231 results for Conference poster

  • Moving From Hard Copy to Online Marking Made Easy

    Li, C; Sheridan, Donald (2015-06)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Significant efficiencies can be made in marking classes with large enrolment using a workflow that involves existing or inexpensive technologies. This poster describes how innovative processes saved time, money, improved educational outcomes and quality assurance.

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  • Diphthong trajectories in Māori

    King, J; Watson, Catherine; Maclagan, M; Keegan, Peter; Harlow, R (2014-12-03)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Sound change over time has been identified in monophthongs in Māori, the language of the indigenous people of NZ [1], with /u u:/ fronting, the mid vowels rising, so that /i~i:~e~e:/ can appear identical, and the quantitative distinctions between long and short monophthongs being reduced apart from /a~a:/ [1], [2]. The five most frequent diphthongs in Māori are /ai ae au ou ao/. Analysis has shown mergers between two pairs of these diphthongs, /ai~ae/ and /au~ou/ [3]. This study argued that only one of these mergers is due to the monophthong movements: we have shown that /e e:/ have risen [3], but the second target of /ae/ is falling. It was suggested that this merger is due to glide weakening of /ai/. The merger of /au/ and /ou/ is probably influenced by the fronting of /u u:/. The major distinction for /au ou/ is in the first target, but the fronting of T1 for both /au/ and /ou/ is highly correlated both to the fronting of T2, and the fronting of /u u:/ [3]. Diphthong analysis to date has only offered schematic formant trajectories with arrows from T1 to T2 indicating the movement [2], [3]. Here we present for the first time an analysis of the vowel mergers looking at the entire diphthong trajectories, for T1 and T2 for the male speakers. These plots reveal the course and timing of the diphthong movements.

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  • One size in no way fits all - quantifying hip variations by automatic morphometric measurements from CT

    Zhang, Ju; Hislop-Jambrich, J; Malcolm, D; Thomas, CDL; Nielsen, Poul (2013-12-04)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The femur and hip joint in particular are complicated structures that have both clinical and anthropological significance. The variability of surface structures among individuals especially in terms of gender makes the extraction of consistently reproducible measurements non-trivial and time consuming. Automatic image segmentation and meshing methods allow precisely-defined measurements to be taken from CT-volumes as part of an automated pipeline. We present initial findings from such a pipeline for obtaining morphometric measurements of the hip. We believe that the importance of this work lies in the eventual creation of a comprehensive databank that will be of use in the development of prosthetic devices and the tracking of disease and evolutionary morphometry. A 16-row MDCT was used to acquire images on 55 human cadavers (24 male, 31 female). The outer femoral surface was automatically segmented and meshed with sub-voxel accuracy. Femoral head area, femoral axis length, neck angle, neck width, and subtrochanteric width were automatically measured on the mesh according to mathematical definitions based on mesh geometry. Errors with respect to manual measurements were between 2.4% and 7.6% on average. All automatic measurements except for neck angle showed significant differences between genders (p-value<0.001), which was reflected in the manual measurements. We present this initial evaluation of five measurements with a view toward the creation of a macro-structural atlas of bones in the hip. The automated system shows good promise in terms of accuracy and sensitivity compared to manual measurements. We describe the variability of these measurements in our homogenous population with specific reference to gender to provide an overview of what is possible using current technology. Automatic assessment of proximal femur morphometry has shown that variations are sufficient to warrant the creation of a bank of detailed morphometric assessments of the hip. We believe that detailed knowledge of this complicated structure may be used to support the development of prosthetic devices and assist in diagnosing complex hip-based disorders.

