46 results for Conference poster, 2010

  • The Acoustic Contrasts of Emotional Expressions in New Zealand English

    Jayakody, D.; Lin, E.; Looi, V. (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

    Listeners can identify emotions based on vocal cues (Banse & Scherer, 1996). This study aims at identifying the acoustical parameters that aid in recognizing different emotions, for a better understanding of the difficulties faced by cochlear implant (CI) and hearing aid (HA)users in real life situations.

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  • Electrocochleography and Subjective Methods for the Diagnosis of Meniere’s disease

    Kalin, C.; Lin, E.; Hornibrook, J.; O’Beirne, G. (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

    between electrocochleography (ECochG) measures and the subjective scores based on the clinical guidelines provided by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Committee on Hearing Equilibrium (AAO-HNS CHE) and the Gibson‟s Score. A total of 250 potential MD patients who have had their MD-related signs and symptoms documented and ECochG testing completed in the Department of Otolaryngology at Christchurch Hospital were included. A selection of details obtained from both the AAO-HNS CHE and ECochG testing results were examined to allow for an investigation on the function of these methods as a diagnostic tool for MD. The inter-method reliability between ECochG and the two subjective methods for the diagnosis of MD was found to be high. In addition, patients that tested “positive”, regardless of the diagnostic method used, showed a higher correlation among the four key symptoms of MD. These results demonstrate that ECochG is an effective diagnostic tool but should not be used as the sole assessment for the diagnosis of MD. This research provides empirical evidence in support of using ECochG as an effective tool as part of the differential diagnosis of MD.

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  • Acoustic Signs of Supraglottal Constriction in Pathological Voices

    Lin, E.; Ormond, T.; Hornibrook, J.; Henderson, N. (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

    Purpose: This study aims to identify the acoustic signs of supraglottal constriction and effects of some vocal manipulation techniques. It is hypothesized that some task-related acoustic contrasts would differ between voice patients with and without supraglottal constriction due to different vocal tract configurations. Method: Classified through videostroboscopic examinations, 30 participants were gender and age-matched to form two comparison groups (“constricted” and “non-constricted”), with five males and ten females in each group. Participants were asked to sustain a vowel (/a/ or /i/) for approximately three seconds in five tasks, including normal-pitch, low-pitch, high-pitch, /m/-onset (i.e., with the consonant /m/ preceding the vowel at normal pitch), and /h/-onset tasks. Acoustic signals were analyzed to extract measures from the mid-portion of the vowel. Results: The “constricted” group showed a lack of task-related contrasts on signal-to-noise ratio, singing power ratio, frequency of the second formant, and the amplitude difference between the first formant and the first harmonic. Conclusion: Further investigations are needed to assess the predictive power of the proposed task-based acoustic approach for detecting supraglottal constriction.

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  • Effects on Motor Vehicle Behavior of Color and Width of Bicycle Facilities at Signalized Intersections

    Mangundu, E.; Koorey, Glen (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

    Research was undertaken in Christchurch, New Zealand to investigate motor vehicle behavior near bicycle facilities at signalized intersections. Motorists not keeping clear of such facilities may limit their usefulness and safety for bicyclists. The main research objective was to assess motorists’ avoidance of colored facilities in comparison to uncolored ones. The research also investigated if wide combined bicycle and traffic lanes encourage drivers to queue side-by-side, thereby encroaching into bicyclist spaces. 18 sites were identified to evaluate the effect of colored surfacing and lane widths on the rate at which motorists encroach on marked bicycle spaces. The sites contained either Advanced Stop Lines (ASL) or Advanced Stop Boxes (ASB) and were a mix of colored and uncolored facilities with “narrow” and “wide” lane combinations. Manual surveys were carried out to observe the positions of motor vehicles in relation to the bicycle facilities. Four of the uncolored sites were then colored and “after” surveys conducted. The results showed that drivers were much less likely to encroach on colored bicycle spaces in comparison to uncolored ones, particularly ASLs. Motorists were also more likely to encroach on bicycle lanes in “wide” lane combinations. It is recommended that road agencies continue coloring new and existing bicycle facilities at intersections, with preference given to existing ASLs over ASBs and sites with wider approaches. Traffic and bicycle lane combinations greater than 5.0 m (16½ ft) should also be avoided if separate turning traffic lanes are not present.

