25 results for Conference poster, 2010

  • Visual Acuity, Refractive Status and Accommodation in Octopus Gibbsi

    Tunrbull, P; Backhouse, Simon; Phillips, John (2010-07-27)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Synthesis and mechanistic studies of PLA₂ inihibition by the marine alkaloid hyrtiosulawesine

    Liew, Lydia; Bourguet-Kondracki, M-L; Copp, Brent (2010-10-17)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The first isolation of hyrtiosulawesine (1) was from an Indonesian collection of the marine sponges Hyrtios erectus and H. reticulatus.1 The β-carboline alkaloid was subsequently re-isolated from a Red Sea collection of Hyrtios sp. and found to display anti-phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity with an IC50 value of 14 μM. Phospholipase A2 catalyses the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids at the sn-2 position to generate arachidonic acids (AA).3,4 AA are precursors to a large family of compounds known as the eicosanoids associated with inflammatory reactions.4 PLA2 inhibition by hyrtiosulawesine would lead to a decrease in AA and proinflammatory eicosanoids, with anti-inflammatory effect.4 In an effort to understand the structural attributes of the natural product (1) that cause PLA2 inhibition, hyrtiosulawesine and a series of related model compounds (2, 3) will be synthesised and evaluated for biological activity. Biomimetic nucleophiles will be used to probe hyrtiosulawesine and related compounds in order to determine their reactivity and possible site of reaction. Bioactive members of the library of compounds will subsequently be subjected to reaction with bee venom phospholipase A2 to identify the presence of any covalent adducts. Further studies may be directed to discovering the nature and location of the covalent linkage within the enzyme active site. The latest results will be presented. References 1. Salmoun, M.; Devijver, C.; Daloze, D.; Braekman, J.-C.; Van Soest, R. W. M. J. Nat. Prod. 2002, 65, 1173-1176. 2. Sauleau, P.; Martin, M.-T.; Dau, M.-E. T. H.; Youssef, D. T. A.; Bourguet-Kondracki, M.-L. J. Nat. Prod. 2006, 69, 1676-1679. 3. Balsinde, J.; Balboa, M. A.; Insel, P. A.; Dennis, E. A. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1999, 39, 175-189. 4. Parente, L. J. Rheumatol. 2001, 28, 2375-2382.

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  • Light Exposure Patterns in Children: A Pilot Study

    Backhouse, Simon; Ng, H; Phillips, John (2010-07-27)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Purpose To examine the light exposure patterns of school aged children in relation to refractive error. Methods School-aged children (13-14 years old, n = 12) were issued with self-contained light meters that recorded the ambient light levels every 10 seconds (HOBO Pendant UA-002-064, Onset Computer Corporation, USA). The ambient light levels were collected every 10 seconds over seven days (one period). Measurements were made in three periods over three consecutive months in winter. Cycloplegic autorefraction and axial length measurements were made at the beginning and end of the three month study. Results Ambient light level recordings indicated that while children spent only a small amount of time outside (10.65 ± 2.52 hours per week, or 5.88 ± 1.39% of the total time; mean ± 95% CI, n = 12) these outdoor periods accounted for a large proportion of their total light exposure (4.72 × 107 ± 1.65 × 107 lux, or 87.95 ± 3.72% of their total light exposure). The subjects were exposed to only 5.72 ± 1.86% of the total available light on average over the measurement period. There was a significant correlation between the amount of time spent indoors (between 10 and 1000 lux) and the cumulative light exposure obtained indoors (R2 = 0.945). There was, however, a poor correlation between the amount of time spent outdoors (>1000 lux) and the cumulative light exposure obtained outdoors (R2 = 0.296). Refractive error was not significantly correlated with cumulative light exposure (R2 < 0.001). There were no significant correlations between the rate of change in light levels and refractive error. Discussion and Conclusions A small amount of time spent outdoors is associated with a large proportion of daily light exposure. While predictable levels of light exposure are obtained indoors, there is a great degree of variability in the amount of light received by going outdoors. Thus, a small amount of extra time spent outdoors can disproportionally affect the total light exposure received per day. Further investigations of the quality (e.g. spectral composition) and quantity (e.g. yearly exposure, differing seasons, etc.) of light received by school-aged children are warranted.

