1,804 results for Book

  • Discrete lines and ant algorithms

    Geer, P.; McLaughlin, H. W.; Unsworth, K.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This is a report on work in progress. The focus is on the design of an algorithm used to construct discrete lines. It is intended that this is the first step in applying models of complex adaptive systems to more complex geometric constructs. We construct discrete lines using agents (virtual ants) The agents are given very few rules, and otherwise move freely. With this design we allow a particular line to emerge from the movement of the agents rather than model the line first and then display it.

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  • Study of fracture properties of wood using high-speed video imaging and neural networks

    Samarasinghe, S.; Kulasiri, D.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    In this study, the Duration of Load (DOL) for crack initiation and propagation, crack speed, and load carrying capacity were investigated for three Rates of Loading (ROL) and four sizes of notched wood beams using high-speed video imaging and neural networks. For the smallest ROL, there was a distinct volume effect on DOL to initiation which was almost inhibited at the largest ROL. The DOL for crack propagation for all volumes appeared to be random. The crack propagation was a wave phenomenon with positive and negative speeds that varied with the rate of loading. The study showed that the crack initiation load, peak load, and their respective gross stresses were independent of ROL but were nonlinealry correlated with volume and the smallest volume maintained the highest stress. The stresses followed the Weibull's weakest link theory. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) revealed meaningful trends for the combined effect of physical and geometric variables on the loads and stresses. Fracture toughness was insensitive to ROL and realtively constant for the three larger volumes. However, the smallest size produced the largest fracture toughness, which was explained by a neural network model that showed that the width had the greatest influence on fracture toughness highlighting plane stress conditions. The study showed the usefulness of ANN for analyzing interaction among many variables affecting wood fracture behaviour and their potential to become reliable predictors of load carrying capacity including maximum load and stress and fracture toughness under the uncertain influence of these variables.

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  • Exploration of behaviour of a stochastic transport model using computational experiments

    Rajanayaka, C.; Kulasiri Don

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Fickian assumptions are used in deriving the advection-dispersion equation which models the solute transport in porous media. The hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient defined as a result of these assumptions has been found to be scale dependent. Kulasiri and Verwoerd [1999] developed a stochastic computational model for solute transport in saturated porous media without using Fickian assumptions. The model consists of two main parameters; correlation length and variance, and the velocity of solute was assumed as a fundamental stochastic variable. In this paper, the stochastic model was investigated to understand its behaviour. As the statistical nature of the model changes with the parameters, the computational solution of the model was explored in relation to the parameters. The variance is found to be the dominant parameter, however, there is a correlation between two parameters and they influence the stochasticity of the flow in a complex manner. We hypothesised that the variance is inversely proportional to the pore size and the correlation length represents the geometry of flow. The computational results of different scales show that the hypotheses are reasonable. The model illustrates that it could capture the scale dependence of dispersivity and mimic the advection-dispersion equation in more deterministic situations.

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  • Phosphorus losses through transfer, soil erosion and runoff : processes and implications

    Ward, Jonet C.; Talbot, J. M.; Denne, T.; Abrahamson, Michael

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Phosphate rock is a strategic material upon which pastoral agriculture and all New Zealanders depend. Phosphate fertilizer has no close substitute, and is, therefore an important limiting factor to agricultural productivity. The future wellbeing of the country depends on its efficient acquisition, manufacture, distribution and use. This report is part of a larger cross-disciplinary study carried out by Centre staff on the multiple dimensions of phosphate management in New Zealand. The report presents an examination of phosphorus losses from the production system and the attendant consequences on environmental quality. Special emphasis is given to hill country loss mechanism, where it is known that significant amounts of phosphate fertilizer are picked up in surface runoff and/or are displaced by grazing animals. The longer term consequences of nutrient loading on downstream water bodies are discussed, and the policy and management implications for maintaining current water quality levels are highlighted.