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  • Investigating and Modelling the Effects of Traffic Calming Devices

    Mao, J.; Koorey, Glen (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research investigated the effects on traffic volumes, speeds and crashes of traffic calming devices on urban local streets. Eleven sites in Christchurch with street calming devices were evaluated using field surveys and network modelling using TrafikPlan, and compared with findings from a literature review. The main findings of the studies were: at seven sites that used vertical devices for treatment, five of them had reduced traffic volumes and speeds; at ten sites that used horizontal devices, eight of them had experienced reductions in volumes and speeds; from the crash history, it was found that road safety has been noticeably improved after installation of the traffic calming devices, with average crash reductions of 15-20%; in terms of network performance, TrafikPlan modelling seems promising for estimating traffic volume and speed changes on treated local streets and adjacent arterial roads. This paper will discuss these findings and speculate on how the devices investigated affect traffic behaviour. It is recommended that further research be conducted at more sites and for longer time periods to build up a comprehensive local database of traffic calming treatments. Future studies should also investigate the effectiveness of environment impacts of the devices, i.e. noise and air pollution.

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  • Calibration of Overseas Highway Crash Prediction Models for New Zealand - a Case Study with IHSDM

    Koorey, Glen (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

    Crash prediction models (CPMs) are an increasing feature of rural highway design practice internationally. A significant related development was the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM) in the US. However it would be difficult for every country to develop similar design tools with the same degree of complexity and research. Research has recently been exploring ways to assess the safety performance of rural highways in New Zealand. IHSDM was identified as worthy of further investigation, and a number of tasks were undertaken to adapt it for use in NZ. These included developing suitable data importing routines and calibrating IHSDM's CPM to match NZ crash patterns. A series of validation tests assessed IHSDM's effectiveness in predicting the relative safety of NZ rural roads. These included a “before and after” crash comparison of a major highway realignment, and checks of crash numbers along highway lengths in varying terrain. The investigations showed that IHSDM is a promising tool for safety and operational assessment of highway alignments (both existing and proposed) in NZ. However, IHSDM’s current lack of consideration for bridges and inconsistent road elements limit the ability of its CPM to assess sub-standard existing routes with as much accuracy as well-designed newer alignments.

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  • Sub-surface Expression of Sand Volcanoes in the Avon-Heathcote Estuary Induced by the Darfield Earthquake; Analog for Sedimentary Structures in the Rock Record

    Reid, C.M.; McCombe, J.Q.; Thompson, N.K.; Laird, T.E.; Irvine, J.R.M. (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

    Among the deformation features produced in Christchurch by the September 4th Darfield Earthquake were numerous and widespread “sand volcanoes”. Most of these structures occurred in urban settings and “erupted” through a hardened surface of concrete or tarseal, or soil. Sand volcanoes were also widespread in the Avon‐ Heathcote Estuary and offered an excellent opportunity to readily examine shallow subsurface profiles and as such the potential appearance of such structures in the rock record.

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  • Temporal and spatial build-up of heavy metal contaminants in car parks

    Cochrane, T.A.; Wicke, D.; O'Sullivan, A.D. (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

    An innovative experimental system was developed to quantify contaminant loads, determine their temporal and spatial variability, and obtain large data sets required for developing contaminant build-up and wash-off stormwater modeling functions for car parks.

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  • A generalized conditional intensity measure approach and holistic ground motion selection

    Bradley, B.A. (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

    The rigorous selection of ground motions is an important consideration in a seismic risk assessment as it provides the link between seismic hazard (seismology) and seismic response (earthquake engineering). Despite the fact that many studies have highlighted the differences between the uniform hazard spectrum (UHS) and individual earthquake scenarios, the UHS is still the primary method by which ground motion records are selected and scaled. The conditional mean spectrum (CMS) is one alternative to the UHS for ground motion selection which provides the mean response spectral ordinates conditioned on the occurrence of a specific value of a single spectral period, and is directly linked to probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). There are however several limitations in the use of the CMS for ground motion selection, which primarily stem from the fact that spectral accelerations provide only a partial picture of the true character of a ground motion. Based on the identified limitations of the CMS the objective of this work was to develop what is referred to as a generalised conditional intensity measure (GCIM) approach, which allows for the construction of the conditional distribution of any ground motion intensity measure. A holistic method of ground motion selection was also developed based on the comparison of the empirical distribution of a ground motion suite and the GCIM distributions.

