195 results for Book item, 2009

  • Ka pai - well done: Student teacher perceptions of assessment feedback in distance learning.

    Margrain, V. G.; Everiss, L.; Murphy, T.; Edlin, A.; McClew, J.; Meade, A. (2009)

    Book item
    Open Polytechnic

    Discusses the results of a mixed-method investigation of student perceptions of the role of assessment feedback.

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  • The nature and status of public relations practice in Africa

    Skinner, C.; Mersham, G. M. (2009)

    Book item
    Open Polytechnic

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  • Using the online medium for discursive research about people with disabilities.

    Bowker, N.; Tuffin, K. (2009)

    Book item
    Open Polytechnic

    Online interviews are deemed an effective and appropriate approach for accessing discourse about the online experiences of people with disabilities. Some of the central arguments in support of conducting discursive research online, a type of qualitative approach, are delineated. Various practical benefits are considered for researchers, as well as participants--especially those with disabilities. Ethical issues surrounding access to, and the analysis of, readily available data in online communities are brought to the fore. In light of ethical dilemmas surrounding naturalistic data collection online, an alternative approach is offered, which utilizes online interviews with people with disabilities about their online experiences. A description of the data-collection process is given, including participants and recruitment, materials and procedures, rapport building, and security and ethics. Reflections on the process highlight how methodological pitfalls were managed and, in some cases, resolved.

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  • National culture and e-government readiness.

    Kovacic, Z. (2009)

    Book item
    Open Polytechnic

    Diffusion of information and communication technologies is a global phenomenon. In spite of rapid globalization there are considerable differences between nations in terms of the adoption and usage of new technologies. Several studies exploring causal factors including national cultures of information and communication technology adoption have been carried out. The focus of this chapter is slightly different from other studies in this area. Rather than concentrating on the individual information technology an overall e-Government readiness is the focus. This research conducted an analysis of the impact national culture has on e-Government readiness and its components for 62 countries. E-Government readiness assessment used in this study is based on the UN E-Government Survey 2008, while the national cultural dimensions were identified using Hofstede's model of cultural differences.

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  • Caring for infants.

    Brennan, M. (2009)

    Book item
    Open Polytechnic

    Discusses child development in childcare centres.

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  • Jackson’s armchair: The only chair in town?

    Kingsbury, Justine; McKeown-Green, Jonathan (2009)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Are all the facts about nations, cultures and economies really just facts about people's mental states and their interactions? Are all of the properties which determine whether or not a thing is a work of art really just physical properties of that thing? Is linguistics, the scientific investigation of language, best understood as a branch of psychology, the scientific investigation of the mind? Can psychology be reduced to biology? Can all biological phenomena be explained chemically? Is chemistry really just part of physics? Is there anything going on in the world which isn't a physical thing? Can there be freely-chosen, autonomous human action in a purely physical world? Frank Jackson has made a controversial claim about the way in which one should investigate questions like these. This paper is a qualified defence of that claim.

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  • Dating marine shell in Oceania: Issues and prospects

    Petchey, Fiona (2009)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Marine shell has several advantages for radiocarbon (¹⁴C) dating in the Pacific — it is ubiquitous in archaeological sites, is easy to identify to the species level, and can often be related directly to human activity. Consequently, shells are one of the most commonly dated ¹⁴C sample types within this region. The modelled marine calibration curve and associated regional offsets (known as ΔR) originally constructed by Stuiver et al. (1986), have been widely accepted as the most accurate method for calibrating surface marine ¹⁴C dates. The use of published values, however, is not straightforward because the surface ocean ¹⁴C reservoir is variable both regionally and over time, and because of additional uncertainties with the reliability of some shell species due to habitat and dietary preferences. This paper presents an overview of ΔR variability in Oceania and highlights areas of caution when using extant ΔR values, and when selecting marine shell for ¹⁴C dating. Particular attention is given to the Hawaiian archipelago where numerous ΔR values are available for evaluation and the influence of ocean currents, estuarine environments and geology is apparent.