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  • Social objective synthesis report 2: social differentiation and choice of management system among ARGOS Farmers/Orchardists

    Rosin, C.; Hunt, L. M.; Fairweather, J. R.; Campbell, H.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The ARGOS (Agriculture Research Group on Sustainability) project was designed to enable the interrogation of the condition of sustainability in the New Zealand agriculture sector. To account for the country’s reliance on a neoliberal (or market driven) policy orientation, the research programme compares groups of producers organised into panels whose members comply with similar audit schemes that regulate entrance into high value export markets. Because these audit schemes often include criteria or standards associated with improved environmental or social practice, comparison of the panels on the basis of economic, environmental and social measures and indicators provides insight to the potential for such schemes to promote a more sustainable agriculture sector in New Zealand. To the extent that such schemes do influence practice, we would expect to differentiate among the panels in reference to such criteria. As part of the overall ARGOS analysis, this report provides a synthesis of the social research conducted within the project and contributes to the examination of the ARGOS null hypothesis, namely that there is no significant difference in the economic, environmental and social dimensions and characteristics of the participating farms and orchards. The report’s main objectives are to assess both the extent to which it is possible to differentiate among the management system panels of ARGOS farms/orchards and how such difference is manifest in the social dimensions of farm life. To the extent that this analysis provides evidence to reject the null hypothesis, it is possible to inform understandings of agricultural sustainability as well as provide insight to the potential pathways to improving this condition.

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  • Monitoring Kererū population size and investigating the relationship between cats and Kererū at Church Bay and Orton Bradley Park, Banks Peninsula

    Skerten Rose; Wilson Kerry Jayne; Ogilvie Shaun, C.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The kererū (Hemiphaga noveaseelandiae) are New Zealand's native woodpigeon. The ability of kererū to inhabit fragmented native forest, their characteristic iridescent plumage and distinct noise when in flight, make them a well known and loved native bird. As with the vast majority of New Zealand‟s indigenous species, the population of kererū has declined significantly since the arrival of people and the foreign mammals they bought with them, approximately 1200 years ago. Currently, kererū are listed as in gradual decline and are categorised as of “least concern” under the IUCN Red List. However, kererū are of utmost concern to the ecological restoration of New Zealand‟s native forests as they are probably the sole disperser of large fruiting native plants. In recent years a number of kererū conservation projects throughout New Zealand have been established. One such initiative, is the Kaupapa Kererū project. Kaupapa Kererū is a collaborative, iwi-lead project, which aims to increase the numbers and range of kererū on Banks Peninsula by working with the community to raise awareness and appreciation for kererū, and also by researching kererū ecology."

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  • New Zealand Farmer Attitude and Opinion Survey 2008 : Management systems and farming sustainability

    Fairweather, J. R.; Hunt, L. M.; Rosin, C.; Moller, H.; Norton, S.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The survey results presented in this report are part of ongoing research on New Zealand farmers and how they respond to changes and issues related to the sustainability of primary production. The survey assessed how farmers perceived three management systems (conventional, modified conventional or integrated management, and organic). Questions covered the precise identification of the management system the farmers used, their intentions to use different management systems, what they perceived as the outcomes from the use of each management system and the perceived barriers to using an alternative system. An additional objective was to assess how farmers were thinking about a range of issues important to the sustainability of agriculture, including farm plans, emissions trading, and water and irrigation. A questionnaire was posted to a random sample of full-time and part-time farmers. The response rate was only 16%, possibly due to the timing of the survey and the difficulty of the questions. Most of the questions used a seven point rating scale and the mean score and score distributions were examined. The data were analysed descriptively, supplemented with some statistical tests and detailed analyses.

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  • Outdoor Education in Aotearoa/New Zealand : an annotated bibliography

    Lynch Pip; Massam Robyn; Peebles Catherine

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Interest in outdoor education has grown significantly over recent decades, and with this interest has come a growth in literature about outdoor education in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Much of this literature was collated in 1989 (Bailey, 1989). The present bibliography updates the 1989 effort with the added dimension of annotations in the form of an abstract for each publication listed. The publications listed include empirical research reports as well as literature that has a descriptive, conceptual or policy focus. This bibliography is targeted principally toward those undertaking academic studies related to outdoor education. For this reason, material dealing solely with venues, equipment and activity ideas for outdoor education (e.g. guide books, activity manuals and technical books) has been excluded. Additionally, the latter publications are numerous and relatively easily accessible. This bibliography is a collation of material less readily available, but nonetheless valuable. The authors have noted the quality and quantity of information on outdoor education emanating from conferences. To increase awareness of this comprehensive source of information and to make it more readily available, individual conference papers as well as complete conference proceedings have been referenced.