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  • Visualizing multiscale models of the nephron

    Nickerson, David; Terkildsen, J; Hamilton, K; Hunter, Peter (2010-04)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    We present the development of a tool which provides users with the ability to visualize and interact with multiscale models of the nephron – from the scale of models of membrane bound proteins, to that of an individual nephron. A 1-D finite element model of the nephron has been created and is used for both visualization and modeling of the tubule transport. Mathematical models of nephron segments (for example, Weinstein et al., Am. J. Physiol. 292:F1164-F1181, 2007 for the proximal tubule) are embedded in the finite element model. At the cellular level these segment models utilize models encoded in CellML (www.cellml.org) to describe cellular transport kinetics. A user interface has been developed which allows the visualization and interaction with the multiscale nephron models and simulation results. The zinc extension to Firefox (http://www.cmiss.org/cmgui/zinc/) is used to provide an interactive 3-D view of the model(s). This model viewer is embedded in a web page which dynamically presents content based on user input. For example, when viewing the whole nephron model the user might be presented with information on the various embedded segment models as they select them in the 3-D model view. Similarly, the user might choose to focus the model viewer on a cellular model in a particular segment in order to view the various membrane transport proteins. Selecting a specific protein might present the user with a full reference description of the mathematical model governing the behavior of that protein (Nickerson et al., Bioinformatics 24:1112-1114, 2008).

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  • Blood flow redistribution following pulmonary micro-embolism

    Clark, Alys; Burrowes, KS; Tawhai, Merryn (2010)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Occlusion of pulmonary arteries by autologous clot and bead emboli affect pulmonary function by elevating arterial pressures and reducing the number of functional gas exchange units in the lung. The occlusion of multiple arterioles at the acinar level can have a significant impact on pulmonary function. However, the contribution of acinar structure to perfusion distribution and the significance of arteriole occlusion is not well characterized.

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  • Bronchoconstriction and the MBNW: Insights from anatomical lung modelling.

    Mitchell, Jennine; Tawahi MH (2010-11-30)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Bronchoconstriction and the MBNW: Insights from anatomical lung modelling. Jennine Mitchell and Dr Merryn Tawhai Auckland Bioengineering institute The multiple breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) is a global test of lung function that produces two indices Sacin and Scond that are reflective of ventilation heterogeneity arising at the level of acinus and between more spatially disparate regions of the lung respectively. An important application of the MBNW is in the study of asthma. Ventilation defects have been noted to occur in imaging studies of asthma. These regional ventilation defects have not previously been considered in relation to the MBNW indices. Scond is purported to be related to the state of conducting airways however no modelling studies exist which directly link the airway state to Scond. In this work regional ventilation defects have been simulated in an anatomically based human lung model and theoretically linked to the MBNW indices Sacin and Scond. Ventilation is simualted to the level of the acinus in a model in which acinar ventilation is considered independent of ventialtion in other acini. As previously indicated in modelling studies a high degree of constriction is required to produce a ventilation defect. The relationship between the degree of constriction in airways leading to the defect and the Scond index is however highly non-linear and shows a sharp decrease at very high levels of constriction. Ventilation defects potentially cause non-communication of gas trapped in the ventilation defects with the mouth. This may alter the calculation of FRC if nitrogen dilution is used to calculate FRC. As the indices are dependent on the phase III slope for each breath being normalised by FRC this alters MBNW results. The index Scond is not be able to be explained simply in terms of increased time constants due to increased resistance in the main conducting airway tree. The model indicates that the Scond index is more complex than current MBNW theory indicates and cannot be simply explained in terms of a longer time constant due to constriction in the conducting airway tree resulting in increased late emptying of poorly ventilated regions.

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  • The student nurse integrated team model:barriers and benefits

