25 results for Conference poster, 2010

  • Light Exposure Patterns in Children: A Pilot Study

    Backhouse, Simon; Ng, H; Phillips, John (2010-07-27)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Purpose To examine the light exposure patterns of school aged children in relation to refractive error. Methods School-aged children (13-14 years old, n = 12) were issued with self-contained light meters that recorded the ambient light levels every 10 seconds (HOBO Pendant UA-002-064, Onset Computer Corporation, USA). The ambient light levels were collected every 10 seconds over seven days (one period). Measurements were made in three periods over three consecutive months in winter. Cycloplegic autorefraction and axial length measurements were made at the beginning and end of the three month study. Results Ambient light level recordings indicated that while children spent only a small amount of time outside (10.65 ± 2.52 hours per week, or 5.88 ± 1.39% of the total time; mean ± 95% CI, n = 12) these outdoor periods accounted for a large proportion of their total light exposure (4.72 × 107 ± 1.65 × 107 lux, or 87.95 ± 3.72% of their total light exposure). The subjects were exposed to only 5.72 ± 1.86% of the total available light on average over the measurement period. There was a significant correlation between the amount of time spent indoors (between 10 and 1000 lux) and the cumulative light exposure obtained indoors (R2 = 0.945). There was, however, a poor correlation between the amount of time spent outdoors (>1000 lux) and the cumulative light exposure obtained outdoors (R2 = 0.296). Refractive error was not significantly correlated with cumulative light exposure (R2 < 0.001). There were no significant correlations between the rate of change in light levels and refractive error. Discussion and Conclusions A small amount of time spent outdoors is associated with a large proportion of daily light exposure. While predictable levels of light exposure are obtained indoors, there is a great degree of variability in the amount of light received by going outdoors. Thus, a small amount of extra time spent outdoors can disproportionally affect the total light exposure received per day. Further investigations of the quality (e.g. spectral composition) and quantity (e.g. yearly exposure, differing seasons, etc.) of light received by school-aged children are warranted.

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  • Synthesis and mechanistic studies of PLA₂ inihibition by the marine alkaloid hyrtiosulawesine

    Liew, Lydia; Bourguet-Kondracki, M-L; Copp, Brent (2010-10-17)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The first isolation of hyrtiosulawesine (1) was from an Indonesian collection of the marine sponges Hyrtios erectus and H. reticulatus.1 The β-carboline alkaloid was subsequently re-isolated from a Red Sea collection of Hyrtios sp. and found to display anti-phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity with an IC50 value of 14 μM. Phospholipase A2 catalyses the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids at the sn-2 position to generate arachidonic acids (AA).3,4 AA are precursors to a large family of compounds known as the eicosanoids associated with inflammatory reactions.4 PLA2 inhibition by hyrtiosulawesine would lead to a decrease in AA and proinflammatory eicosanoids, with anti-inflammatory effect.4 In an effort to understand the structural attributes of the natural product (1) that cause PLA2 inhibition, hyrtiosulawesine and a series of related model compounds (2, 3) will be synthesised and evaluated for biological activity. Biomimetic nucleophiles will be used to probe hyrtiosulawesine and related compounds in order to determine their reactivity and possible site of reaction. Bioactive members of the library of compounds will subsequently be subjected to reaction with bee venom phospholipase A2 to identify the presence of any covalent adducts. Further studies may be directed to discovering the nature and location of the covalent linkage within the enzyme active site. The latest results will be presented. References 1. Salmoun, M.; Devijver, C.; Daloze, D.; Braekman, J.-C.; Van Soest, R. W. M. J. Nat. Prod. 2002, 65, 1173-1176. 2. Sauleau, P.; Martin, M.-T.; Dau, M.-E. T. H.; Youssef, D. T. A.; Bourguet-Kondracki, M.-L. J. Nat. Prod. 2006, 69, 1676-1679. 3. Balsinde, J.; Balboa, M. A.; Insel, P. A.; Dennis, E. A. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1999, 39, 175-189. 4. Parente, L. J. Rheumatol. 2001, 28, 2375-2382.