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  • Compact cities: everyday life, governance and the built environment: an annotated bibliography and literature review

    Vallance, S.; Perkins, H. C.; Dixon, J. E.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This publication comprises a literature review on quality of life in compact cities from a social scientific perspective. Though compact cities are generally thought to be the most sustainable urban form, it is debateable whether or not such cities do perform better across social, economic or bio-physical environmental measures. Furthermore, urban intensification and consolidation is often rejected and resisted by urban residents who prefer low-density, suburban settings. Consequently, cities continue to ‘sprawl’. This publication has four parts. Part one is an essay reviewing and synthesising lessons from the articles presented in the subsequent three sections. These sections each address a particular aspect of quality of life in the city: its form (part 2), the way it is governed and managed (part 3) and the ways in which people relate with each other and with ‘nature’ in the urban context (part 4).

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  • Guidelines for community odour assessment

    Blackford, C.; Greer, G.; Young, J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This project has been partially funded under the Ministry for the Environment's Sustainable Management Fund and contributes towards maintaining air quality in New Zealand. The management of effects of odour-producing activities has been limited to some degree by the fact that firm guidelines for gathering complaints had not been developed and that the international air quality regulatory community appeared to have been slow to develop standardised procedures for carrying out odour surveys and for determining overall community response to actual or perceived odour problems. In other words, there has been a need for procedures with which to collect subjective information using recognised objective approaches. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on a range of standardised techniques that can be used to establish when community odour problems exist and the magnitude of the problem. The guidelines focus on sociological and associated methods of community odour assessment and provide means by which local authority officers or the operators of odour producing facilities can investigate whether facilities are causing adverse effects (in terms of the Resource Management Act 1991 (RMA)) or nuisance or offensiveness (in terms of the Health Act 1956). The odour assessment techniques proposed were identified through consultation with the tangata whenua and the National Air Quality Working Group, a review of the relevant international literature, a survey of local authority staff and interviews with people in communities where odour is a problem. Guidelines are provided for: 1) community surveys (questioning on one occasion); 2)odour diaries; 3) community odour panels (questioning on several occasions); 4) public meetings; 5) working parties; 6) consultation with the tangata whenua; 7) community consultation. We have assumed two broad situations in which the techniques might be used. One is for internal monitoring purposes where the organisation does not intend to use the data collected in legal proceedings. In this instance the guidelines can serve as a guide to good practice. The second situation where information could be or is expected to be presented as evidence in legal proceedings. In this latter instance it is important that a recognised expert in question and sample design and data analysis be engaged to ensure that the evidence meets the requirements for admissibility.

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  • The ecological effects of new roads : a literature review