    Aspinall, Cathleen; Baker, H; Vallant, S; Spence, D (2010-11-05)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The student nurse integrated team model:barriers and benefits Intent. The purpose of this research was to evaluate a collaborative project to implement an integrated team model of learning in practice with the clinical placement provider for second year Bachelor of Nursing students from the University of Auckland and Auckland University of Technology. Description. Our clinical partner put forward a proposal to change the model of working with undergraduate student nurses in the clinical environment .The aim was to improve the student’s integration into nursing teams and also strengthen their model of team nursing. The World Health Organisation (WHO 2009) identified that the role individuals play within a team influences team effectiveness and therefore impacts on the quality of patient safety. From a University perspective this involved changing the role of the academic lecturer from working alongside the student to supporting the registered nurses. In their role as mentors, the nurses would assist with the integration of theory into practice and teach clinical skills at the bedside. A perceived benefit would be the emersion of second year student nurses into the ward team. The student nurse integrated team model was devised based on a mentorship concept and piloted in the medical and surgical areas of the public hospital. This study evaluated the model from both the University and the ADHB perspective using a mixed methodology.The University of Auckland surveyed students, university lecturers, charge nurses, staff nurse mentors and clinical nurse educators.The Auckland University of Technology held focus groups with the same participants. It was anticipated that this method would provide hard data for evaluation and qualitative information to explore the experience. The introduction of a new way of working in reality meant a change of role for university and clinical staff. Furthermore, the success of the project as with any change initiative, was dependent on a number of stakeholders. Evaluation Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the evaluation of this new way of working, the process and results will be shared at the conference. Bibliography includes but not limited to the following: Flin, R. Winter, J. Sarac, and C. & Raduma, M. (2009) .Human factors in patient safety: Review of tools and topics. Geneva: World Health Organization.

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  • Energy and nutrient modelling of human evolution

    McGill, Anne-Thea; Wake, G; Beedle, Alan (2010-10)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    ENERGY AND NUTRIENT MODELLING OF HUMAN EVOLUTION Background. During evolution, human encephalisation resulted in high energy use by the large brain in proportion to the body. Adaptations to increase energy intake or reduce total body energy to redress this imbalance may have involved 1) highly developed neural appetite pathways including the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic self -reward system to enhance energy dense food intake 2) an expensive tissue trade off including a short adaptable gut that relies on a higher energy omnivorous diet 3) slow growth and development and thus careful preservation of cellular integrity to reduce oxidative stress and allow longevity 4) inhibition/alteration of energy expensive vitamin and co-factor synthesis and a dependence on the wide variety of food micronutrients. It appears that many such food micronutrients are modulating cellular energy use, and that micronutrient quality must be built into energy requirements. Concurrently, humans were developing technologies such as tool use and fire to further expand food quality and quantity. However, the neural self reward aspect systems pushed technology to favour high and secure energy yields. Animal husbandry and plant crop farming lead to selective breeding for high fat, starch and sugar produce, at the expense of micronutrient variety and volume. Once technology progressed to factory farming, and mechanised and chemical food processing systems, proportions of food micronutrients/macronutrients were markedly altered. Humans are driven to consume addictive energy dense foodstuffs but (unconsciously) neglect to acquire adequate micronutrient volumes. They are forced to attempt to store the energy firstly safely in subcutaneous adipose, then centrally around viscera, and finally in non-adipose cells where glycolipotoxicity occurs. Aims: We plan to start developing new dynamic energy equations, with reference to Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) models for other biological systems. Ultimately, the ‘ideal’ prehistoric fit and healthy, lean hunter-gatherer will be compared with the contemporary sedentary and (metabolically) degenerate, obese ‘westernised-diet’ consuming human. Method: Principles of DEB and mathematical modelling of energy use will be reviewed with respect to human metabolism and different diets.

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  • Effects of a self-adjuvanting Synthetic Long Peptide targeting TLR2 on human immune cells

    Burkert, Kristina; Mansell, Claudia; McIntosh, Julie; Brooks, Anna; Angel, Catherine; Winkler, S; Harris, Paul; Williams, Geoffrey; Brimble, Margaret; Dunbar, Peter (2010-10-27)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • In vivo and in vitro assessment of the action of the antitumour benzonaphthyridine derivative SN 28049 on the murine Colon 38

    Chen, Ying; Finlay, GJ; Richardson, E; Baguley, BC (2010-05)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    SN 28049 a new DNA binding benzonaphthyridine derivative targeting the topoisomerase II enzyme is curative against the murine Co38 adenocarcinoma, whereas another agent targeting the same enzyme, etoposide, is relatively ineffective against this tumour.