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  • Introduction: Sylvia, a New Zealander

    Jones, Alison; Middleton, Sue (2009)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Sylvia Ashton-Warner had an intensely ambivalent relationship with the land of her birth. Despite receiving many accolades in New Zealand – including the country’s major literary award – she claimed to have been rejected and persecuted, and regularly announced that her educational and literary achievements were unappreciated or insufficiently acknowledged by her compatriots. In her darkest moments, she railed against New Zealand and New Zealander, even stating in one television interview: “I’m not a New Zealander!”

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  • From the Galalpagos to Tongariro: Recognizing and saving the most important places in the world

    Gillespie, Alexander (2009)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Protected areas are one of the less glamorous areas of international environmental law. They are commonly overshadowed by what are perceived as much more dramatic topics, which capture the public attention to a much greater degree.1 This is a highly ironic situation for three reasons. First, because protected areas are the foremost methods by which species and ecosystems are effectively preserved. Second, because protected areas are tangible, and are not merely theoretical constructs. Third, the obligation to create protected areas is one of the most long-standing goals in numerous environmental treaties. For a long time this goal was not tied to any specific outcomes, and the numbers of protected areas grew slowly. However, in the new century, due to an increased recognition of the above considerations, the international community has not only reiterated the goal to create more protected areas, they also set targets of what they want to achieve. The international interest is this area can be seen with a number of examples, such as marine protected areas and transboundary protected areas. Collectively, such support has lead to the creation, in total, of over 102,000 protected areas spread over the Earth.

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  • Julian of Norwich and her children today: Editions, translations and versions of her revelations

    Barratt, Alexandra (2009)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    The viability of such concepts as "authorial intention," "the original text," "critical edition" and, above all, "scholarly editorial objectivity" is not what it was, and a study of the textual progeny of the revelations of Julian of Norwich--editions, versions, translations and selections--does little to rehabilitate them. Rather it tends to support the view that a history of reading is indeed a history of misreading or, more positively, that texts can have an organic life of their own that allows them to reproduce and evolve quite independently of their author. Julian's texts have had a more robustly continuous life than those of any other Middle English mystic. Their history--in manuscript and print, in editions more or less approximating Middle English and in translations more or less approaching Modern English--is virtually unbroken since the fifteenth century. But on this perilous journey, many and strange are the clutches into which she and her textual progeny have fallen.

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  • Becoming PBRF-able: Research assessment and education in New Zealand

    Middleton, Sue (2009)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    It seems ironic that, designed as they are to quantify, evaluate and reward the research quantum of academic institutions, departments and individuals, research assessment exercises have themselves become objects of their research and critique. As many in this volume and elsewhere attest, the impact of research assessment runs deeper than mere measurement of “what is already there”: such processes are productive, or formative (Henkel, 2005, McNay, 2003; Sikes, 2006). Of course bringing about change is intended in the sense of increasing research quantity, enhancing its quality, etc. However, there are suggestions that by changing the conditions of knowledge production, research assessment exercises may also alter the shape and direction of disciplines by diverting and channelling researchers’ intellectual attention and political engagement, influencing what they study, how they do it, and how they report and write (Beck and Yong, 2005; Bernstein, 2000).

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  • Sylvia’s place: Ashton-Warner as New Zealand educational theorist.

    Middleton, Sue (2009)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Sylvia Ashton-Warner’s New Zealand educational context has been – and continues to be – misrepresented as antithetical to her creative methods. Sue Middleton, a professor of education, locates Sylvia’s educational ideas within the national and international Progressive Education movement, indicating that key education officials in post-war New Zealand encouraged creativity and self-expression. This chapter makes the case that, as a teacher, an educational writer and theorist, Sylvia Ashton-Warner grew in, and not in spite of New Zealand. My argument unfolds in two parts. The first reviews theoretical ideas in the local and international educational environment in which Sylvia lived and worked. Sylvia and Keith Henderson taught in what was referred to until 1946 as the Native School system (and from 1948 until its abolition in 1968 as the Maori Scholl system). They trained and began work as teachers during the Great Depression; and Sylvia began serious writing during World War Two. The war and the Native Scholl system interested in complex ways with the wider international Progressive Education movement and its promotion ‘from the top’ in New Zealand’s public schools. An overview of Progressive (or New ) Education, the changing theories of culture and race in the Native School system, and relations between these during World War Two, opens a wide-angled aperture through which to read Sylvia’s early writing.