    Spellerberg, I. F.; Morrison, T.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The brief was as follows: 1. identify and critically assess the impacts (during construction and use) of new roads on the natural environment, habitats and species in protected areas; 2. identify ways of mitigating impacts (such as by way of ecological buffer zones) with reference to specific case studies in New Zealand and in other similar biogeographical regions; 3. identify future research agendas relevant to the topic. The research is a first step in which information on the topic is assembled. The methods included searches of journals, library databases, advertisements in journals and on the Worldwide Web and through the generosity of many colleagues. A few literature databases relevant to the area of research do exist; the largest being that compiled by Wildlands Centre for Preventing Roads (CPR) in the USA. There are also a few literature reviews on the ecological effects of roads (to ensure an independent approach was taken, these were not consulted until this report was completed). There are many reports on the physical and chemical effects of roads, associated structures and road traffic. These include soil erosion, alteration to surface water hydrology and pollutants in water run-off. There is a large number of reports on the presence of pollutants in biota inhabiting roadside verges. Most of the literature simply reported surveys in which levels of heavy metals and other pollutants are recorded. Very few reports discuss the effects of pollutants; no generalisation can be made because the effects of biota vary from group to group. Some reports indicate that plants on roadside verges become more susceptible to disease and attacks by pests. There is a need for long-term monitoring studies and research which looks at the fate of pollutants in ecosystems. The ecological effects of roads include physical disturbance, habitat loss, extinction of populations and species near the road edge, mortality of wildlife on roads, use of road edges has habitats, dispersal of wildlife (including invasive species and alien species) along road networks. The most important and serious impact of roads on nature is through habitat fragmentation; that is, not only loss of habitats but fragmentation of previously contiguous habitats and subsequent isolation of habitat fragments. Habitat fragmentation is considered by many to be the greatest and most serious threat to nature. Fragmentation of habitats has implications for loss of biological diversity at species, population and genetic levels. New roads may take traffic, people and introduced species to what were previously undisturbed areas with subsequent impacts on the ecology of the area. Roads facilitate more roads and there is an incremental and long lasting effect. The detrimental effects of roads on nature by far outweighs any advantages to wildlife; both in the short-term and particularly in the long-term. Attempts to reduce the ecological effects have been addressed in many ways. Pollutants in surface water from roads can be contained. The barrier effects of roads can be reduced with tunnels and nature overpasses. The road edge can be managed for indigenous wildlife. Loss of habitat can be compensated by establishing similar habitats elsewhere (mitigation banking). However, habitat fragmentation has not and can not been addressed fully; road routes can be changed to reduce fragmentation but the only real answer is not to build the road. There are several areas in need of further research. The long term effects of pollution on roadside wildlife have not been investigated in depth. The effectiveness of tunnels and other routes for wildlife seems not well quantified. The effects of roads on dispersal of alien species is an area of particular relevance to New Zealand. The methodology and methods for assessment of likely ecological impacts requires much more research and development.

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  • Research into the status and distribution of Chatham Islands endangered invertebrates

    Emberson Rowan, M.; Early, J. W.; Syrett Pauline; Marris John, W. M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Examination of public collections in New Zealand has established the former distribution of three protected beetle species, the Chatham Islands click beetle (Amychus candezei Pascoe), the coxella weevil (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun), and the Pitt Island longhorn beetle (Xylotoles costatus Pascoe). It has shown that there has been a significant contraction in the distribution of all species to the outer predator-free islands of the Chathams group. A field expedition in November and December 1992 was successful in locating all three species and extending the known distribution of A. candezei to Mangere Island. However, only a single specimen of X. costatus was found. One of the main findings of the expedition was the contrast in diversity and abundance of the ground-dwelling insect fauna between the predator-free islands and Chatham and Pitt Islands. This demonstrates what has already been lost from the larger islands of the group and the extent of the problem facing the Pitt Island restoration project.

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  • Recreational game hunting: motivations, satisfactions and participation

    Woods, A.; Kerr, G. N.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    New Zealand recreational hunting management is on the cusp of major change with the possibility of the New Zealand Game Animal Council (NZGAC) gaining responsibility for managing hunting on much of the public estate. In order to manage hunting effectively the NZGAC will need to, amongst other things, understand the aspirations of recreational hunters, which raises the question of why people hunt and what makes a successful hunting trip. Other questions are important too: How many people hunt? What species do they hunt? Are they hunting for meat or trophies? What constitutes a trophy? These might seem like simple questions, but New Zealand data are extremely sparse, probably because of the “pest management” philosophy of hunting administration in recent times. Several of these matters are left for later study. This report reviews the international and New Zealand literature on hunter motivations, factors influencing hunter satisfaction, and participation. The objectives of this report are to review New Zealand and international literature to identify the main motivations for participating in hunting, to identify the factors that influence hunter satisfaction, and to make an initial assessment of New Zealand participation levels. Section 2 briefly reports the methods employed to analyse the literature. Results are reported in Sections 3‐5 and conclusions are drawn in Section 6.

