1,808 results for Book

  • Property rights and hazardous substances policy

    Hide, Rodney P.; Ackroyd, Peter

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Report to the Ministry for the Environment.

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  • Conservation and sustainable use of New Zealand flora: on non-conservation land

    Cullen, R.; Hughey, K. F. D.; Booth, K.; Crawford, K.; Allen, W.; Kilvington, M. J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • Studies in costs of production town milk supply farms 1974-75

    Gillespie, R. J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This Report is the second in the annual serilies of cost of production surveys on New Zealand town milk supply farms. The surveys are being undertaken by the Unit on a contract basis for the New Zealand Milk Board and the Town Milk Producers Federation of New Zealand (Inc.). The first Report which related to the 1973/74 season was published in March of this year as Research Report No. 74. As in the past the major objective of the surveys is to determine the average labour return being received by town milk producers in New Zealand. Nevertheless the opportunity provjded by the surveys has been used to collect additional data so that over a period of time a more comprehensive profile of the industry will be built up.

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  • Some aspects of innovation & technology adoption in New Zealand agriculture

    van Reenen, Gilbert

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The New Zealand Kellogg Rural Leaders Programme develops emerging agribusiness leaders to help shape the future of New Zealand agribusiness and rural affairs. Lincoln University has been involved with this leaders programme since 1979 when it was launched with a grant from the Kellogg Foundation, USA.

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  • Swimming in Hawke’s Bay: Application of the River Values Assessment System (RiVAS and RiVAS+)

    Booth Kay; Madaraz Smith Anna; Mauger Jenny; Paipper Aki; Petuha Erin; Sharp Tim

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report presents the results from an application of the River Values Assessment System (RiVAS) for river swimming in the Hawke’s Bay Region. A workshop was held on 18 October 2011 to apply the method to Hawke’s Bay rivers.

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  • An inventory of natural asset monitoring tools: with recommendations for visitor impact monitoring applications

    Hughey, K. F. D.; Coleman, D.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The overall goal of the study is to develop a baseline inventory of natural asset condition and impact monitoring tools that can be used to derive lists of standard tools for visitor impact monitoring applications. It is based on identifying the main natural asset value categories, and the standard monitoring methods associated with these, then identifying which of these have valid visitor impact management applications.

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  • Survey of New Zealand farmer intentions and opinions, October-December, 1983

    Pryde, J. G.; McCartin, P. J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This survey is the sixth major survey of New Zealand Farmer Intentions and Opinions. All have been aimed at providing policymakers and those in the agri-business sector in New Zealand with data on which they can formulate policies and planning. The surveys have been continued in response to demands from those who want data on what farmers are intending to do, what they are thinking on major issues, how they are fairing on the financial side and what are some of the factors that determine their input purchases. In this survey we again inserted special questions on financial matters raised in earlier surveys. In addition we included for the first time some sociological questions to ascertain some feelings and views of the rural sector.

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  • A financial and economic survey of South Auckland town milk producers and factory supply dairy farmers, 1983-84

    Moffitt, R. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The town milk industry has been linked to returns in the factory supply industry for many years by a pricing formula. While the formula has been changed from time to time, it is basically designed to provide equity between these two groups of milk producers. It is difficult to maintain such equity given that the production systems are so different. For this reason it is useful to carry out an analysis of comparative returns from time to time. Such an analysis is particularly relevant at this time given the examination of the Town Milk industry by the IDC. A survey sample of South Auckland town milk and factory supply dairy farms was undertaken early in 1985. The object was to compare the financial and economic differences between the two types of dairy farms in 1983/84. A further objective was to assess the increased costs of autumn and winter milk production which have to be met on a town milk farm.

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  • Feeding frequency, meal size and chick growth in the threatened Pycroft's petrel (Pterodroma pycrofti)

    Gangloff Benoit; Wilson Kerry Jayne

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Many species of gadfly petrel (genus Pterodroma) are threatened or endangered, including, in New Zealand, the Chatham petrel (Pterodroma axillaris), and Pycroft's petrel (P. pycrofti). Conservation actions for these species include the establishment of new breeding colonies on predator-free offshore islands by translocation. Due to the high philopatry of most gadfly petrels, only chicks that have not yet been imprinted with their natal ground can be transferred. Translocation of Chatham petrel and Pycroft's petrel chicks are scheduled in 2002. However, data on the chick stage in these two species, and in small Pterodroma in general, are scant, and techniques to age chicks to determine their transferability are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the feeding frequency, meal size and growth of Pycroft's petrel nestlings, to compare the results with Chatham petrel data and to identify factors that could be used to age a chick of unknown age prior to a translocation. Fifty Pycroft's petrel chicks were monitored between 17 January and 26 March 2001 on Red Mercury Island, New Zealand. Chicks were weighed every one or two days to determine their feeding frequency and meal size, and had their bill, tarsus, tail and wing length measured at regular intervals until they fledged or until 26 March. Thirty other chicks formed a control group and were weighed and measured on 29 January and 15 March. The age of first emergence from burrow was also determined. Similar data on Chatham petrel were also analysed.