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  • Exploring the tension and synergies between science and technology in science education

    Jones, Alister (2009)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    This chapter explores the way in which technology has been introduced through and by science educators in Australasia in the last 25 years. A number of themes have arisen in this time from using technology to engage students in science, exploring the impact of science on society through technology, considerations of the nature of technology in relation to science, and the exploration and development of technology as a subject in its own right. In this process student and teacher perceptions of technology were explored, as well as teacher change and the influence of teacher/ subject culture through to sustained classroom research and school change and the way in which the introduction of a new subject like technology can influence our thinking around science.

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  • Animals ethics and international law

    Gillespie, Alexander (2009)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    The purpose of this chapter is to give the reader an overview of where some of the ethical debates around animals and international law are found. In part, the chapter builds upon my earlier work in this area. At the time of writing this text, I approached the issue of ethics and international environmental law, as most doctoral students do, in a very theoretical manner. Accordingly, when I came to the topic of ‘animal rights’ I spent considerable time examining the work of the great thinkers in this area, such as Peter Singer and Tom Regan.

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  • The development of technology education internationally

    Jones, Alister (2009)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    The development of technology education within countries and regions is set within the historical, cultural, and political environment. Curriculum, teacher education, and in fact educational research do not sit in isolation from these. Each of the chapters in this section sets out the context for technology education in its respective country and provides a historical and political analysis of the development of technology education as a field of development. The history of technology education is a long one if we consider its development back to the days of craft, and in this section many of the chapters trace the journey from craft through to much broader notions of technology and technological literacy.

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  • Reviewing the field of technology education in New Zealand

    Jones, Alister; Compton, Vicki (2009)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    In this chapter we discuss the development of technology as a field of study within compulsory education in New Zealand. We argue that technology education has found a place in the national curriculum, research, and teacher education, resulting in technology classroom practice to some degree in all New Zealand schools.

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  • Classification

    Witten, Ian H. (2009)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    In Classification learning, an algorithm is presented with a set of classified examples or ‘‘instances’’ from which it is expected to infer a way of classifying unseen instances into one of several ‘‘classes’’. Instances have a set of features or ‘‘attributes’’ whose values define that particular instance. Numeric prediction, or ‘‘regression,’’ is a variant of classification learning in which the class attribute is numeric rather than categorical. Classification learning is sometimes called supervised because the method operates under supervision by being provided with the actual outcome for each of the training instances. This contrasts with Data clustering (see entry Data Clustering), where the classes are not given, and with Association learning (see entry Association Learning), which seeks any association – not just one that predicts the class.

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  • Teaching and learning in the ICT environment

    Cowie, Bronwen; Jones, Alister (2009)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    ICTs are now a central means to be socially, economically, culturally and politically involved in twenty-first century society (Selwyn and Facer, 2007). They are integral to the global flows of knowledge, people and services that characterize the knowledge economy. In this information rich society knowledge is being reconfigured. Knowing and learning are now as much to do with access and participation as they are to do with the acquisition of skills and knowing that. Internationally, governments have endorsed the need for students to be ICT and information literate. The contention is that students will need to be able to access, integrate and evaluate information, construct new knowledge and communicate with others if they are to take their place as active citizens in an increasingly complex and information rich world. Also evident is the view that ICT can enhance student learning within traditional curricula subjects through a positive impact on student motivation and engagement, and that ICT has the potential to change both how and what students learn. To date however the impact of ICT technologies on education and schools has lagged behind what had been expected. This chapter is backgrounded against a national evaluation project on the provision of government-funded laptops to New Zealand schools and teachers carried out by the authors (Cowie, Jones, & Harlow, 2005). This project provided insights into the affordances of laptops/ICT use in schools and the conditions that support ICT use. In this chapter we explore the various dimensions of ICT use by teachers and students and what enables and constrains these