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  • Environmental values of the state highway corridor: a West Coast case study survey of stakeholders

    Wilson, J.; Swaffield, S.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report presents the results of a field investigation into the environmental values and landscape preferences of key stakeholders in relation to the management of the roadside corridor of the State Highway system. The New Zealand State Highway network is a critical component of the country’s public infrastructure, connecting communities, towns and cities to farms, forests, industry and ports, and region to region. The network crosses the full range of New Zealand’s natural and modified environments. In some areas, the highway is the major built asset within a largely unmodified landscape. In other, more intensively developed areas, the highway network is a working part of a cultural landscape mosaic of different land uses, features and other infrastructure. The specific objective of the work reported here is to investigate the perceptions and values of road user groups, designers and managers that relate to the State Highway Corridor Reserve. The research design was based on a regional case study, focused upon the West Coast of the South Island. The report presents the results of questions about preference, identity and management of the non engineering assets in the State Highway reserve, within the context of the wider landscape corridor of the highway.

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  • The river values assessment system: volume 1: overview of the method, guidelines for use and applications to recreational values

    Baker, M. A.; Hughey, K. F. D.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Many attempts over several decades have been made to develop priority lists of important rivers for different values (e.g., angling, kayaking, irrigation, native birds) in New Zealand. Apart from one or two of these most have lacked clear methods, have been data poor, have been ad hoc, and perhaps worst of all, have not been standardised to provide a method that could be applied to all values. It was within this context and with demonstrable Resource Management Act and related policy demands for such lists, that Tasman District Council sought to have a tool that would construct such lists developed. A review of the literature found that no method existed that could undertake this task, but that Multi Criteria Analysis provided a possible means forward. The River Values Assessment System (RiVAS) is a Multi Criteria Analysis based tool that enables any set of rivers to be prioritised for any specified value. The key elements of the tool are: It is expert panel based and uses the best available information – in some cases this will mean almost no quantitative scientific information (e.g., river swimming), while in others it will be mainly based on scientific data (e.g., native birds); The primary attributes and a key indicator of each for the value have to be identified and populated – these need to range from between 6-10 for manageability; Thresholds of high, medium, low relative significance need to be defined for each attribute’s indicator – these are then converted to numeric scales of typically 3 to 1 for high to low respectively; The sum of these numeric scores (sometimes weighted where particular criteria are more or less important than others) then forms the basis for the comparative importance ranking of this value between rivers; Predetermined criteria to define national, regional or local importance, or high, medium or low importance (depending on the value and related legal/policy issues) are then used to perform the ranking exercise; The end result is a list of ranked rivers (or segments depending on the value) for that value. The method has now been applied to multiple values in multiple regions, with a focus on repeat applications within Tasman District Council. This two volume report outlines the method used, provides a set of guidelines for its further implementation, and then provides multiple demonstrations of it in action. Through the course of these demonstrations the changes that have occurred are documented and all are consistent with the underlying method employed.

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  • The river values assessment system: volume 2: application to cultural, production and environmental values

    Hughey, K. F. D.; Baker, M. A.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Many attempts over several decades have been made to develop priority lists of important rivers for different values (e.g., angling, kayaking, irrigation, native birds) in New Zealand. Apart from one or two of these most have lacked clear methods, have been data poor, have been ad hoc, and perhaps worst of all, have not been standardised to provide a method that could be applied to all values. It was within this context and with demonstrable Resource Management Act and related policy demands for such lists, that Tasman District Council sought to have a tool that would construct such lists developed. A review of the literature found that no method existed that could undertake this task, but that Multi Criteria Analysis provided a possible means forward. The River Values Assessment System (RiVAS) is a Multi Criteria Analysis based tool that enables any set of rivers to be prioritised for any specified value. The key elements of the tool are: It is expert panel based and uses the best available information – in some cases this will mean almost no quantitative scientific information (e.g., river swimming), while in others it will be mainly based on scientific data (e.g., native birds); The primary attributes and a key indicator of each for the value have to be identified and populated – these need to range from between 6-10 for manageability; Thresholds of high, medium, low relative significance need to be defined for each attribute’s indicator – these are then converted to numeric scales of typically 3 to 1 for high to low respectively; The sum of these numeric scores (sometimes weighted where particular criteria are more or less important than others) then forms the basis for the comparative importance ranking of this value between rivers; Predetermined criteria to define national, regional or local importance, or high, medium or low importance (depending on the value and related legal/policy issues) are then used to perform the ranking exercise; The end result is a list of ranked rivers (or segments depending on the value) for that value. The method has now been applied to multiple values in multiple regions, with a focus on repeat applications within Tasman District Council. This two volume report outlines the method used, provides a set of guidelines for its further implementation, and then provides multiple demonstrations of it in action. Through the course of these demonstrations the changes that have occurred are documented and all are consistent with the underlying method employed.

