119 results for Conference item, 1990

  • The first time-derivative of the EEG: A possible proxy for the order-parameter for the cerebral cortex

    Sleigh, James W.; Steyn-Ross, D. Alistair; Steyn-Ross, Moira L. (1998)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Many important aspects of the function of the cerebral cortex can be captured in a two dimensional lattice model. From this analogy, the change from the awake state to the unconscious state can be understood as a form of order/disorder phase transition . If this is so, there should exist an order-parameter that has zero value when the cortex is disordered (the anaesthetic state), and which rapidly climbs to an arbitrary positive value when the cortex becomes ordered (the awake state). Although the `spatially-meaned soma potential' v of the cortex, relative to its unconscious state value v0, can be considered to be the order-parameter, it is not possible to measure the mean soma potential directly. However, fluctuations in the soma potential give rise to the time-varying EEG signal v(t) which is easily measured.

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  • Learning to describe data in actions

    Maulsby, David; Witten, Ian H. (1995)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Traditional machine learning algorithms have failed to serve the needs of systems for Programming by Demonstration (PBD), which require interaction with a user (a teacher) and a task environment. We argue that traditional learning algorithms fail for two reasons: they do not cope with the ambiguous instructions that users provide in addition to examples; and their learning criterion requires only that concepts classify examples to some degree of accuracy, ignoring the other ways in which an active agent might use concepts. We show how a classic concept learning algorithm can be adapted for use in PBD by replacing the learning criterion with a set of instructional and utility criteria, and by replacing a statistical preference bias with a set of heuristics that exploit user hints and background knowledge to focus attention.

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  • Active templates: Manipulating pointers with pictures

    Lyons, Paul J.; Apperley, Mark; Bishop, A.G.; Moretti, G.S (1994)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Active templates are a semi-automatic visual mechanism for generating algorithms for manipulating pointer-based data structures. The programmer creates a picture showing the affected part of a data structure before and after a general-case manipulation. Code for the operation is compiled directly from the picture, which also provides the development environment with enough information to generate, automatically, a series of templates for other similar pictures, each describing a different configuration which the data structure may possess. The programmer completes the algorithm by creating matching after-pictures for each of these cases. At every stage, most of the picture-generation is automatic. Much of the tedious detail of conventional pointer-based data-structure manipulation, such as maintenance of current pointers, is unnecessary in a system based on active templates.

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  • Compressing semi-structured text using hierarchical phrase identification

    Nevill-Manning, Craig G.; Witten, Ian H.; Olsen, Dan R., Jr. (1996)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Many computer files contain highly-structured, predictable information interspersed with information which has less regularity and is therefore less predictable—such as free text. Examples range from word-processing source files, which contain precisely-expressed formatting specifications enclosing tracts of natural-language text, to files containing a sequence of filled-out forms which have a predefined skeleton clothed with relatively unpredictable entries. These represent extreme ends of a spectrum. Word-processing files are dominated by free text, and respond well to general-purpose compression techniques. Forms generally contain database-style information, and are most appropriately compressed by taking into account their special structure. But one frequently encounters intermediate cases. For example, in many email messages the formal header and the informal free-text content are equally voluminous. Short SGML files often contain comparable amounts of formal structure and informal text. Although such files may be compressed quite well by general-purpose adaptive text compression algorithms, which will soon pick up the regular structure during the course of normal adaptation, better compression can often be obtained by methods that are equipped to deal with both formal and informal structure.

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  • A teaching and support tool for building formal models of graphical user-interfaces

    Reeves, Steve (1996)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    In this paper we propose the design of a tool that will allow the construction of a formal, textual description of a software system even if it has a graphical user-interface as a component. An important aspect of this design is that it can be used for two purposes-the teaching of first-order logic and the formal specification of graphical user-interfaces. The design has been suggested by considering a system that has already been very successful for teaching first-order logic, namely Tarski's World.

