58 results for Conference paper, 1990

  • Clients’ motivations, perceptions, expectations and satisfaction levels: The New Zealand mountain guiding industry

    Carr, Anna M (1997-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Mountain guiding has been offered as an activity for tourists to New Zealand for over a century. In the late Nineteenth Century European guides, accompanying clients, introduced techniques to New Zealanders working at the first Hermitage Hotel at Mt Cook who then chose mountain guiding as their profession. Guides today continue a tradition based on experience, skills and knowledge that enables them to operate as successfully as the mountains will allow. The New Zealand Mountain Guides association (NZMGA) has a qualification framework, certification and safety standards that are internationally recognised by the International Union of Mountain Guides (UIAGM). Companies offer year-round activities such as heli-skiing, avalanche courses, glacier walks, trekking, mountaineering and rock climbing courses, ice climbing and high guiding. The latter ranges from high altitude tramping, e.g. the Copland Pass, to ascents of major peaks in New Zealand or overseas in Europe, Nepal, South America, Alaska and Antarctica. Issues faced by the NZMGA include competition from overseas companies, concession procedures, maintaining traditional markets and seeking new ones, access to Mt Cook/Aoraki under Treaty claims, increased aircraft noise affecting product quality and potential conflict with other user groups. Over the 1997/98 summer climbing season the writer will conduct research focussing on the clients of NZMGA guides.

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  • Guided mountaineering clients in New Zealand’s Southern Alps

    Carr, Anna M (1997-12-02)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Carr, A.M. (1997). "Guided Mountaineering in New Zealand's Southern Alps" in J. Higham and G.W. Kearsley (eds.), Proceedings of trails, tourism and regional development. Centre for Tourism and IGU, University of Otago at Cromwell, New Zealand, 2-5 December 1997, 23-32.

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  • Taking it slowly with managed care - Invited address in a workshop on Managed Care for Mental Health: International Experiences and the New Zealand Direction, Schizophrenia Fellowship National Conference, Christchurch. September 5-7. 1997

    Bridgman, Geoff (1998)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Managed care arose from a need to contain the escalating health costs of the insurance and litigation based US health system, which were rising at rates of more than 10% a year through the early 1990S. It is described as the application of market forces to health. It is an insurance based system in which health management organisations (HMOs) provide cover for illness through a range of preferred providers who discount their services partly on the basis of restricting the options for care relating to particular illness groups. The heart of the managed care system is the utilization review in which the cost-effectiveness of the options for care are analysed, resulting in the more wasteful options being eliminated. Utilization review studies have found as much as a quarter to a third of all medical services performed are of little or no benefit to patients. Utilization reviews have also shifted the emphasis of care towards preventative approaches. While managed care initially resulted in increases to the cost of health care it began to be very effective in 1994 (only a 6.5% increase in national costs) with managed care group health care costs falling by 1.1% and remaining flat in 1995. A recent newspaper report describes the "inexplicable" buoyancy of the US economy, with one commentator saying that the reduction in health care insurance costs was a major contributor. A majority of US citizens have their health insurance paid by their employer, and about half the US population (135 million people) is enrolled in a managed care system. The US government expects to save $250 billion through the implementation of managed care.

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  • Performance of a speech-data PRMA system in an in-building environment

    Orange, M.D.; Sowerby, K.W.; Coulson, A.J.; Butterworth, K.S. (1997)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. The performance of an in-building speech-data PRMA system employing frequency reuse is determined via computer simulation. Propagation measurements (at 1.8 GHz) made in the building in which the PRMA system is assumed to operate, are included in the analysis. Significant variations in performance are found to exist over the coverage area. Optimum system performance is obtained by allocating the entire bandwidth to each floor (i.e., complete frequency reuse) and re-transmitting any packets that are corrupted by cochannel interference. This significant result suggests that packet access schemes such as PRMA can provide an alternative to TDMA and CDMA based future wireless networks

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  • Distributed transaction management scheme for multidatabase systems

    Ye, Xinfeng; Keane, John A. (1995)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. Transaction management in a multidatabase system must ensure global serializability. Local serializable execution is, by itself, not sufficient to ensure global serializability, since local serialization orders of subtransactions of global transactions must be the same in all systems. In this paper, a distributed transaction management scheme is introduced. The scheme maintains the autonomy of the local database systems. It is free from global deadlock and guarantees fairness in the execution of the transactions in the system