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  • Public perceptions of New Zealand's environment: 2006

    Hughey, K. F. D.; Kerr, G. N.; Cullen, R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The fourth biennial survey of people’s perceptions of the state of the New Zealand environment was undertaken in February - March 2006. The survey is based on the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model of state of the environment reporting. It tests New Zealanders’ perceptions of all the main resource areas and in 2006 also looked more specifically at land transport environmental, social and related issues, and people’s perceptions of government and individual priorities. Two thousand people aged 18 and over were randomly selected from the New Zealand electoral roll. An effective response rate of 46% was achieved. Data have been analysed descriptively and the 2006 survey responses were compared with responses from the 2004, 2002 and 2000 surveys. Statistical analyses of the responses were completed to determine the roles of several demographic variables.

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  • On development and comparative study of two Markov models of rainfall in the dry zone of Sri Lanka

    Punyawardena, B. V. R.; Kulasiri, Don

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Being closer to the equator, the most important climatic element for agricultural production in Sri Lanka is rainfall which is erratic and highly unpredictable in nature, especially in the dry zone. This study attempts to model the weekly rainfall climatology of dry zone using Markov processes as the driving mechanism based on the 51 years of past data. The weekly occurrence of rainfall was modelled by two-state first and second order Markov chains while the amount of rainfall on a rainy week was approximated by taking random variates from the best fitted right skewed probability distribution out of Gamma, Weibull, Log-Normal and Exponential distributions. The parameters of the both models namely, elements of transition matrices, and scale and shape parameters of the desired distribution, were determined using weekly data. Both first and second Markov chains performed similarly in terms of modelling weekly rainfall occurrence and amount of rainfall if rain occurred. Use of second order Markov chain did not enhance the representativeness of the simulated data to the observed data in spite of being penalised for its large number of computations. Weekly rainfall data generated with the first-order Markov chain model preserve the statistical and seasonal characteristics that exist in the historical records.

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  • Group ARC - a collaborative approach to GIS

    Churcher Neville; Churcher Clare

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • Mathematical models for computer generation of knotty boards and panels

    Liu, Huawu; Kulasiri, Don

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Most wood boards contain knots. Knots are known as the most weakening factor affecting mechanical properties and the major cause of drying deformation. Some useful mathematical models were developed in this article for later computer simulation on the behaviours of knotty boards in service and in processes. Geometrical features of knot wood including growth angle, position and three dimensional shape were modelled. All sawn patterns and cutting positions were generated. Formulae and modelling steps were introduced and geometrical features of knots were discussed in detail using projective geometry.

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  • Spatial interpolation of rainfall in the dry zone of Sri Lanka

    Punyawardena, B. V. R.; Kulasiri, Don

    Book
    Lincoln University

    One of the problems which often arises in climatology is either data at a given site is missing or the site is ungauged. In this study, a spatial interpolation model was developed to estimate the weekly rainfall of the Dry zone of Sri Lanka at ungauged sites assuming that the spatial continuity of rainfall at two neighbouring locations are exponentially correlated. Twenty years of weekly rainfall data from six stations located in the Dry zone was used in the study. To support the methodology, the results of the exponential model were compared with the other two methods of spatial interpolation techniques, namely, the local mean and the inverse distance methods. The results of the study indicate that the exponential correlation model is a promising candidate for estimating mean weekly rainfall of the Dry zone. However, the local mean and the inverse distance methods compare quite well along with the exponential model, indicating that more complex models have no particular advantage over simple models for estimating rainfall in the Dry zone of Sri Lanka. Nevertheless, the results point towards the relative importance of the exponential model as opposed to the other two models when the neighbouring locations do not have long series of historical records.

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  • Quasi 3-D moment method for rapid calculation of electric field distribution in a low loss inhomogeneous dielectric

    Buchan Graeme, D.; Kulasiri Don; Woodhead Ian, M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Numerous applications of dielectric modelling require computation of the distribution of the total electric field in an inhomogeneous dielectric, in response to an applied electric field. An integral equation method would normally use an electric field volume integral technique using the moment method and hence compute the field in three-dimensional space. For those instances where the third dimension of the region is invariant, the heavy resource use of calculating the additional dimension is an unnecessary burden. The revised method reported in this paper sums the field contribution from the invariant third dimension at each stage of the two dimensional calculation, reducing the order of the model matrix by 4n² where n is the number of cells in each dimension. Thus by accepting a small loss in accuracy of less than 3 %, this procedure reduces the required memory resource by more than 4n², and execution time is dramatically improved. Assuming an essentially loss less permittivity, we use the calculated electric field distribution from a parallel transmission line to calculate the line's propagation velocity, and demonstrate favourable comparison with measured values.

