74 results for Conference paper, 2015

  • Peace without Perfection: The intersections of Realist and Pacifist thought

    Moses, J. (2015)

    Conference paper
    University of Canterbury Library

    It is generally assumed that realist political thought is the polar opposite of pacifism on questions of war and peace. In debates over the justifiability of violence in response to physical threats to ourselves or to others, pacifists will generally be confronted with ‘realistic’ analogies of personal self-defence against an assailant or to what are seen as the most obvious and compelling examples of ‘just wars’ from human history. Thus, as Duane Cady puts it, ‘[e]ntertaining pacifist thoughts means being prepared repeatedly to face questions about reacting to a mugger and confronting Hitler as well as being realistic, self-righteous, and self-sacrificial’ (Cady, 1989, p. 95). Thus, in constructing his ‘moral continuum’ from ‘warism to pacifism’, Cady himself places ‘war realism’, the view that ‘war itself is not an appropriate object of moral consideration’, at the ‘most extreme’ end of his spectrum. Realist views on war, therefore, are seen as being more distant from and irreconcilable with pacifist thinking than the via media of ‘just-warism’ (Cady, 1989, pp. 21-23). As a consequence of this kind of thinking, it is generally assumed that pacifists at the ‘pragmatic’ or ‘realistic’ end of the scale will normally allow for the possibility of fighting just wars in certain limited circumstances, as has been the case in just war theory from Augustine onwards. In contrast to this popular view, this paper will propose that the realist placing of war outside of questions of morality and justice actually has more in common with a pacifist position than is normally acknowledged and that this connection could be more fruitfully developed. Just war theory, from this point of view, represents a proliferation of malleable moral arguments for war that are not available from a realist perspective, which is deeply concerned with the limiting of moral arguments in favour of war for demonstrably ethical reasons. Yet this still leaves a number of important questions to consider. First and foremost, if we accept that the world is and always will be an imperfect place, as any realist thinker must, is there still any sense – or even any consistent possibility – in maintaining an opposition to all war? How does the realist reading of the imperfectability of man relate to problems of politics and war? And how might those theoretical claims connect to a politics of non-violence or pacifism?

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  • Field Study for Evaluating Winter Thermal Performance of Auckland School Buildings

    Su, Bin (2015-02)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Auckland has a temperate climate with comfortable warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. An Auckland school normally does not need air conditioning for cooling during the summer and only needs heating during the winter. The Auckland school building thermal design should more focus on winter thermal performance and indoor thermal comfort for energy efficiency. This field study of testing indoor and outdoor air temperatures, relative humidity and indoor surface temperatures of three classrooms with different envelopes were carried out in the Avondale College during the winter months in 2013. According to the field study data, this study is to compare and evaluate winter thermal performance and indoor thermal conditions of school buildings with different envelopes.

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  • Barriers to building and construction waste reduction, reuse and recycling : a case study of the Australian Capital Region

    Zou, Patrick; Hardy, Robyn; Yang, Rebecca (2015-12-22)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Building and construction waste materials continue to be a major problem causing significant environmental impact worldwide. Broad university-industry collaborative research was undertaken in 2014 to identify the barriers, opportunities and strategies for reducing, reusing and recycling building and construction waste materials in the Australian Capital Region (located in the south-eastern corner of Australia and includes the Australian Capital Territory). This paper presents and discusses the results in relation to the barriers and possible strategies to overcome these barriers. To identify the barriers several workshops and interviews were undertaken. The workshop participants and interviewees were first provided a list of 12 barriers derived from review of relevant literature. They were then asked to think ‘outside of the box’ to identify any more barriers that were not captured in the list. Seven new barriers were identified, resulting in a total of 19 barriers. This research contributes to the field by identifying new barriers and providing corresponding strategies, which were developed together with frontline practitioners and managers. The overall outcomes have led to the development of the second stage of this collaborative research project.

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  • Asbestos remediation in the Cook Islands : a long-term solution for making schools safer

    Berry, Terri-Ann; Wairepo, Daniel (2015-12-22)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Asbestos contamination in the South Pacific originates mainly from construction products containing asbestos (SPREP, 2011). In Rarotonga, asbestos contamination in the soil surrounding two schools examined (Nikao Maori and Avatea) is believed to have originated from the Super Six roofing product that previously covered all existing classrooms on the site. This type of roofing becomes brittle and susceptible to increased weathering as the product ages. The weathering process from the sun, wind and rain releases the asbestos fibres into the environment (Bowler, 2014). The roofing has only recently been replaced with corrugated iron. The aim of this research was to identify remedial solutions for the removal and disposal of contaminated soil around the schools and for the future earthworks in Rarotonga. Four potential solutions were identified including: i. Capping the contaminated material on-site; i i . Removal and disposal of the contaminated material to local landfill; iii. Removal and disposal of the contaminated material internationally; iv. Removal and disposal of the contaminated material at sea. Solutions considered the feasibility of each option (both in the short and long-term), minimising impact on the residents and the workers exposed, reducing environmental impact and assessing the financial implications for each option