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  • Fault tolerant model for a functional language parallel machine

    Ye, Xinfeng; Keane, John A. (1995)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. The paper describes a fault tolerant model for a functional language parallel machine. The model is transparent to the user and ensures successful execution of programs in the presence of hardware failure. The model is based on data replication. It takes advantage of the properties of the functional languages. The recovery scheme can be carried out simultaneously on all processors and occurs while “normal” program execution is in progress. Thus normal execution suffers less performance degradation than with other approaches

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  • EPROM cell with a magnesium electronic injector

    Kong, Sik On; Kwok, Chee Yee; Wong, Sai Peng (1995)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. By using Mg as the tunnelling electrode for an EPROM cell, it is shown in a control experiment that the tunnelling current is much enhanced while the tunnelling field is much reduced after a sintering procedure in which Mg reacts with the SiO2 dielectric. Potentially, this may lead to faster programming, lower programming voltages and better programming endurance. An experimental EPROM cell has been made and has demonstrated programmability

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  • Non-linearity measure of a problem's crossover suitability

    Mason, Andrew (1995)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. For any problem with an unknown fitness function, justification of an evolutionary algorithm as a research method necessarily relies upon conjectures about that fitness function. This paper formulates apparent crossover partition coefficients (a generalisation of Walsh transforms) and uses these to develop a new model of crossover non-linearity ratios. Experimental runs demonstrate that this theory can offer insights into the apparent tractability of problems under crossover

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  • ION architecture for robot learning

    Qualtrough, Paul (1995)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. It is claimed that one of the main reasons why the development of intelligent robots has been slower than expected is that machine learning has been seen as an “add on” feature-one to be placed in the higher and later-developed levels of robot architectures. A case is made for incorporating machine learning at the earliest possible stage, and relying on it as the primary method of developing robot controllers. An architecture is proposed to support this approach

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  • Public-sector vs. private-sector R&D in India: a comparative analysis of two R&D teams

    Sankaran, Jayaram K.; Suchitra, Mouly V. (1996)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. The subject of this paper is a comparative analysis of two Indian R&D teams with similar objectives and activities. The team which we first studied (team A) was located in a public-sector electrical power research institute. The second team (team B) was the R&D unit of a private-sector company which manufactures and sells electrical equipment such as motors, generators, and transformers. Using qualitative methodology, we developed a process model of the ineffectiveness of team A. This model served as an interpretive framework with which to study team B and compare it with team A

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  • Multicast primitive for mobile hosts

    Ye, Xinfeng; Keane, John A. (1996)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. Due to network latency and the mobility of the host, many existing group communication protocols are limited to a static environment. This paper presents a multicast primitive for delivering multicast messages to mobile hosts. The primitive has the total ordering property which guarantees the ordering of message delivery. The protocol also guaranteed that the messages are delivered to the mobile hosts exactly once. Sequence numbers and message buffers are used to cope with message duplication and message loss

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  • Fuzzy exposure model

    Rajkumar, T.; Guesgen, Hans W. (1996)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. This paper presents a fuzzy exposure model which deals with the uncertainties involved in analysing prolonged (chronic) chemical exposure for humans in risk assessment. The imprecise input information for the exposure model is expressed as fuzzy sets using linguistic variables such as high, low and constant. The risk assessor can extend these fuzzy sets with respect to the data availability. The result obtained from the calculations is a fuzzy number that indicates the life average daily exposure (LADE) to human beings. A case study is illustrated to present the methodology

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  • Detecting termination in static and dynamic systems

    Ye, Xinfeng; Keane, John A. (1996)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. Distributed termination detection concerns detecting the termination of a distributed computation spread across a set of processors. Most solutions to the problem are not intended for dynamic systems where processes can be created and destroyed during the computation. In this paper, a termination detection algorithm which can be applied to both static and dynamic systems is proposed. The scheme can be applied to any kind of connection topology. The number of control messages is lower than some previous approaches

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  • On the investigation of radiowave propagation mechanisms for future wireless communications services planning