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  • Visual Acuity, Refractive Status and Accommodation in Octopus Gibbsi

    Tunrbull, P; Backhouse, Simon; Phillips, John (2010-07-27)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Visualizing multiscale models of the nephron

    Nickerson, David; Terkildsen, J; Hamilton, K; Hunter, Peter (2010-04)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    We present the development of a tool which provides users with the ability to visualize and interact with multiscale models of the nephron – from the scale of models of membrane bound proteins, to that of an individual nephron. A 1-D finite element model of the nephron has been created and is used for both visualization and modeling of the tubule transport. Mathematical models of nephron segments (for example, Weinstein et al., Am. J. Physiol. 292:F1164-F1181, 2007 for the proximal tubule) are embedded in the finite element model. At the cellular level these segment models utilize models encoded in CellML (www.cellml.org) to describe cellular transport kinetics. A user interface has been developed which allows the visualization and interaction with the multiscale nephron models and simulation results. The zinc extension to Firefox (http://www.cmiss.org/cmgui/zinc/) is used to provide an interactive 3-D view of the model(s). This model viewer is embedded in a web page which dynamically presents content based on user input. For example, when viewing the whole nephron model the user might be presented with information on the various embedded segment models as they select them in the 3-D model view. Similarly, the user might choose to focus the model viewer on a cellular model in a particular segment in order to view the various membrane transport proteins. Selecting a specific protein might present the user with a full reference description of the mathematical model governing the behavior of that protein (Nickerson et al., Bioinformatics 24:1112-1114, 2008).

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  • Bronchoconstriction and the MBNW: Insights from anatomical lung modelling.

    Mitchell, Jennine; Tawahi MH (2010-11-30)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Bronchoconstriction and the MBNW: Insights from anatomical lung modelling. Jennine Mitchell and Dr Merryn Tawhai Auckland Bioengineering institute The multiple breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) is a global test of lung function that produces two indices Sacin and Scond that are reflective of ventilation heterogeneity arising at the level of acinus and between more spatially disparate regions of the lung respectively. An important application of the MBNW is in the study of asthma. Ventilation defects have been noted to occur in imaging studies of asthma. These regional ventilation defects have not previously been considered in relation to the MBNW indices. Scond is purported to be related to the state of conducting airways however no modelling studies exist which directly link the airway state to Scond. In this work regional ventilation defects have been simulated in an anatomically based human lung model and theoretically linked to the MBNW indices Sacin and Scond. Ventilation is simualted to the level of the acinus in a model in which acinar ventilation is considered independent of ventialtion in other acini. As previously indicated in modelling studies a high degree of constriction is required to produce a ventilation defect. The relationship between the degree of constriction in airways leading to the defect and the Scond index is however highly non-linear and shows a sharp decrease at very high levels of constriction. Ventilation defects potentially cause non-communication of gas trapped in the ventilation defects with the mouth. This may alter the calculation of FRC if nitrogen dilution is used to calculate FRC. As the indices are dependent on the phase III slope for each breath being normalised by FRC this alters MBNW results. The index Scond is not be able to be explained simply in terms of increased time constants due to increased resistance in the main conducting airway tree. The model indicates that the Scond index is more complex than current MBNW theory indicates and cannot be simply explained in terms of a longer time constant due to constriction in the conducting airway tree resulting in increased late emptying of poorly ventilated regions.

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  • Blood flow redistribution following pulmonary micro-embolism

    Clark, Alys; Burrowes, KS; Tawhai, Merryn (2010)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Occlusion of pulmonary arteries by autologous clot and bead emboli affect pulmonary function by elevating arterial pressures and reducing the number of functional gas exchange units in the lung. The occlusion of multiple arterioles at the acinar level can have a significant impact on pulmonary function. However, the contribution of acinar structure to perfusion distribution and the significance of arteriole occlusion is not well characterized.

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  • Mitochondrial Respiration in Skeletal Muscle of Obese Women Prior To Bariatric Surgery and Following Six Months of Weight Loss

    MacDonald, J; McGill, Anne-Thea; Hickey, A; Plank, L; McLeod, B; Falk, S; Wiessing, K; Beban, G; Chan, YK; Xin, Liping; Cooper, GJS; Poppitt, SD (2010-07-12)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Body composition and Metabolic changes after Sequential VLED and Bariatric surgery in .

    McGill, Anne-Thea; Chan, YK; Plank, L; McLeod, B; Beban, G; Falk, S; Wiessing, K; Poppitt, SD; Cooper, GJS (2010-07-12)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    3. Anne-Thea McGill¹,Yih-Kai Chan, Lindsay Plank, Briar McLeod, Grant Beban, Sofie Falk, Katy Wiessing, Sally D Poppitt, Garth JS Cooper. Body composition and Metabolic changes after Sequential VLED and Bariatric surgery in women. T2:PO.33. Obesity Reviews, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages iii-iv, 1-502, July 2010 Special Issue Abstracts of the 11th International Congress on Obesity, 11-15 July 2010, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Managing inpatient hypoglycaemia: A clinical audit