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  • Managing inpatient hypoglycaemia: A clinical audit

    Coats, A; Marshall, Dianne (2010-09-10)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aim To examine nursing management of hypoglycaemic episodes in the hospitalised adult patient with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the general medical/surgical wards at a secondary level hospital. Objective To describe hypoglycaemia treatment patterns in the adult inpatient by examining nursing adherence to the Northland District Health Board hospital hypoglycaemia protocol. Method A retrospective audit of 32 sets of treatment and progress notes identified nurses’ adherence to the protocol for management of inpatient hypoglycaemia . Results Adherence to the individual steps of the protocol was low. Nurses administered the recommended initial treatment in 40.4% of cases. Within 30 minutes of detection, 36.7% episodes were corrected. Medical staff were informed of hypoglycaemia in 11.4% of cases. This step achieved the lowest adherence. Nurses documented 87.7% of episodes. There was a high degree of recurrent hypoglycaemia (71.9%). Discussion It is critical to patient outcomes that the steps of the protocol are undertaken correctly. Failure to provide the recommended treatment resulted in some patients experiencing prolonged episodes. Whilst frequency of nursing documentation of episodes was high, critical assessment of causes and or a management plan were not routinely documented. Nurses did not routinely advise medical staff of episodes, consequently medical review of causes of hypoglycaemia and the management plan occurred infrequently. Failure to review management contributed to the high number of recurrent episodes.

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  • Inhibition of complement by Staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 7 in vitro and in vivo

    Lorenz, Natalie; Fraser, John; Radcliff, F (2010-12-07)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Islet human amylin oligomer formation is differentially correlated with β-cell death and diabetes onset between homozygous and hemizygous human amylin transgenic mice

    Zhang, S; Liu, H; Li, XL; Au, M; Chuang, CL; Cooper, GJS (2010)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    One of the pathological features of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the presence of islet amyloid deposits comprising mainly human amylin (hA)/hIAPP. Recent studies suggested that soluble oligomers of human amylin may be the primary cause of β-cell damage and thus contribute to the onset/development of T2DM. However, the molecular basis of this process remains to be fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the connection between soluble oligomers and hA cytotoxicity, and their correlation with diabetes development using a rodent model of diabetes.

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  • The influence of the regional distribution of reduced lung elastic recoil on FEV1

    Hedges, KL; Hoffman, EA; Tawhai, MH (2010)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Rationale: A link has been observed in several studies between the regional distribution of emphysema and the resulting magnitude of reduction in FEV1. The aim of this study is to examine how the loss of elastic recoil associated with emphysema that develops in localized regions of the lung results in the observed trends in FEV1 reduction.

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  • Co-Prescribing of Medications with Anticholinergic Properties to Those Using Cholinesterase Inhibitors for Dementia

    Garrigan, Katherine; John, N; McGrogan, A; Jones, R; de-Vries, C (2010-08)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Medications with anticholinergic (AC) propertieshave adverse effects on cognition and many guidelines recommend avoiding them in older adults. Theoretically they could negate benefits of cholinesterase inhibitor (CI) treatment in patients dementia patients, although there is inadequate evidence to date. Objectives: To determine the frequency of AC medicine use in patients treated with a CI and to assess whether such use is associated with early CI discontinuation. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was carried out using the General Practice Research Database. Subjectswere all patients aged 18+ with a new CI prescription after January 2000. All medicines were classified as to their AC properties according to the Rudolph Anticholinergic Risk Scale. AC medication use in patients prescribed CI was determined as well as CI discontinuation rates in those with and without AC medicines. Cox regression survival analysis with time dependent covariates was carried out to determine risk factors for CI discontinuation. Results: 7523 patients newly prescribed CIs were identified. On average, CIs were prescribed for 536 days; 50% of users had discontinued treatment 383 days after CI initiation;75% had discontinued by day 777. 3556 (47%) patients used CIs and AC medicines concomitantly; 1946 (26%) for over 90 days. Being underweight and frail were associated with a 12–15% higher risk of CI discontinuation. An association was found between concomitant AC use (especially antipsychotics) and discontinuation of CI but no association with the strength of AC action or cumulative exposure. Patients aged 80+ were significantly more likely to discontinue their CI early: HRadj 1.27 (CI951.13–1.43) in 80–84 year olds and 1.72 (CI951.53–1.93) in those aged 85+. Conclusions: Further work is needed to evaluate any association between CI discontinuation and cumulative AC exposure. Very elderly and underweight patients discontinued CIs earlier.