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  • An optimal sampling schedule for neonates, infants & children receiving cefazolin +/- vancomycin for cardiopulmonary bypass

    Sturge, Jacqueline; Anderson, Brian; Holford, Nicholas (2016-08-22)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Dosing of prophylactic antibiotics in children during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) remains poorly defined. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies can be improved using optimal design when sampling is limited, or multiple factors influence PK. We aimed to optimize a sampling schedule designed to determine cefazolin and vancomycin PK in children undergoing CPB. Methods: A one compartment distribution model for vancomycin and a three compartment distribution model for cefazolin was used with theory based allometric scaling and maturation to describe first-order elimination clearance. The CPB circuit was represented by an additional compartment. We assumed 60 subjects received cefazolin 50 mg.kg-1, with 50 of these subjects undergoing a procedure with CPB. We assumed 15 subjects also received 15 mg.kg-1 vancomycin. Optimal times for up to 8 samples per patient were estimated, ignoring CPB effects, using WinPOPT (University of Otago, New Zealand). Optimal sampling times for determination of CPB related changes were considered separately. Designs were selected based on relative standard errors (RSEs) for model parameters and comparison of criterions summarizing design efficiency. Results: Sample times were 0.001, 0.001, 0.108, 0.36, 1.05, 1.85 h following the first dose, and 0.36 and 2.5 h after the second dose, for With CPB subjects. Sample times were 0.127, 0.43, 0.43, 1.3, 3.18, 6, 6 h after the first dose and 6 h after the second dose, for Without CPB subjects. Five samples, taken directly from the CPB circuit, were required to adequately capture CPB related changes in CPB V and CL. RSE estimates of cefazolin, vancomycin and CPB circuit parameters for the final design were ≤ 30%, with the exception of one of the cefazolin volumes (V2) for which RSEs were 49%. Conclusion: The sampling schedule may be used in the planning of a clinical study of children receiving cefazolin and vancomycin during CPB.

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  • Considering clinical protocols and guidelines: what lessons for IPE?

    Barrow, Mark; Gasquoine, S (2016-08-30)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Interprofessional collaboration is enhanced if professionals work across discursive boundaries. While interprofessional education interventions may encourage this the practice environment may militate against the implementation of understandings developed in educational settings. Summary of work: Interviews with doctors and nurses highlighted differences between each professions’ views of clinical protocols and guidelines. This prompted us to conduct a critical discourse analysis of a number of clinical guidelines and the systems which guide their development and approval. Summary of results: Our analysis shows a range of discourses at work within clinical protocols régimes. Development and approval systems are dominated by collectivist discourses emphasising communication and collaboration within rigid bureaucratic systems. The protocols exemplify a neo-liberal discourse where people who are the objects of care are positioned as clients or consumers amenable to standardised aliquots of diagnosis and care, the level of which can be justified on the basis of scoring systems and claims related to a ‘scientific’ evidence base. The régimes also suggests (perhaps falsely) flattened hierarchical structures, a democratising discourse where all professional voices are equal in the provision of care. Discussion: A nursing identity relies on experience, holistic views of patients and collective approaches to practice. The medical identity is based on craft-based development of expertise associated with generating distinctive and sometime idiosyncratic responses to a patient’s needs. Each comes to protocols with different ‘agenda’. Conclusions: The collectivist discourse of protocol development does not seem to carry through to their utilisation. Protocols appear to act as objects that reinforce discursive boundaries between the groups. Take-home messages: Educators need to consider the effect of protocols on practice and account for this in the design of educational interventions. Understanding the discursive roll of protocols might help educators design more robust IPE programmes.

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  • Population Pharmacokinetics of Ethanol in Moderate and Heavy Drinkers