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  • Reference data for the LARSP profile chart for 2- and 3-year-old children

    Klee, T.; Gavin, W.J. (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

    Rationale: LARSP was one of the first clinical procedures for developmentally profiling children’s use of grammatical constructions in language samples, but its usefulness is constrained by the lack of normative data. The purpose of this study was to develop a preliminary set of norms for LARSP based on empirical data. Methods: The cross-sectional database consisted of conversational samples of 152 children from the US and UK between 24 and 48 months of age (50% girls). Twenty-minute audio recordings were made of parent-child interactions involving play with toys. Transcription and grammatical coding were done blindly (without knowledge of the child’s age or developmental status); grammatical analysis was based on standard LARSP procedures. Results: Descriptive statistics (M, SD, 95% CI) for each grammatical category on the profile chart are presented, in addition to the age at which constructions were used by 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 90% of the children. Conclusions: The clinical uses and limitations of the data-based profile chart are discussed as is future development of the database. Funding Source: Nuffield Foundation (UK)

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  • The effects of forest edges on dung beetle communities in a tropical montane forest

    Barnes, A.D.; Emberson, R.M.; Chapman, H.M.; Didham, R.K. (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

    Land use has been implicated as the largest global driver of biodiversity loss, largely due to associated habitat loss and fragmentation. The resulting production of habitated ges have pervasive impacts on the distribution and persistence of invertebrates. Land use change is of particular concern in African tropical montane forests as populations are increasing dramatically throughout these areas. Therefore, this study focuses on the impacts of livestock and fire on forest edges around a unique Afromontane forest in Nigeria.

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  • The influence of co-worker relationships on person-organisation misfit.

    Cooper-Thomas, H.D.; Wright, S. (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Ground motion selection for seismic response analysis

    Bradley, B.A. (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

    Poster 47

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  • Maximum Entropy modeling of invasive plants in the forests of Cumberland Plateau and Mountain Region

    Lemke, D.; Hulme, P.; Brown, J.A.; Tadesse, W. (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research explores the integration of GIS and remote sensing with statistical analysis to assist in species distribution modeling of invasive species. It is applicable to both native and non-native species and has the ability to assist land managers in identifying both areas of importance and areas of threat.

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  • Landing size of harvesting operations in New Zealand

    Visser, R.; Spinelli, R.; Magagnotti, N. (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

    Landings are an integral part of modern whole-tree harvesting operations in New Zealand. A representative sample of 142 landings was measured using GPS, whereby nine were recently constructed and unused, 34 were live and the remaining 99 were older and closed out. The average landing size was 3900 m², with a range from 1370 to 12540m². On average, the number of log-sorts cut was 11, the landings were in use for 4 weeks, estimated daily production was 287 m³/day, 37% were manual processing (63% mechanised), 81% were grapple loader (19% front-end loader). A regression equation to model landing size indicates that number of log sorts and production levels are the two main driving factors. Landings do tend to ‘grow’ over time, with used landings on average being 560m² larger than live ones, which in turn were 280m² larger than recently constructed (unused) landings. Most recently constructed landings were larger than the company design; whereby either 40mx60m or 40mx80m were common specifications. A comparable study in 1987 showed the average landing to be just over 1900m², indicating landing size has nearly doubled in the last 20 years. Landings serviced by front-end loaders were slightly larger than those serviced by grapple, but this is compounded by front-end loaders being more commonly used in high production systems. Analyses of the schematic drawings for the live landings indicate that as landing size grows, there is a preference for using multiple rows to manage log inventory on the landing. Smaller landings typically prefer to stack around the edge of the landings.

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  • Using university level data for institutional research