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  • Identification of a novel group of muscular dystrophies, the Anoctaminopathies, caused by recessive mutations in the putative calcium activated chloride channel, ANO5

    Marlow, Gareth; Bolduc, V; Boycott, KM; Saleki, K; Inoue, H; Kroon, J; Itakura, M; Robitaille, Y; Parent, L; Baas, F; Mizuta, K; Kamata, N; Richard, I; Linssen, W; Mahjneh, I; de Visser, M; Brais, B; Bashir, R (2010-03-01)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Anoctamin (ANO) family consists of 10 proteins several of which have been shown to correspond to the elusive calciumactivated chloride channels (CaCCs). CaCCs are gated by increases in intracellular calcium and they have been linked to several cellular functions including epithelial transport, cell volume regulation, olfactory and photoreceptor transduction, cardiac membrane excitability, and smooth muscle contraction. The only reported human mutations linked with the ANO family are dominant mutations in ANO5, which cause a rare bone fragility disorder gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD1). Recently we have identified recessive ANO5 mutations in patients with proximal limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2L) and a distal non-dysferlin Miyoshi myopathy (MMD3). The mutations identified consist of splice site, a single adenine duplication and missense. The duplicated adenine is present in LGMD2L and MMD3. The LGMD2L phenotype is characterized by proximal muscle weakness and prominent asymmetric quadriceps atrophy. The MMD3 phenotype is associated with distal weakness in particular of the calf muscles. The clinical heterogeneity associated with ANO5 mutations is reminiscent of that observed with dysferlin mutations which can cause both a LGMD and distal muscular dystrophy. ANO5 mutations are associated with loss of muscle membrane integrity and defective membrane repair. Our studies suggest that ANO5 is a putative calcium-activated chloride channel which may function with dysferlin in membrane repair. Our study has identified a novel group of muscular dystrophies “the Anoctaminopathies”.

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  • Mitochondrial Respiration in Skeletal Muscle of Obese Women Prior To Bariatric Surgery and Following Six Months of Weight Loss

    MacDonald, J; McGill, Anne-Thea; Hickey, A; Plank, L; McLeod, B; Falk, S; Wiessing, K; Beban, G; Chan, YK; Xin, Liping; Cooper, GJS; Poppitt, SD (2010-07-12)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Body composition and Metabolic changes after Sequential VLED and Bariatric surgery in .

    McGill, Anne-Thea; Chan, YK; Plank, L; McLeod, B; Beban, G; Falk, S; Wiessing, K; Poppitt, SD; Cooper, GJS (2010-07-12)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    3. Anne-Thea McGill¹,Yih-Kai Chan, Lindsay Plank, Briar McLeod, Grant Beban, Sofie Falk, Katy Wiessing, Sally D Poppitt, Garth JS Cooper. Body composition and Metabolic changes after Sequential VLED and Bariatric surgery in women. T2:PO.33. Obesity Reviews, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages iii-iv, 1-502, July 2010 Special Issue Abstracts of the 11th International Congress on Obesity, 11-15 July 2010, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Factors Influencing the Aroma Stability of Sauvignon blanc Wines

    Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Nicolau, L; Kilmartin, Paul (2010-07)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Fostering the exchange of geoscience resources for knowledge exploration and discovery

    Whitehead, Brandon; Gahegan, Mark; Everett, M; Hills, S; Brodaric, B (2010-11-11)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Geoscience data capture is expensive. In order to extract maximum value, the data need to be consistently described, easily found, and then shared among those who need it. There has been recent momentum in the geoscience community to develop a common descriptive framework which facilitates data sharing. While storage and transfer standards are vital, they lack a descriptive element which standarizes the meaning of their contents. Metadata capture is appropriate for data stores, but often the terminology carries different meanings as domains become more specialised. For example, the term “migration” to a petroleum geochemist refers to the movement of hydrocarbons in geologic time, yet to a seismologist describes an imaging process. Furthermore, concepts associated with a term may change through time or as contextual factors in a discussion are modified. How, therefore, can the concepts evoked from geoscience resource terminology be defined and aligned to represent this multi-scaled orthogonal variability? Here we show how a community knowledge acquisition exercise was orchestrated to discuss fundamental concepts and their meanings as interpreted by leaders in basin characterization. The result of this exercise is a formal description of many of the features and processes associated with sedimentary basins, i.e. a basin ontology. This ontology allows the use of semantic connections between concepts as a backbone for search and discovery of research artifacts in large data stores.

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