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  • Developing community and social psychology for Aotearoa: Experiences from a New Zealand programme of indigenization

    Thomas, David R. (1994-08)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Experiences related to developing an indigenous community and social psychology in the teaching of psychology at the University of Waikato in Aotearoa/New Zealand are described. The process of localization emphasizes the need to interpret "universal" concepts in terms of local cultural patterns and to elaborate psychological concepts derived from the cultures of indigenous peoples. The localization of psychology in New Zealand involves: (a) differences between the dominant United States cultural pattern, in which much English-language psychology is embedded, and New Zealand cultural patterns; and (b) differences between the dominant Pakeha (Anglo-New Zealander) cultural patterns and the cultural patterns of indigenous Maori peoples. These cultural differences involve contrasts between individualistic and collective conceptions of self-identities and social identities, and alternative conceptions of community needs. Three processes relevant to localization are outlined: socio-cultural contextualization, agenda-setting, and knowledge of cultural styles. Socio-cultural contextualization refers to the relevance of psychological knowledge, taught in dominant national institutions, to local social, cultural and political systems. Agenda-setting focuses on how the dominant themes in teaching and research within psychology are selected, and the relevance of these themes to community needs. Knowledge of local cultural styles is required to describe and teach professional roles that are congruent with such cultural styles.

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  • Interface of gender and culture

    Tamasese, Kiwi (1993)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    I greet you in the soothing waters of the Pacific. The birth waters of Hawai’i to the North, island of the dream time, and Aotearoa, to the south. Papua New Guinea to the West and Marquesas to the East. These islands are the gathering places of the world’s largest Continent, the Pacific. We of this continent know that her birth waters are our connection. We also know that she is woman identified. It is no surprise therefore that from Hawai’i to the north to Aotearoa in the south the positioning of women in each of these societies bears a different story to that of the women of the continent of Europe. This reality lived out in Hawai’i means women shared with men the ultimate leadership of peoples. This location of women power is named Kuhinanui. Many remarkable women of Hawai’i occupied this position. From times of peace throughout to the first clash with imposed new culture, women of Hawai’i led, bled, struggled, defied and kept the kukui of self belief burning. Genealogically Hawai’i is connected to her other sisters throughout the Pacific. The story of Kuhinanui Liliuokalani is poignant.

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  • A survey of psychologists’ opinions and behaviours on aspects of Maori mental health

    Sawrey, Richard (1993)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    In the majority of settings where psychologists work, particularly in State health and justice settings, Maori people are substantially over represented relative to their numbers in the general population (Durie, 1987). This situation has raised serious questions about the adequacy of both mental health services and professionals in their provision of appropriate services for Maori people. (Hui Whakaoranga, 1984; Durie, 1985). Recommendations have been given to address these deficiencies. Te Hui Whakaoranga (l984) recommended a recruitment programme for Maori into health professions and training for health workers in Maori culture. The Committee of Inquiry into Procedures used in Psychiatric Hospitals (1988) pointed out that health professionals are rarely educated in taha Maori or the application of taha Maori to the service they provide. They stated that many current training programmes create a barrier to Maori people entering the health professions. They recommended that changes occur in both the in - service and basic training of health professionals.

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  • Challenges to psychology in Aotearoa

    Awatere-Huata, Donna (1993)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Maori people are putting up with a lot right now. If governments can transfer $20 billion in the past ten years for hand outs and write offs to Pakeha people who have endured little, then they can do a lot better than the $150 million they’ve transferred to our people that have endured so much for 150 years. The big issue is still the Treaty, and the need to re-negotiate this nation’s management. The challenge is to design a political system that is based on Maori ways of doing things rather than Pakeha ways of doing things. To achieve this requires relinquishing colonial patterns of thinking and the certainty that pakeha people and their ways are superior to Maori. For psychologists the issue is their role in maintaining Pakeha economic and political power. It may well be that psychologists provide lousy value for money from the Maori point of view, but provide excellent value for money from the government’s point of view.

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  • The New Zealand psychological society and the Treaty of Waitangi: Proposed implementation plan

    National Standing Committee on Bicultural Issues (1993)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    In August 1993, the National Standing Committee on Bicultural Issues (NSCBI) was asked to prepare an implementation plan for the above Rule 3 for presentation to the Council of the New Zealand Psychological Society. This paper proposes a number of strategies whereby the Society might move towards attaining the goals of Rule 3. This paper has been prepared as a ‘proposed plan’ as the NSCBI believes that ongoing discussion and consultation is necessary to confirm specific directions proposed. In particular, the committee would like to gain feedback from Maori who attend the Hui for Maori in Psychology in February 1995, and from the Society membership generally.