    Comer, K.; Brogt, E. (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

    Background/context The university as an institution collects data on students for a variety of purposes and stakeholders, from student secondary school records to determine who will gain entrance, to student grades for academic progression and graduation, or student engagement and teaching surveys to assess the quality of education. When these data sets are combined, they can paint richer pictures of the institution, programmes of study, departments or even individual papers that would otherwise go unnoticed. Beyond that, the combined data can also inform the research on teaching and learning in tertiary settings. Analyses arising from such research can be used for professional development purposes, both to assist lecturers, departments and programmes in identifying potential issues in and across curricula and for educational managers aiming to adapt policies to improve the student learning experience. Research/evaluation method In this poster, we share examples of institutional research with combined data sets that has helped university departments develop better pictures of what types of students enter their programme, how they progress, what issues were encountered by students in the curriculum, where those issues originated and how they could be effectively addressed. In clarifying this, we will illustrate: *How using New Zealand National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) data can used to predict success in first year courses, and *How grade variability analyses (performance of the same students in different courses) can identify curricular "cake-walks" or bottlenecks. Outcomes Through illustrated examples we present both the benefits of these approaches for particular departments or lecturers, as well as the challenges in data management and the legal and ethical implications for using existing student data for research purposes. Key references American Educational Research Association. 2000, 'Ethical Standards of the American Educational Research Association,' retrieved September 7, 2007, from http://www.aera.net/uploadedFiles/About_AERA/Ethical_Standards/EthicalStandard.pdf Brogt, E., Sampson, K., Comer, K., Turnbull, M., and McIntosh, A. (in prep). NCEA achievement and success in university biology. James, A., Montelle, C., and Williams, P. (2008). From lessons to lectures: NCEA mathematics results and first-ear mathematics performance. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 39(8): 1037-1050. Luan, J., and Zhao, C-M. (2006). Practicing data mining for enrollment management and beyond. New Directions for Institutional Research, 131: 117-122. Serban, A. M. (2002). Knowledge management: The 'fifth face' of institutional research. New Directions for Institutional Research, 113: 105-111.

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  • Applicability of foreign ground motion prediction equations for New Zealand active shallow crustal earthquakes

    Bradley, B.A. (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

    The number of instrumental ground motion records in New Zealand (NZ) has increased significantly in recent years due to an increase in the number and quality of seismometer throughout NZ. Figure 1 provides a comparison between NGA ground motion database and the NZ database developed as part of this study. Despite this increase in instrumental data, it can be seen clearly in Figure 1 that there is a lack of empirical records from large magnitude events observed at near-source distances. This is even more clear in Figure 2, which plots the cumulative number of records exceeding specific PGA values in the NZ ground motion database. There are only a total of 66 ground motion records which have PGA values above 0.1g (28 crustal, 11 interface, and 27 slab). Furthermore, the maximum PGA values recorded are 0.39g, 0.31g, and 0.28g for crustal, interface, and slab events, respectively. This lack of ground motion records from large magnitude nearsource records, which typically dominate seismic hazard analyses, makes it difficult to develop robust ground motion prediction equations used in seismic hazard analysis based on NZ data alone. In this study an alternative approach to empirical ground motion prediction equation development was taken. Firstly, the applicability of various foreign ground motion prediction equations (derived using plentiful data) to NZ were considered. The consideration was based on both the dependence of the inter- and intra-event residuals as a function of several predictor variables, and also the general predictor variable scaling of the various models. Secondly, the model exhibiting the best applicability to NZ was modified based on theoretical and empirically-driven considerations to better represent the NZ data.

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  • OpenSHA implementation of the GCIM approach for ground motion selection

    Bradley, B.A. (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

    Ground motion selection is known to be an important step in seismic hazard and risk assessment. There have been numerous procedures proposed for selecting ground motions ranging from somewhat ad-hoc guidelines specified in seismic design codes to more rigorous approaches which have found favour in the research-community, but are not yet applied routinely in earthquake engineering practice. The most common method (often specified in seismic design codes) for selecting ground motion records for use in seismic response analysis is based on their "fit" to a Uniform Hazard Spectrum (UHS). This is despite the fact that many studies have highlighted the differences between the UHS and individual earthquake scenarios, and therefore its inappropriateness for use in ground motion selection. The reluctance of the earthquake engineering profession to depart from UHS-based selection of ground motions is arguably because of its simplicity to implement relative to methodologies with sounder theoretical bases. To this end, the aim of the present work was to implement a recently developed Generalised Conditional Intensity Measure (GCIM) approach for ground motion selection (Bradley, 2010) into the open-source seismic hazard analysis software OpenSHA (Field et al. 2003).

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  • Integration of somatosensory and auditory information in vowel production

    Katseff, S.; Houde, J.; Johnson, K. (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Implementation of an agent-based simulation platform for audiology trainees

    Heitz, A.; Grimley, M.; Davis, N.; Dunser, A.; Grady, J. (2010)

    Conference poster
    University of Canterbury Library

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