managed due to the proactive role taken by the local Council in relation to tourism development and promotion. Local people see tourism as a source of stability at a time of great change. For local decision-makers, tourism is a means to address the problems of unemployment and poverty which appear to be increasing in the area.

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  • Climate change response: a report to establish the knowledge required for a TIANZ response and policy formulation with the Government post Kyoto Protocol ratification

    Turney, I.; Becken, S.; Butcher, G.; Patterson, M.; Hart, P.; Simmons, D. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The Tourism Industry Association of New Zealand commissioned this report ‘as a definitive reference point for the Tourism sector with regard to its greenhouse gas emissions (CO₂) and the potential impacts on the sector, in order to establish the underpinning knowledge required for a subsequent TIANZ response and policy formulation with the Government post the Kyoto Protocol ratification’. The value of the tourism sector, in terms of GDP and employment is self-evident but there is also growing awareness of the New Zealand environment by the international market which is critical to New Zealand’s future prosperity. Both the tourism sector and the Government recognise the importance of the ‘state of New Zealand’s environment’ and the need to genuinely sustain the image of ‘100% Pure New Zealand’, as it is implicitly linked to maintaining credibility and growth in a highly competitive market.

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  • Tourism in Christchurch and Akaroa : challenges for planning and recommendations for management

    Simmons, D. G.; Fairweather, J. R.; Shone, M. C.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report provides a synthesis of eight separate reports (listed in Appendix 1) on key aspects of tourism in Christchurch and Akaroa, and makes recommendations for the future management of the sector. The overall goals of the research programme that encompasses these case studies are the improved management of tourism growth, and the development of better guidelines to ensure its sustainability. The studies focus primarily on the important private/public sector interface in tourism planning and development. They are not marketing studies per se (although significant data are produced to inform marketing decisions) but are focused on public sector responses, and community adaptations to tourism, with a long-term view toward sustainable tourism at the local and national level.

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  • Visitors to Rotorua : characteristics, activities and decision-making

    Moore, K.; Fairweather, J. R.; Simmons, D. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report presents results from two surveys of visitors to Rotorua, New Zealand, which investigated visitors' general characteristics (e.g., age, gender, origin country, accommodation, group type and size, length of stay, etc.) and their decision-making processes (when decisions were made and itineraries planned, what influenced those decisions and purpose of travel).

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  • Tourism, growth and infrastructure demands: data review and gap analysis

    Dakers, A.; Simmons, D. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • Garden tourism and its potential organization in Canterbury

    Thomas, R. P.; Porteous, G.; Simmons, D. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This paper had its origin as a final year tourism research report at Lincoln University. In it we briefly review the concept of garden tourism which includes garden tours, garden festivals and special events, and the potential organization of this particular type of tourism in the Canterbury region. The origins of garden tourism in England and Germany are examined, followed by a review of models, objectives and management for organising garden festivals and special events. A description of a variety of New Zealand garden festivals follows. Results of a recent garden tourism survey are presented prior to a summary of the types of commercial garden tours offered in the Canterbury region. Recommendations and conclusions focus on the possible organisational structure of garden tourism in Canterbury, and on the goals, objectives and organisational development of garden tours and festivals in the region.

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  • Christchurch and Canterbury visitor profile

    Sleeman, R.; Simmons, D. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up to date assessment of the visitor industry profile (international and domestic) for the Christchurch and Canterbury marketing region. The report specifically covers: visitor arrivals; accommodation statistics (guest nights); visitor spending; and regional comparisons of performance.