    Neve, M.J.; Rowe, Gerard B.; Sowerby, Kevin W.; Williamson, Allan G. (1996)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. The global move towards mobile wireless communications is necessitating the development of efficient spectrum utilisation strategies. Effective spectrum sharing is a key issue, and requires an understanding of the mechanisms by which radiowaves propagate in real environments. A research project on radiowave propagation modelling for future wireless communications services being undertaken within the Radio Systems Group at The University of Auckland, New Zealand is described. A programme of experimental measurements of scaled building models (at appropriately scaled frequencies) is being performed to gain insight into the mechanisms by which radiowaves propagate in real environments. Several results are presented to illustrate the use of the technique

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  • Effect of receiver capture and cochannel interference on PRMA

    Orange, M.D.; Sowerby, K.W. (1996)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. The performance of a speech-only cellular PRMA system is analysed in an interference limited Rayleigh faded environment. The inter-cell interference present in such a system can significantly increase the probability of packet loss as well as reduce the overall system utilisation. In this paper an ideal 2-branch signal/interference ratio selection diversity scheme has been shown to be effective in combating the level of inter-cell interference. A cellular PRMA system with a cluster size of 4 was found to be the most efficient, in terms of system utilisation and number of users per cell able to be supported

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  • Recovery effect in cellular radio systems

    Carter, L.J.; Maclean, T.S.M. (1990)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. A novel expression for the attenuation of a radio wave propagating over a mixed land-sea path successfully predicts the recovery of field strength over the sea path. An initial series of measurements has been made in the Auckland area to determine whether the recovery effect is a significant factor at cellular radio frequencies. The results presented are limited by the fact that they were taken in a real environment, rather than in controlled laboratory conditions. It is therefore difficult to eliminate unwanted variables, particularly the effects of clutter. Nevertheless, the results do show consistently that signal enhancement occurs over a sea-water path at cellular radio frequencies

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  • Feasibility of spectrum sharing between DS-CDMA mobile radio systems and microwave point-to-point links

    Marshall, P.J.; Sowerby, K.W.; Shafi, M. (1996)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. Radio spectrum allocated for many second and third generation mobile radio systems in the 1-3 GHz frequency bands (e.g. USA PCS, DCS1800 and FPLMTS) is currently used in many countries for fixed point-to-point microwave links. General techniques are presented to investigate the feasibility of spectrum sharing between an indoor DS-CDMA mobile radio system with vertical frequency reuse and a fixed point-to-point microwave link. Using a range of system parameters, the limitations of spectrum sharing are estimated. The results indicate that, for the systems considered, spectrum sharing will be difficult to implement without sufficient geographical isolation between the two systems. It is also apparent that the feasibility of spectrum sharing depends largely on the propagation characteristics between the two systems. The feasibility of spectrum sharing depends on the mutual and self-interference that will be received in the fixed and mobile systems. General techniques for characterising this interference and determining the feasibility of spectrum sharing are outlined

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  • Efficient word-graph parsing and search with a stochastic context-free grammar

    Waters, C.J.; MacDonald, B.A. (1997)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.

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  • Implications of propagation modeling on the design of a DS-CDMA in-building mobile communication system

    Butterworth, K.S.; Sowerby, K.W.; Williamson, A.G. (1997)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. This paper investigates the implications of propagation modeling on the design of a DS-CDMA in-building mobile communication system. Two modeling approaches are considered, namely a floor-averaged propagation model and a localised area model that considers individual propagation paths for a range of potential mobile user locations. Results (measured at 1.8 GHz) show that overall system performance estimates are heavily dependent on the model used to describe the building's propagation characteristics and suggest that the former approach leads to a rather pessimistic prediction of system performance when compared with the later. This suggests that unnecessarily conservative design would be likely if the former approach was utilised as part of a system planning process

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  • Self synchronising T-codes to replace Huffman codes

    Higgie, Gavin R. (1993)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. This paper describes recent work on the T-Codes, which are a new class of variable length codes with superlative selfsynchronizing properties. The T-Code construction algorithm is outlined, and it is shown that in situations where codeword synchronization is important the T-Codes can be used instead of Huffman codes, giving excellent self-synchronizing properties without sacrificing coding efficiency

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