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  • Adaptive reuse of industrial buildings in a new precinct in Auckland’s CBD

    Kiroff, Lydia; Tan, Xiaotian (2015-10-05)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    The conversion of former industrial buildings and identifying heritage as a commodity has become a pervasive trend, especially over the last decade. Adaptive re-use of old industrial buildings is often seen as an alternative to demolition and replacement and as the primary development solution for an existing building when it no longer meets expectations. Building adaptation plays an important role in urban regeneration through the preservation of urban heritage while achieving major economic benefits. The aim of this paper is to examine the key areas of consideration involved in the conversion of former industrial buildings in a new large-scale precinct in Auckland’s CBD (central business district). A case study research, which employs multiple sources of empirical evidence, such as fieldwork, documentary research and semi-structured interviews, was considered most appropriate as it offered a multi-faceted approach to the research investigation. The findings of the study indicate that preserving historical character through adequate design approaches was the main area of consideration for all parties - the architect, structural engineer, urban planner, heritage advisor and property developers. However, creating economic value and commercial potential through careful financial considerations was also particularly important for the property developers. Furthermore, this study identified that property developers, responsible for the initial physical upgrading of old buildings, played a leading role in urban redevelopment and were the main initiators of urban transformation. Until recently, adaptive re-use has received limited attention in New Zealand as new builds have been perceived as the sole answer to client demands. However, building adaptation is proving to be an effective alternative in urban regeneration campaigns through the creation of attractive work environments. This research provides the foundations for an overall integrated approach to adaptive re-use which is at the heart of post-industrial real estate development driven by proactive property developers.

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  • Whole building recycling as a waste reduction practice

    Turner, David (2015-12-22)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper considers strategies for whole building recycling in New Zealand. Assumptions about waste and recycling potential that are made in the process of improving construction systems usually relate to the development of new practices that may be generally characterised as reductive. These are often effective, and make significant contributions to the overall efficiency of the wider building industry. However, the tradition of uplifting, removing, relocating and restoring – and in this process, recycling – a whole building is well established as a practical and economic alternative to demolition and salvage, in which only a small proportion of all the original material is likely to be recovered. The “relocatable”, in which space and volume as well as material is recycled, can be seen as a sustainable practice for reduction of waste and resource depletion, and also sustainable for its social function. The argument for expanding the practice is developed in this paper through case study examples with a focus on three elements: material recovery (including energy), irreducible waste by-products from the usual recovery process, and identifiable social advantages. It is argued here that waste is minimised through the element of direct personal commitment commonly encountered during the period of the building’s recovery. Case studies are supported by research that has had access to the files of some of Auckland’s leading house removal companies.

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  • The efficient house innovation : healthful, efficient and sustainable housing for northern and southern climates

    Gillies, Tony; Poulin, Bryan (2015-12-22)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper tracks the Efficient House Innovation (EHI) from 2000 to 2015. The main idea of ‘Dynamic Air’ behind EHI is associated with John Timusk (1987) who recognised existing housing solutions were not sufficiently healthful, efficient or robust. His solution was to bring relatively cool, dry air dynamically through the walls instead of the usual air-tight, static construction. However some problems remained. Starting in 2000, the authors of this paper extended and added features to Timusk’s solution to arrive at the EHI. Initial tests of EHI prototypes indicate the reliable fresh air, robustness of structure and energy efficiency that Timusk envisioned. This paper focuses on EHI prototype testing from 2008 to 2015, with implications for housing in cold, temperate and sub-tropical climates.

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  • Mobile devices as support systems for health behaviour change

    Nandigam, David; Baghaei, Nilufar; Liang, Haining (2015-05)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    A Behaviour Change Support System (BCSS) is a socio-technical information system designed to form, alter, or reinforce attitudes, behaviours, or compliance to a regular patterns of activities, and they do so without the use of coercive or deceptive elements. A health BCSS (HBCSS) is then a BCSS aimed at influencing health behaviours and wellbeing in a positive way. Accordingly, mobile devices can represent ideal tools to become the enabler portals for HBCSS. In this research we provide a review of the literature on mobile applications to see if and how they can be classified as HBCSS. We focus our review on Type 1 Diabetes and emphasize on whether persuasive elements are used and, if so, how. This in turn will aid us to assess what is required for mobile devices to become HBCSS.