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  • Eco-tourism: An ally of nature conservation? Defining the rule and measuring the outcomes

    Booth, K. L.; Cullen, R.; Hughey, K. F. D.; Leppens, J.; Maher, P. T.; Simmons, D. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • Visitors’ and locals’ views of environmental management in Christchurch, New Zealand

    Fairweather, J. R.; Maslin, C.; Swaffield, S. R.; Simmons, D. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The objective of the research presented in this report was to develop an understanding of visitors' and locals' views of environmental management in Christchurch. A total of 63 people were selected in a diverse, non-random sample with roughly equal proportions of men and women, and including 21 overseas visitors, 33 domestic visitors and 22 local people. Each subject sorted a pre selected set of structured photographs into nine piles, ranging from those that represented good environmental management to those that represented poor environmental management, to create their own Q sort. All Q sorts were factor analysed to identify three factors or views on environmental management. Subjects' attitudes, beliefs and expectations in making their selections were recorded in interviews and provide an additional basis for interpreting the three different factors. The themes distinctive to the factors, and the themes that are common to the factors, are discussed to develop some theoretical implications. Finally, a number of implications for policy are considered, in particular the need to retain a breadth of approaches to environmental management.

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  • The values associated with Maori-centred tourism in Canterbury

    Zygadlo, F. K.; McIntosh, A. J.; Matunga, H. P.; Fairweather, J. R.; Simmons, D. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The overall aim of this study was to analyse Maori tourism development in the Canterbury region according to values of Maori-centred tourism. The objectives to achieve this aim were to validate the relevance of the values of Maori-centred tourism to Maori tourism business practices in Canterbury and to identify the strategies for achieving Maori-centred tourism business ethics in Canterbury. A Kaupapa Maori research approach was used to achieve the objectives. This approach was seen appropriate given the need for a culturally relevant perspective. This included employing Maori values derived from a Maori epistemology as measures to analyse Maori tourism development.

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  • Enhancing financial and economic yield in tourism: public sector: local government and regional yield report

    Butcher, G.; Lennox, J.; Becken, S.; Simmons, D. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The programme “Enhancing Financial and Economic Yield in Tourism” has included a range of investigations into various dimensions of private sector yield of tourism businesses, as well as public sector yield of tourism at local and national levels. In this report the focus is on yield from a regional perspective. Yield in this report is understood as net financial or economic benefit. For the private sector, the measure of yield used is Economic Value Added, while for local government the measure of yield is the difference between costs and revenue. Local government yield related to tourism can best be interpreted within the context of regional total value added from tourism. While local government may have a negative yield for its own tourism-related business, it judges this to be worthwhile from the community perspective because of the commercial benefits to the community as evidenced by total value added and employment In this report the focus is on regional yield in Christchurch City, and Rotorua District, from the perspective of both the private sector and local government. We show private sector yield as Economic Value Added (EVA), which is the relevant measure for private investors, as well as the more common national accounting measure of total value added and total employment. We have estimated the private sector commercial yield on the basis of surveys of visitor expenditure and analysis of private sector financial yield ratios by sector, and the net costs and benefits to the local government sector on the basis of an analysis of local government revenue and spending.

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  • Tourism, water and waste in Akaroa : implications of tourist demand on infrastructure

    Cullen, R.; Dakers, A.; McNicol, J.; Meyer-Hubbert, G.; Simmons, D. G.; Fairweather, J. R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    There are three components to this research project. The first is the quantitative analysis of the impact of tourist flows to Akaroa on the town's water supply services and wastewater management services. The second is the quantitative analysis of the impact of tourist flows to Akaroa on the town's solid waste management services. The third component is the investigation of the way in which water supply, wastewater and solid waste systems are funded. This analysis investigates whether there are alternative funding systems that are more efficient, moderate demands, and are more equitable than present funding systems. It also considers how best to allocate any additional costs of water supply if there is growth in tourist numbers.

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  • The economic impact of tourism on Christchurch city and Akaroa township

    Butcher, G.; Fairweather, J. R.; Simmons, D. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    In recent years tourism has been one of the fastest growing sectors of the New Zealand economy, and has become particularly important in some smaller communities. Some of the larger cities also have high visitor numbers, and tourism may be a reasonably significant part of their economy. Those who administer community resources have a strong interest in knowing something about the scale of tourism in their economy so that they can judge the value of allocating resources to the sector. The first objective of this study was to estimate the size of direct tourism in Christchurch and Akaroa, and then calculate tourism multipliers (the ratio of direct impacts to total impacts for various types of visitor expenditure) at the level of each geographic entity. Application of these multipliers enables the calculation of total economic impacts of tourism on both Christchurch and Akaroa. The second objective of this study was to develop and trial such a method, drawing on the experience of previous case studies and making use of existing data bases on commercial accommodation bed-nights and visitor flows.