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  • Life in a clinical diploma course

    Paterson, Keriata (1993)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    This paper focuses on the author’s experience of a Clinical Diploma programme. The author is a Maori woman who is in her second year of a three year post-graduate Clinical Diploma programme. The paper includes comment on the cultural focus of content, culture conflicts and areas where the programme might be improved for Maori students.

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  • Pakeha students and a pro-Treaty analysis: Teaching issues in a diploma of clinical psychology programme

    Yensen, Helen; McCreanor, Tim (1993)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    We ran Treaty/biculturalism workshops for the Diploma on an ad hoc basis in 1990, 1991, and 1992. This year we have contracted for a fuller package which involves work with first and second years and staff. Next year this will continue with third year students. We believe biculturalism training for non-Maori has two major aspects and, although they overlap in various ways we think that it is useful to separate them: the first one is awareness of Maori cultural practices, values, etc, which can perhaps be called ‘cultural sensitivity training’. This needs to be under the control of Maori and have major input from Maori. The second aspect is where our focus is, and that is awareness of the effect on the Maori world of the loss of sovereignty by Maori; of their marginalisation over the last one hundred and fifty years by Pakeha; of their oppressed status; loss of economic base, and the implications for change that flow from those events. We believe that, at least initially, Pakeha have the responsibility for educating themselves and other pakeha in this area.

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  • Cultural Justice and Ethics

    Nikora, Linda Waimarie (1993)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Contains the complete proceedings of the Cultural Justice and Ethics symposium held within the Annual Conference of the New Zealand Psychological Society, Wellington, 23rd-24th August, 1993. The responsibility for ensuring that the discipline of psychology is culturally just, is not only that of Maori or some other non-dominant group - the responsibility belongs to all involved in psychology. This collection of papers is about questioning and challenging the psychology that has been adopted from other settings. It is about nurturing and valuing the development of local and indigenous psychologies. It is about developing psychological tools and methods of application that are culturally compatible. It is an invitation to become excited about and instrumental in building a profession and practice in Aotearoa, for Aotearoa.

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  • Cultural justice and ethics: From within

    Garner, Kerin (1993)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Where I eventually got a lot of support, awhi, aroha, was from the PPTA when I became a member of Te Huarahi and they helped to see me through the tears and the confusion. It wasn’t because I was Maori, it was because I was a human being. I think the process I have gone through is a process of becoming human, and becoming real in thinking; yes, my experience is valid. I’m not just Maori, I’m Pakeha too. I want both of them, I am both of them. I don’t have to get up and speak fluent Maori right now. Perhaps it will come. I hope it does because I want it to, and I’m going to work on it. But I do feel that people like me, and there are many of us, are not marginal. We are bridges between cultures. This diversity has to be acknowledged, honoured and respected.

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  • The challenges of culture to psychology and post-modern thinking

    Waldegrave, Charles (1993)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Someone at a workshop in the Waikato once said to us, “You know a Maori, if they want to, can always learn to be a psychologist, but a psychologist can’t learn to be a Maori”. Cultural knowledge may or may not be accompanied by social science knowledge. Cultural knowledge can stand on its own. Those who possess it, and choose to work in the institutions we are associated with, have gifts this country desperately needs. All our organisations require such people, and they need to be properly resourced, have employment security and control over their work. Their own work away from our organisations also requires adequate resourcing. They can heal their own in ways that we will never be able to. They will almost certainly offer the field rich alternative metaphors and meanings that can free us from the tired old medical, biological and social science ones. This also has implications for those in other branches of psychology, including research, experimental and industrial psychology. There is perhaps a unique opportunity for psychologists in this country of Aotearoa/New Zealand to recognise other ways of describing events, which will lead to creative practices and enable the health and welfare resources to get to those who most need them, on their own terms. It would also enable other people, other workers from other cultures to develop new paradigms, and new shifts in our field. This will not lead to the abandonment of social science, but it will enable that body of knowledge, to sit appropriately along side other realms of knowledge such as gender knowledge, and cultural knowledge, without dominating. A new experience for the social scientists, but I suspect a liberating one!