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  • Honey: Antimicrobial actions and role in disease management

    Molan, Peter C. (2009)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    The ancient treatment of dressing infected wounds with honey is rapidly becoming re-established in professional medicine, especially where wounds are infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This is because of the demonstrated sensitivity of such bacteria to the antibacterial activity of honey, which is not influenced by whether or not strains are resistant to antibiotics. Honey has been found to have a very broad spectrum of activity, but its potency of antibacterial activity can vary greatly. In most honeys the antibacterial activity is due to enzymatically produced hydrogen peroxide and thus the potency of its antibacterial activity can be decreased by catalase present in an open wound. Manuka honey has an antibacterial component derived from the plant source. Manuka honey with a quality-assured level of antibacterial activity is being used by companies marketing honey products for wound care that are registered with the medical regulatory authorities in various countries. Such honey can be diluted IO-fold or more and still completely inhibit the usual wound-infecting species. There is a large amount of clinical evidence for the effectiveness of honey in clearing infection in wounds, and some clinical evidence of its effectiveness in treating other infections. Although the antibacterial potency of honey is insufficient to allow its use systemically, there are various clinical applications besides wound care in which it is used topically or where it does not get excessively diluted, such as for treatment of gastritis, enteritis, gingivitis, ophthalmological infections and bronchial infections. In most of these applications the anti-inflammatory activity of honey is of additional benefit in decreasing the inflammation resulting from infection. Additional clinical research is needed to provide better evidence of the effectiveness of honey in these therapeutic applications of honey.

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  • Funding patterns and priorities: An international perspective

    She, Hsiao-Ching; Yore, Larry D.; Anderson, John O.; Erduran, Sibel; Gräber, Wolfgang; Jones, Alister; Klumpers, Johannes; Parker, Stephen; Rollnick, Marissa; Sherwood, Robert D.; Waldrip, Bruce (2009)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Research in literacy and science education converge onto science literacy for all found in many international reforms (Hand, Prain, & Yore, 2001) and the commonalities in targets (all students), goals (science literacy composed of fundamental literacy and understanding the big ideas in science), and pedagogy (constructivist approaches and authentic assessment) across English language arts and science (Ford, Yore, & Anthony, 1997; Yore, Pimm, & Tuan, 2007). Similar claims apply to mathematics literacy and technology literacy. This convergence and the international move to enhance research quality suggest potential relationships amongst research policy, practices, and funding for literacy and science education. Furthermore, such connections should be growing in importance and fiscal priority for funding agencies. In the United States, explicit connections can be seen for research policy and preferred research practice in federal laws—but are there similar connections between policy and practice with research funding of literacy and science education research? Do such relationships exist in other countries? Two recent policies in the United States illustrate the potential connection. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB, 2002) reauthorized a number of federal programs aiming to improve the performance of primary and secondary schools by increasing the standards of accountability for states, school districts, and schools as well as providing parents more flexibility in choosing which schools their children will attend. The NCLB Act, which is open for renewal in 2008/09, requires states to develop assessments in language arts, mathematics, and science to be given to all students in certain grades—if those states are to receive federal funding for schools. The Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002 (ESRA, 2002) reauthorized and strengthened the principal education research, statistics, and evaluation activities of the Department of Education. This act funds the national data collection system that allows federal agencies to oversee the entire national education system and promotes a strong, scientifically rigorous research capacity within education. It is believed that such legislation is critically important to the successful implementation of the education reforms and to transform education into an evidence-based field, commonly called the Gold Standard.

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