    Coats, A; Marshall, Dianne (2010-09-10)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aim To examine nursing management of hypoglycaemic episodes in the hospitalised adult patient with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the general medical/surgical wards at a secondary level hospital. Objective To describe hypoglycaemia treatment patterns in the adult inpatient by examining nursing adherence to the Northland District Health Board hospital hypoglycaemia protocol. Method A retrospective audit of 32 sets of treatment and progress notes identified nurses’ adherence to the protocol for management of inpatient hypoglycaemia . Results Adherence to the individual steps of the protocol was low. Nurses administered the recommended initial treatment in 40.4% of cases. Within 30 minutes of detection, 36.7% episodes were corrected. Medical staff were informed of hypoglycaemia in 11.4% of cases. This step achieved the lowest adherence. Nurses documented 87.7% of episodes. There was a high degree of recurrent hypoglycaemia (71.9%). Discussion It is critical to patient outcomes that the steps of the protocol are undertaken correctly. Failure to provide the recommended treatment resulted in some patients experiencing prolonged episodes. Whilst frequency of nursing documentation of episodes was high, critical assessment of causes and or a management plan were not routinely documented. Nurses did not routinely advise medical staff of episodes, consequently medical review of causes of hypoglycaemia and the management plan occurred infrequently. Failure to review management contributed to the high number of recurrent episodes.

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  • Inhibition of complement by Staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 7 in vitro and in vivo

    Lorenz, Natalie; Fraser, John; Radcliff, F (2010-12-07)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Islet human amylin oligomer formation is differentially correlated with β-cell death and diabetes onset between homozygous and hemizygous human amylin transgenic mice

    Zhang, S; Liu, H; Li, XL; Au, M; Chuang, CL; Cooper, GJS (2010)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    One of the pathological features of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the presence of islet amyloid deposits comprising mainly human amylin (hA)/hIAPP. Recent studies suggested that soluble oligomers of human amylin may be the primary cause of β-cell damage and thus contribute to the onset/development of T2DM. However, the molecular basis of this process remains to be fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the connection between soluble oligomers and hA cytotoxicity, and their correlation with diabetes development using a rodent model of diabetes.

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  • The influence of the regional distribution of reduced lung elastic recoil on FEV1

    Hedges, KL; Hoffman, EA; Tawhai, MH (2010)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Rationale: A link has been observed in several studies between the regional distribution of emphysema and the resulting magnitude of reduction in FEV1. The aim of this study is to examine how the loss of elastic recoil associated with emphysema that develops in localized regions of the lung results in the observed trends in FEV1 reduction.

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  • Factors Influencing the Aroma Stability of Sauvignon blanc Wines

    Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Nicolau, L; Kilmartin, Paul (2010-07)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Doped Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) coated surfaces to reduce fouling from milk

    Patel, Jaiminkumar; Bansal, B; Jones, MI; Hyland, M (2010-11-09)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    In the dairy industry, fouling of processing surfaces is a common and unresolved problem. Surface modification, for example through the application of a surface coating, can alter the surface properties of a material, and may be a potential way to reduce fouling. Typical dairy plant stainless steel surfaces were modified by the deposition of doped Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) films with varying concentration of doped elements. These modified surfaces were studied for their fouling behavior with milk at both laboratory and pilot scale. None of the doped DLC modified surfaces investigated in the study presented benefits in fouling reduction as compared to unmodified surface.

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  • Co-Prescribing of Medications with Anticholinergic Properties to Those Using Cholinesterase Inhibitors for Dementia

    Garrigan, Katherine; John, N; McGrogan, A; Jones, R; de-Vries, C (2010-08)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Medications with anticholinergic (AC) propertieshave adverse effects on cognition and many guidelines recommend avoiding them in older adults. Theoretically they could negate benefits of cholinesterase inhibitor (CI) treatment in patients dementia patients, although there is inadequate evidence to date. Objectives: To determine the frequency of AC medicine use in patients treated with a CI and to assess whether such use is associated with early CI discontinuation. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was carried out using the General Practice Research Database. Subjectswere all patients aged 18+ with a new CI prescription after January 2000. All medicines were classified as to their AC properties according to the Rudolph Anticholinergic Risk Scale. AC medication use in patients prescribed CI was determined as well as CI discontinuation rates in those with and without AC medicines. Cox regression survival analysis with time dependent covariates was carried out to determine risk factors for CI discontinuation. Results: 7523 patients newly prescribed CIs were identified. On average, CIs were prescribed for 536 days; 50% of users had discontinued treatment 383 days after CI initiation;75% had discontinued by day 777. 3556 (47%) patients used CIs and AC medicines concomitantly; 1946 (26%) for over 90 days. Being underweight and frail were associated with a 12–15% higher risk of CI discontinuation. An association was found between concomitant AC use (especially antipsychotics) and discontinuation of CI but no association with the strength of AC action or cumulative exposure. Patients aged 80+ were significantly more likely to discontinue their CI early: HRadj 1.27 (CI951.13–1.43) in 80–84 year olds and 1.72 (CI951.53–1.93) in those aged 85+. Conclusions: Further work is needed to evaluate any association between CI discontinuation and cumulative AC exposure. Very elderly and underweight patients discontinued CIs earlier.