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  • Tatari, tautoko, tauawhi - Hei awhina tamariki ki te panui pukapuka: Some preliminary findings

    Glynn, Ted; Rogers, Sonia; Teddy, Nancy; Atvars, Kathryn (1993)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    The Tatari, Tautoko, Tauawhi reading tutoring procedures have been adapted from the procedures known as Pause, Prompt, Praise, first developed in Mangere in 1977. The first author offered the procedures as a koha at a Special Education Service hui at Poho o Rawiri in 1991. The second author took up the koha and obtained the support of kaumatua and kuia at Hairini marae Tauranga Moana, and the support of senior Maori staff of the Special Education Service National Office to produce a Maori language video and training booklet. This began an important bicultural journey through the processes of producing instructional materials and trailing and evaluating them in ways that are biculturally appropriate. This paper reports on that journey and presents some preliminary data on the implementation of Tatari, Tautoko, Tauawhi by seven tuakana - teina pairs in a bi-lingual classroom.

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  • Ethics in Maori research: Working paper

    Cram, Fiona (1993)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    When we think about what we are doing as researchers, one of our main tasks is to acquire knowledge. For some researchers their task begins and ends there. Knowledge is viewed as cumulative, that by adding to some knowledge pool we will one day be able to put the component parts together and discover universal laws. Many researchers also assume that the knowledge they have collected is objective, value-free and apolitical. This is part of psychologists’ ‘physics envy’. A Maori view of knowledge is very different from this. For Maori the purpose of knowledge is to uphold the interests and the mana of the group; it serves the community. Researchers are not building up their own status; they are fighting for the betterment of their iwi and for Maori people in general.

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  • Cultural justice, ethics and teaching

    Nairn, Ray (1993)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Te Tiriti o Waitangi provides both a basis for cultural justice in this society and an explication of the term; each of the articles identifying a significant aspect of cultural justice. First, there is the guarantee to the Maori signatories that the Crown would protect their independence - tino rangatiratanga, (also read as authority, autonomy or self-determination) [Article II]. In Article III Maori are promised that they will also have the “Rights and Privileges of British subjects”. Finally, in Article I, Maori cede to the Crown the right to govern, to make laws to protect all peoples from the evil consequences of lawlessness. The 1835 Declaration of Independence located legislative authority in the Wakaminenga (the gathered rangatira meeting in Congress); and in 1840, in the context of the Crown promises, Maori authorised the Crown to exercise that authority. For Maori Te Tiriti specifies cultural justice for interactions between Maori and settlers in the new society. Maori are guaranteed the right to self-determination (and the economic and social resources to make that practical) in their relations with New Zealand society. They are also entitled to the same opportunities as other citizens. The latter rights, embodied in local legislation and international covenants to which we are signatory, are not alternatives to the prior right of Maori people to their (cultural) autonomy. The exercise of legislative and organisational authority must be exercised in a manner consistent with the promises which clearly requires consultation and negotiation with Maori.

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  • Detecting sequential structure

    Nevill-Manning, Craig G.; Witten, Ian H. (1995)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Programming by demonstration requires detection and analysis of sequential patterns in a user’s input, and the synthesis of an appropriate structural model that can be used for prediction. This paper describes SEQUITUR, a scheme for inducing a structural description of a sequence from a single example. SEQUITUR integrates several different inference techniques: identification of lexical subsequences or vocabulary elements, hierarchical structuring of such subsequences, identification of elements that have equivalent usage patterns, inference of programming constructs such as looping and branching, generalisation by unifying grammar rules, and the detection of procedural substructure., Although SEQUITUR operates with abstract sequences, a number of concrete illustrations are provided.

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  • Compression and full-text indexing for Digital Libraries

    Witten, Ian H.; Moffat, Alistair; Bell, Timothy C. (1995)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    This chapter has demonstrated the feasibility of full-text indexing of large information bases. The use of modern compression techniques means that there is no space penalty: large document databases can be compressed and indexed in less than a third of the space required by the originals. Surprisingly, there is little or no time penalty either: querying can be faster because less information needs to be read from disk. Simple queries can be answered in a second; more complex ones with more query terms may take a few seconds. One important application is the creation of static databases on CD-ROM, and a 1.5 gigabyte document database can be compressed onto a standard 660 megabyte CD-ROM. Creating a compressed and indexed document database containing hundreds of thousands of documents and gigabytes of data takes a few hours. Whereas retrieval can be done on ordinary workstations, creation requires a machine with a fair amount of main memory.

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