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  • Using eLearning, blended learning and digital literacy to improve student engagement and retention

    Du Plessis, Andries; Young, Curtis; Nel, Pieter (2015-12)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    CAA is New Zealand’s largest private tertiary education provider for the hairdressing, makeup and beauty therapy industries. CAA was used as a case study to assess the viability of eLearning innovation, using a phenomenological approach, to increase student engagement, retention and success in a work based training academy. The hypothesis was that the use of blended learning and digital literacy tools via eLearning management system would boost student engagement and improve CAA’s business goals of student retention, engagement and success. The empirical research included conducting three focus groups and 12 in-depth interviews with key stake holders. The results confirmed the hypothesis to boost student engagement to improve student retention at CAA.

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  • The Whakarare Typeface Project : when culture-specific design brings elements of universal value

    Witehira, Johnson; Trapani, Paola (2015-11)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper presents a reflection on the design of the Whakarare typeface created by Johnson Witehira, a Māori visual designer. In this research Witehira was interested in exploring two areas of inquiry: customary Māori knowledge as a source of inspiration for contemporary Māori design, and Māori typography as a means of cultural resistance through engagement with post-colonial discourse. Starting with the observation that there are no authentic Māori typefaces, designed by Māori for Māori communities, Witehira traces the kaupapa Māori design process in which Māori cosmo-genealogy is transformed into structural characteristics of the Whakarare typeface. In Māori history, the world was created when the children of Ranginui (sky-father) and Papatūānuku (earth-mother), forcibly push their parents apart. The second part of the paper is a reflection on the “universal value” of such a design. Here we explore what kinds of ideas can be conveyed in different cultural contexts without loss, and what ideas are likely to be overlooked because of their cultural specificity. While the Whakarare typeface is designed to be Māori-centric, the authors demonstrate how the problem of designing forms that express the concept of compression and crushing, as a status immediately preceding an explosive expansion, is not specific to the Māori culture. Every designer in the world would face the same design challenge in a completely different context. The ability to design a form capable of generating that perception in the observer is not a trivial or easy task. On the contrary, its solution requires a very advanced knowledge of the psychology of perception and therefore has a universal, rather than local, significance.

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  • The existence of the glass ceiling and the impact on the participation of female executives in the Vietnamese banking sector

    Du Plessis, Andries; Tran, Thi Thu Thao; Marriott, Jeff; Dodd, Patrick (2015-12)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    The glass ceiling is a multifaceted phenomenon because it is the cause and effect of multiple factors. Vietnam is a developing nation and their cultural perceptions toward gender equality have had substantial impact on understanding the barriers that Vietnamese women meet in their career progression. The study focuses only on the Vietnamese banking sector. The theme for this study is to find the answer to the questions: “does the glass ceiling exist, does it affect the participation of female executives in the boardroom in the banking sector in Vietnam, and is there any relationship between gender and leadership effectiveness?” As a result of male domination of senior positions, there were few female executives; 27.9% of respondents felt the lack of female role models in the Vietnamese banking sector was an obstacle. Women’s lack of ambition in comparison with men was an obstacle for 29.4% participants. Managerial implications and conclusions form the last sections.

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  • Wealth with green : lessons with exemplary green enterprise

    Mellalieu, Peter (2015-12)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    The paper reports progress on the launch of a project to empower a multidisciplinary faculty of students and teachers to implement practical actions towards improving environmental sustainability in their multiple contexts. The project focusses on drawing lessons FOR and WITH SMEs who have the ambition to achieve a zero or positive environmental impact as a by-product (or product) of their operations. The rationale for the project is that many efforts to pursue environmental sustainability are insufficient to address the true environmental challenges that face societies. The paper concludes by challenging educators to adopt Education for Sustainability enabling every graduate to think and act as a sustainable practitioner in their employment, their household, their communities, and their professional discipline.