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  • Maori recreation and conservation estate

    Matunga, H. P.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report arose out the need for more research into Maori participation in outdoor recreation within the conservation estate. To its credit, DOC has recognised the need to assess the cultural appropriateness of its recreational policy and practice and to better understand Maori attitudes to recreational use of the conservation estate. The primary purpose of this research, therefore, was to develop a better understanding of Maori recreational needs within the conservation estate and to develop a so-called 'Treaty based approach' in the management of the conservation estate to better provide for these needs.

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  • The impact of the Lincoln University dairy farm and the South Island Dairying Development Centre on Canterbury and North Otago farmers

    Pangborn, M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    In June of 2008, a postal survey was conducted of dairy farmers in the LUDF catchment area of Canterbury and North Otago. The objective of the survey was to determine the demographics of farmers in the area and to gauge whether farmers had adopted the technologies demonstrated by the LUDF. The data was analysed by staff in the Agriculture and Life Sciences Division of Lincoln University using the software SPPS 15.

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  • A national-level screening exercise to assess tourism’s vulnerability to climate change

    Becken, S.; Butcher, G.; Edmonds, J.; Hendrikx, J.; Hughey, K. F. D.; Reisinger, A.; Wilson, J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    It is widely acknowledged that over the 21st century the global community will need to adapt to the effects of climate change. Current climate models predict that New Zealand will experience increasing temperatures, changing frequency, intensity and distribution of rainfall events, decreased snow cover and sea level rise. Such changes will impact on key regional tourism drivers such as destination attractiveness, product content, business profitability, infrastructure planning and investment. Changes will manifest locally and will uniquely affect individual tourist destinations, communities and businesses. An ability to respond is therefore vital. Thus, the overarching goals of this research are: • Identifying which parts of the tourism industry are most vulnerable to the effects of climate change; • Developing key indicators which allow tourism businesses to measure, assess and track their vulnerability to climate change; • Establishing what adaptation measures are most appropriate for minimising vulnerability to the effects of climate change; and • Providing the tools necessary to achieving effective management, not only in terms of reducing vulnerability to climate change but also in identifying opportunities for taking advantage of a changing climate. This background paper will outline progress to date in relating to understanding tourism’s vulnerability at a national level. Following this stage, detailed analysis on vulnerability, indicators and adaptation measures will be undertaken in three case studies.

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  • Coleoptera of beetles of the Chatham Islands in the collections of the Department of the Entomology and Animal Ecology

    Emberson Rowan, M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The Entomology Museum of Lincoln University contains a substantial collection of insect specimens from the Chatham Islands. The Coleoptera are particularly well represented and are maintained in about 50 standard insect boxes. Over 200 separate species are included out of a total beetle fauna of perhaps 270 species. Most of the material is derived from two substantial visits from the University to the Chathams, in January 1990 and November - December 1992, with lesser amounts of material from other sources. Insect collecting has been undertaken on Chatham, Pitt, Rangitira and Mangere in conjunction with insect conservations projects. In the following list beetles are listed by family and records of each species in the Lincoln University collection are indicated by lower case letter: a) collected 10-24 January 1990; b) collected 21 November - 5 December 1992; x) other sources.

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