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  • The student nurse integrated team model:barriers and benefits

    Aspinall, Cathleen; Baker, H; Vallant, S; Spence, D (2010-11-05)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The student nurse integrated team model:barriers and benefits Intent. The purpose of this research was to evaluate a collaborative project to implement an integrated team model of learning in practice with the clinical placement provider for second year Bachelor of Nursing students from the University of Auckland and Auckland University of Technology. Description. Our clinical partner put forward a proposal to change the model of working with undergraduate student nurses in the clinical environment .The aim was to improve the student’s integration into nursing teams and also strengthen their model of team nursing. The World Health Organisation (WHO 2009) identified that the role individuals play within a team influences team effectiveness and therefore impacts on the quality of patient safety. From a University perspective this involved changing the role of the academic lecturer from working alongside the student to supporting the registered nurses. In their role as mentors, the nurses would assist with the integration of theory into practice and teach clinical skills at the bedside. A perceived benefit would be the emersion of second year student nurses into the ward team. The student nurse integrated team model was devised based on a mentorship concept and piloted in the medical and surgical areas of the public hospital. This study evaluated the model from both the University and the ADHB perspective using a mixed methodology.The University of Auckland surveyed students, university lecturers, charge nurses, staff nurse mentors and clinical nurse educators.The Auckland University of Technology held focus groups with the same participants. It was anticipated that this method would provide hard data for evaluation and qualitative information to explore the experience. The introduction of a new way of working in reality meant a change of role for university and clinical staff. Furthermore, the success of the project as with any change initiative, was dependent on a number of stakeholders. Evaluation Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the evaluation of this new way of working, the process and results will be shared at the conference. Bibliography includes but not limited to the following: Flin, R. Winter, J. Sarac, and C. & Raduma, M. (2009) .Human factors in patient safety: Review of tools and topics. Geneva: World Health Organization.

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  • In vivo and in vitro assessment of the action of the antitumour benzonaphthyridine derivative SN 28049 on the murine Colon 38

    Chen, Ying; Finlay, GJ; Richardson, E; Baguley, BC (2010-05)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    SN 28049 a new DNA binding benzonaphthyridine derivative targeting the topoisomerase II enzyme is curative against the murine Co38 adenocarcinoma, whereas another agent targeting the same enzyme, etoposide, is relatively ineffective against this tumour.

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  • "But what about the theory?" Designing a social work curriculum around practice learning and reflection

    Adamson, Carole; Bellinger, A (2010-06-10)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Curriculum design in an academic context operates within a site of tension characterised by the need

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  • Using stream biofilm microbial communities as indicators of freshwater ecosystem health

    Lewis, Gillian; Ancion, PY; Lear, G; Roberts, K; Washington, V (2010-08-23)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Stream biofilms are a complex aggregation of microorganisms embedded in a polymer matrix and cover almost every surface in freshwater environments. Because of their sedentary way of life, microorganisms associated with biofilms are affected by past and present environmental conditions and therefore constitute a potential integrative indicator of stream health. A wide range of experiments was conducted in both flow chamber microcosms and natural stream environments to investigate the main drivers of microbial community structure and composition and evaluate the potential use of biofilms as a bio-indicator of freshwater ecosystem health. Using community fingerprinting techniques such as terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis as well as 16S rRNA gene clone libraries we investigated variations occurring in biofilm bacterial and ciliate protozoan communities. Initial experiments conducted in flow chamber microcosms showed that significant differences in microbial community structure could be detected within only a few days of exposure to common water contaminants and remained detectable weeks after transfer to uncontaminated water. Further research investigating biofilm of more than 60 stream sites variously impacted by urbanization revealed a strong separation between rural and urban streams and confirmed the potential use of stream biofilm as a bio-indicator of stream health. Environmental monitoring techniques developed in this project were then successfully tested to investigate the efficacy of an enclosed stormwater treatment system, where traditional biological indicators such as macro-benthic invertebrates were not available. We are now extending our research to 300 different streams in order to define a general Bacterial Community Index characterising stream ecosystem health based on the structure of biofilm bacterial communities.

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  • Effects of complex milk lipid components on neurodevelopment in vitro

    Lim, JH; Hodgkinson, S; Dragunow, M; Norris, C; Vickers, M (2010-11)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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