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  • Effect of channel impairments on radiometric fingerprinting

    Rehman, Saeed; Sowerby, Kevin W.; Shafiq, Alam; Ardekani, Iman; Komosny, Dan (2015-12)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    To increase network security and mitigate identity theft attacks, much of the research is focused on traditional bit-level algorithmic. In conventional wireless networks, security issues are primarily considered above the physical layer and are usually based on bit-level algorithms to establish the identity of a legitimate wireless device. Physical layer security is a new paradigm in which features extracted from an analog signal can be used to establish the unique identity of a transmitter. Our previous research work into Radiometric fingerprinting has shown that every transmitter has a unique fingerprint owing to imperfections in the analog components present in the RF front end. However, to the best of the author’s knowledge, no such example is available in the literature in which the effect of radio channel on Radiometric fingerprint is evaluated. This paper presents the simulation and experimental results for radiometric fingerprinting under an indoor varying radio channel. Contrary to popular assumption, it was found that the fingerprinting accuracy is little affected in an indoor channel environment.

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  • Evaluating mobile games for diabetes education

    Baghaei, Nilufar; Nandigam, David; Casey, John; Direito, Artur; Maddison, Ralph (2015-12)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Mobile games can be effective, evidence-based, and motivating tools for the promotion of children's health. Traditional method for diabetic education relies heavily on written materials and there is only a limited amount of resources targeted at educating diabetic children. In our earlier work, we proposed a novel approach for designing computer games aimed for educating children with diabetes. In this paper, we apply our game design to a mobile Android game (Mario Brothers). We also introduce three heuristics that are specifically designed for evaluating the mobile game, by adapting traditional usability heuristics. The results of a preliminary evaluation study, conducted for a week, showed that the children found the game engaging and it helped enhanced their knowledge of healthy diet and lifestyle.

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  • Ensemble learning methods for decision making : status and future prospects

    Ali, Shahid; Tirumala, Sreenivas Sremath; Sarrafzadeh, Hossein (2015-07)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In real world situations every model has some weaknesses and will make errors on training data. Given the fact that each model has certain limitations, the aim of ensemble learning is to supervise their strengths and weaknesses, leading to best possible decision in general. Ensemble based machine learning is a solution of minimizing risk in decision making. Bagging, boosting, stacked generalization and mixture of expert methods are the most popular techniques to construct ensemble systems. For the purpose of combining outputs of class labels, weighted majority voting, behaviour knowledge space and border count methods are used to construct independent classifiers and to achieve diversity among the classifiers which is important in ensemble learning. It was found that an ideal ensemble method should work on the principle of achieving six paramount characteristics of ensemble learning; accuracy, scalability, computational cost, usability, compactness and speed of classification. In addition, the ideal ensemble method would be able to handle large huge image size and long term historical data particularly of spatial and temporal. In this paper we reveal that ensemble models have obtained high acceptability in terms of accuracy than single models. Further, we present an analogy of various ensemble techniques, their applicability, measuring the solution diversity, challenges and proposed methods to overcome these challenges without diverting from the original concepts.

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  • Understanding water quality in Raglan Harbour

    Greer, S. D.; McIntosh, R.; Harrison, S.; Phillips, David; Mead, S. (2015-09)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Raglan (Whaingaroa) Harbour is located on the west coast of New Zealand’s North Island and is bordered by the Raglan township on the southern side close to the entrance. Land use in the watershed is dominated by dairy farming and forestry, which impact harbour water quality. A consented wastewater outfall is located at the harbour mouth close to the densely developed and populated area of the catchment. Over the years, there have been a number of reported spills and unlicensed releases from the treatment facility into the harbour. However, there is little context of the scale of the operation, and of the spills, against contaminant levels from inflowing rivers which are affected by land use practices. We address these uncertainties using a numerical modelling approach. Here we present a calibrated hydrodynamic model linked to a 13-river catchment model. Both of these models are used to drive a subsequent water quality model which simulates the transport and decay of Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the harbour. Model runs include a yearlong simulation of 2012 in its entirety, as well as a wastewater spill event that occurred in June of 2013. Results illustrate the seasonality of the water quality in the harbour with the largest concentrations of FC occurring in winter. It also illustrates the large scale influence of the rivers relative to the outfall with regards to FC concentrations. However, uncertainties remain in the FC component of the water quality model which needs to be addressed in future work

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  • Application of climate change adaptation, resilience, and beach management strategies on coral Islands