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  • A strategic approach to the use of environmental impact assessment and risk assessment within the decision-making process

    Gough, Janet D.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The Resource Management Law Reform process presently underway is likely to result in considerable changes being made to the way in which the assessment processes, which are the subject of this work, fit within the revised institutional arrangements. When this project was proposed it was not obvious that these changes would have as major an influence as is presently understood. This uncertainty has made it difficult to make precise recommendations as was originally intended. This is not necessarily to the detriment of the project since the further this research has progressed the more obvious it has become that impact assessment procedures are in general heavily value laden despite a greater tendency towards the use of quantitative methods. This, along with rapidly changing methodologies means that it is important that the institutional basis for impact assessment remains as flexible as possible, whilst ensuring that the protection afforded by proper evaluation and management impacts is available to society. There are two main policy questions regarding impact assessment that must be answered before guidelines can be established. First of all, does society wish to regulate for 'risky' situations or does it wish to use other mechanisms such as voluntary compliance? Secondly, if assessment procedures are to be used as a tool in either case, then who is to be responsible for the analysis? Developers and proponents are looking for clear policy guidelines which: firstly, define the types of allowable activities on a national, regional and local basis; and secondly, define the institutional or regulatory requirements for specific activities. There is a feeling that the problems of dealing with risk will be solved if developers are given a clear guide as to the requirements that must be fulfilled for their project to receive approval. One suggestion is that a checklist capable of being applied to a large number of situations be compiled. The difficulty is that by the time all possible contingencies were covered the checklist would most likely be incomprehensible. This type of approach might, however, be useful for a limited type of development or activity (for example, installations storing or using hazardous substances). Before explicit management guidelines can be specified the policy issues with respect to the use of assessment procedures need to be clarified. This report discusses the policy / management relationship and related issues, but adopts a management perspective. If assessment procedures are to be effective they must be viewed within a management framework where the full range of conditions including implementation of the selected option and monitoring of the impacts can be assessed. This report does not attempt to provide a precise process to be followed for impact assessment. What it does do is: examine the need for such procedures; consider where they fit within the traditional decision-making process; and suggest a generalised approach for dealing with public and private proposals where consent procedures are required. A part of the work presented here in the final part of this project is the product of discussions and correspondence with risk practitioners, or people working in areas involving practical impact assessment. These discussions have been invaluable in the search towards understanding the changing attitudes towards impact assessments in general, risk analysis, risk research and risk management.

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  • Indicators of sustainable energy development

    Wright, Janice

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The social and environmental inadequacies of conventionally defined economic growth have led to the advocacy of "sustainability" as a more appropriate goal for national development.The broad goal of "sustainable development" is not easy to translate into practical strategies. This publication follows a series on natural resource accounting prepared for the Ministry for the Environment. Natural resource accounting is an attempt to incorporate consideration of resource depletion and environmental degradation into national decision making. The most recent of these publications (Information Paper No. 26) is an examination of the feasibility of preparing energy accounts for New Zealand. Energy accounting is another approach to the problem of measuring sustainable energy development

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  • An economic survey of New Zealand wheatgrowers : enterprise analysis : survey no. 4, 1979-80

    Lough, R. D.; MacLean, R. M.; McCartin, P. J.; Rich, M. M.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report is the fourth in an annual series of economic surveys of New Zealand wheatgrowing farms. These surveys have been undertaken by the Agricultural Economics Research Unit at Lincoln College on behalf of Wheat Growers Sub-Section of Federated Farmers of New Zealand Incorporation. Specific attention has been focused on the physical characteristics of wheatgrowing farms, the area of wheat and other crops sown, wheat yields, management practices and costs and returns for the 1979-80 wheat crop. An attempt has also been made to allocate plant and machinery overhead costs to the wheat enterprise on both an historical and current cost basis. A comparison of this information with past surveys enables a more comprehensive profile of the industry to emerge. The need for current and, detailed information from the Survey involved two visits to the farms in the sample; one in the spring following drilling and the second in the autumn after harvest.

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  • Project: research stocktake: Stage 1 Literature collection and annotation

    Tipples, Rupert; Wilson, Jude

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This New Zealand bibliography was compiled by researchers at Lincoln University and while extensive does not in any way purport to be a complete set of references on New Zealand agricultural labour issues. Lincoln University itself holds copies of a significant proportion of New Zealand literature and research into all agricultural issues and topics. While many references listed here were easily located through library and database ‘keyword’ searches in some cases they were found ‘accidentally’ on the library shelves. This suggests that others may have been ‘missed’, especially as the topic area is so varied. Agricultural labour material appears across a wide range of topic areas from agriculture, to economics and commerce, and rural geography and rural sociology. The majority of references listed in this bibliography are available from New Zealand libraries and include books, chapters in books, research reports, theses, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings as well as some industry reports.

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  • Non-linear optical constants from molecular hyperpolarisabilities: 1. Iterative solution of quadractic tensor equations for mutual polarisation

    Verwoerd, W. S.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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