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  • Understanding visitors' experiences in Kaikoura using photographs of landscapes and Q method

    Fairweather, J. R.; Swaffield, S. R.; Simmons, D. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The primary objective of this study was to develop an understanding of visitors' experiences of the Kaikoura landscape using photographs of landscape and Q method. The literature on landscape perception shows that there is a range of paradigms extending from the expert to the experiential, and that there is a need to focus on the latter. Therefore, this study examines: the way individuals represent their subjective experience of landscape through the selection of a particular array of photographs; verbal explanations of their choice; and the social and cultural significance of those representations. The results concur with other research on landscape perception showing that 'naturalness' is an important component of preferred experiences. However, they also show that this preference is expressed in different ways, largely reflecting the cultural context of the visitor. The particularity of the responses highlights the need for locally grounded contextual understanding in order to interpret variations around and within generic themes. The results also show that Q method has significant potential for landscape research, especially for research that seeks to combine the experiential and socio-cultural paradigms.

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  • Summertime visitors to Kaikoura : characteristics, attractions and activities

    Simmons, D. G.; Horn, C.; Fairweather, J. R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report presents an analysis of summertime visitors to Kaikoura. Detailed information is presented on descriptive visitor characteristics, the attractions of Kaikoura, and activities undertaken, for a systematic sample of visitors in January and February 1998. For short stop visitors (those staying less than two hours), Kaikoura primarily fills the role of a 'convenient break' (79.7 per cent of first choice of attraction to Kaikoura). The core of this group comprises domestic (New Zealand) visitors (75 per cent) engaging in more extensive trips. While average expenditure per person per visit is relatively low (estimated at $2.40 per visitor) some activities are undertaken, including 15.6 per cent who visit the Kaikoura Information Tourism Inc. (KITI) visitor centre. This activity alone indicates a wider interest in Kaikoura, and signifies a potential for increasing length of stay or repeat visitation. Short stop visitors represent a large group – 43.5 per cent of all visitation or an estimated 380,000 visitors annually. Day visitors to Kaikoura (those staying more than two hours, but not overnight) are numerically the smallest of the three visitor groups. Visitors' numbers are estimated at 137,000 annually. For these visitors, Kaikoura is a specific destination as evidenced by their high interest in whale watching (48.1 per cent) and visiting the seal colony (43.6 per cent). Engagement in commercial activities and supporting industries lifts daily average daily per person expenditure for this group to $47.50 the highest of all three groups. Overnight visitors to Kaikoura, (those staying one or more nights) are mainly international tourists who make up seven of eight overnight visitors. Overnight visitors are estimated at 356,000 annually. Average length of stay is reported as 1.8 days. Within this pattern, domestic tourists tend to stay for shorter periods. Lower cost forms of accommodation (backpackers and motor camps) are used mostly, while commercial activities (whale watching and swimming/viewing dolphins especially) provide the key focus for commercial activity. Informal activities (visiting the seal colony, (63 per cent); and the visitor centre; (77.4 per cent) are nonetheless important to their overall experience in Kaikoura. These activities are paced throughout their visit to indicate an average daily per person expenditure of $45.73. Indices of satisfaction, measured as willingness to refer Kaikoura to others, and/or to re-visit, indicate high overall satisfaction by visitors of their experience in Kaikoura.

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  • Estimating the number of visitors to Kaikoura over one year by developing a vehicle observation method

    Fairweather, J. R.; Simmons, D. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The annual total of visitors to Kaikoura was estimated at 873,000. This number was derived from a method that involved four key steps: counting all traffic entering Kaikoura, observing a sample of vehicles to record licence plates and the number of people in each vehicle, identifying vehicles from outside of Kaikoura, and then estimating all visitor vehicle numbers and numbers of visitors.

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