    Mead, Shaw; Borrero, Jose; Phillips, David; Atkin, Ed (2015-09)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are particularly vulnerable to climate change, climate variability and sea level rise. For many island nations, the very existence of some low-lying islands and their associated communities are threatened. International aid funds are now being applied to the development of climate change adaptation and resilience measures on coral islands worldwide. In many areas, identification of vulnerable sites and planning has been completed and climate change adaptation and resilience measures are being implemented. These measures are often directed at ‘buying time’ to develop long-term relocation strategies. However, the coastal processes on coral sand beaches and coasts are significantly different to temperate coasts. There is comparatively little information available that considers the design and application of coastal structures and the associated components of coastal climate change adaptation and resilience measures for coral beaches. Additional challenges include isolation and the lack of suitable equipment and materials with which to implement climate change resilience and adaptation strategies. This paper presents the investigations, detailed designs and implementation of climate change adaptation and resilience measures in Tonga, the Marshall Islands and Mauritius, as well as the development and application of beach management strategies in other parts of the Pacific Islands. There is a common theme between the development of climate change adaptation and resilience measures and beach management strategies for these coral sand beaches with respect to coastal processes and the physical and biological components that produce and transport sand in these systems. Coupling of physical/biological and social/terrestrial/coastal factors is an important consideration for the successful application of coastal strategies on coral sand beaches. The measures that are being applied to the different sites, in order to work with their site specific variables, are detailed.

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  • The effect of vapour-control membrane technology on indoor air quality in buildings

    Berry, Terri-Ann; Chiswell, Jordan H.D (2015-11)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    The impact of the inclusion of a vapour check membrane in timber buildings on indoor air quality, measured as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), was determined by Photo Ionization Detection. Two identical buildings were constructed except one building (test) contained an Intello vapour check membrane and the other building was the control. A VOC source (Wattyl Estapol High Performance Interior Clear Polyurethane Satin varnish) was placed in each building and the subsequent concentrations were monitored until background levels were resumed. Data analysis demonstrated that the VOC levels in the test house were consistently higher than those established in the control house (student t-test > 99.9% confidence). Average concentrations for VOC, temperature and relative humidity respectively were 3.23 ppm (control), 6.54 ppm (test); 17.3°C (control), 17.4°C (test) and 52.4% (control) and 54.7% (test). The humidity was also significantly higher in the test house (student t-test >99.9% confidence). Originally temperature differences were not found to be statistically conclusive; however this appeared to have been because the diurnal pattern of the temperature profile masked the difference in temperature. By removing this diurnal pattern, the temperatures in the houses were found to be significantly different over a 7 day timescale (student t-test >99.9% confidence). Diurnally, there was a strong link between VOC concentration and temperature and an inverse relationship with relative humidity. The use of the vapour control membrane had a significant effect on the indoor air quality of the buildings (based on the concentration of VOCs) which may have been due to: (1) the increased temperature and humidity, (2) the change in air flow from outside the buildings or (3) a combination of all three factors. There is a strong link between VOC concentration and temperature within the houses which may explain the highly variable profile of VOC concentration with time. An inverse relationship was observed with relative humidity.

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  • Construction project control methodologies and productivity improvement : EVM, BIM, LBM

    Kenley, Russell; Harfield, Toby (2015-09)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Construction productivity has been and remains a concern of organizations and governments. Productivity is also a concern of individual projects. A recent survey of 50 international construction project controls professionals found limited support for the effectiveness of three well known project control systems: Earned Value Management (EVM), Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Location Based Management (LBM). Analysis of the data collected during semi-structured interviews highlights two important problems in both commercial and infrastructure projects. The study found that all organizations used one or more of these methodologies. However, each of the methodologies was considered effective only for some projects or some parts of those projects. It appears that a major reason for lack of effectiveness is that project team capability and capacity to implement the methodology effectively was variable. However, it may be that an even more important factor is linked to the ineffective implementation; lack of understanding the theory that underpins these types of project control methodologies. EVM, BIM and LBM are all systemic methodologies aimed at reduction of waste as a means to improve productivity, thus all require consistent project process: data collection, monitoring, reporting and forecasting for effective control.

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  • Challenges facing BIM education : development of BIM resources for teaching and learning

    Puolitaival, Taija; Forsythe, Perry; Kähkönen, Kalle (2015-07)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) is becoming the new norm in the AEC industry and also part of many construction project management (CPM) programmes. In terms of teaching BIM there is the need for specific resources in explaining the theoretical principles of BIM, BIM tools (authoring, audit and analysis) and building models themselves. Theoretical resources that are available for education in the form of books, articles and websites are easy and straightforward to locate. Likewise a good share of various tools are available for educational purposes. On the other hand, actual building models represent a challenge in terms of preparing and optimising usage of the model for high quality educational purposes. This paper addresses the difficulty inwalking the narrow line between an industry ready BIM versus a BIM that is good for student learning and offers a realistic and practical, but simultaneously achievable learning environment. Conducting a case study in an undergraduate CPM education setting, three approaches for obtaining BIM resources were identified with various challenges and benefits. A combination of internally developed models for early exposure and industry models for later courses is proposed.

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