    Jiang, Y; Holford, Nicholas; Murry, DJ; Brown, TL; Milavetz, G (2015-10-07)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of sex, age, and previous drinking history on ethanol pharmacokinetic parameters with the implementation of a rate dependent extraction model [1], which takes into account the change in hepatic first-pass extraction along with absorption rate and a body composition model that accounts for fat free mass and fat mass [2]. Methods: 108 moderate or heavy drinkers were dosed orally on 2 occasions to achieve a peak blood ethanol concentration of 0.65 g/L or 1.15 g/L using a randomized, crossover design. A total of 6025 breath measurements were obtained and converted into blood alcohol concentration by applying a blood: breath ratio of 2100:1. NONMEM 7.3.0 was used for data analysis. A semi-mechanistic rate dependent extraction model with zero-order input followed by first order absorption was utilized with V allometrically scaled by normal fat mass, Vmax allometrically scaled by total body weight and portal vein blood flow allometrically scaled by fat free mass. The effects of sex and age (21–34, 38–51, or 55–68 years of age) on V, Vmax, and Km; and the effect of drinking status (moderate or heavy drinkers) on Vmax and Km were explored. The covariate effect was considered to be statistically significant if the 95 % non-parametric bootstrap confidence interval of the fractional difference did not include 1. Results: The 95 % bootstrap confidence interval of fractional differences between groups in age, sex and ethanol consumption history all contain 1, indicating none of those covariates have significant effects on any ethanol disposition parameters. Conclusions: Age and sex were not regarded as significant predictors for ethanol disposition parameters after accounting for body size and composition. The results indicated a 19 % higher Vmax and 15 % lower Km for heavy drinkers compared with moderate drinkers, but the difference was not statistically significant.

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  • Similar estimates of contrast sensitivity and acuity from psychophysics and automated analysis of optokinetic nystagmus

    Dakin, Steven; Turnbull, Philip (2016-05-14)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Although the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) is a particularly useful way of characterising functional vision, its psychophysical measurement relies on observers being able to make reliable perceptual reports. This can be challenging e.g. when testing children. Here we describe a system for measuring the CSF without observer-report using an automated analysis of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), an oscillatory eye movement made in response to moving stimuli (here, spatial-frequency - SF - band-pass noise). We show that predicting perceived direction using the proportion of eye movements that are consistent with OKN in the stimulus direction allows us to make an unbiased estimate of contrast sensitivity across SF. We next compare CSFs of 25 observers derived using either OKN or perceptual report. Both approaches yield near-identical CSFs that capture subtle inter-observer variations in acuity (R=0.80, p< 0.0001) and contrast sensitivity (R=0.80, p< 0.0001) amongst observers with ostensibly normal vision. A trial-by-trial analysis reveals that, even when observers' perceptual report is at chance, there is a very high correlation between our OKN-derived measure and observers' perceptual report. This indicates that OKN and self-report are likely tapping into a common neural mechanism providing further support for the proposal that OKN is a valid alternative to the current gold standard measures of CSF based on perceptual report. We discuss how our approach can be paired with an efficient psychophysical method to derive rapid automated measures of the CSF and other measures of functional vision.

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  • Condicoes de saude dos menores de 5 anos Pataxo, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Santos, AP; Leite, MS; Conde, WL; Franco, MCP; Castro, TG (2016-10-29)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Introdução: O quadro de saúde dos povos indígenas no Brasil é complexo e dinâmico, está relacionado ao processo histórico de mudanças econômicas, sociais e ambientais (Santos & Coimbra Jr., 2003). Altas prevalências de déficit estatural (25,7%) tem acometido as crianças indígenas brasileiras e diarreia e infecção respiratória aguda sao apontadas como as maiores causas de internação hospitalar notificada (Horta et al., 2013; Leite et al., 2013; Coimbra et al., 2013). Objetivo: Dentre os menores de 5 anos Pataxo de Minas Gerais: 1) descrever características de nascimento, situação vacinal, acompanhamento do pre-natal e do crescimento e desenvolvimento, perfil de morbidades e acessos aos serviços de saúde; 2) verificar associacoes entre estado nutricional e condicoes de saude observadas. Metodologia: Estudo epidemiológico de base populacional, natureza transversal, com dados coletados em 2011 entre os Pataxó de Minas Gerais. Foram avaliadas 34 crianças (< 5 anos) residentes em 5 aldeias do povo Pataxó, localizadas nos município de Carmésia, Itapecerica e Açucena. A avaliação da situação de saúde utilizou questionário estruturado baseado no Primeiro Inquérito Nacional de Saúde e Nutrição dos Povos Indígenas (Cardoso et al., 2009). A aferição das medidas antropométricas (peso, estatura/comprimento e circunferência da cintura) foi realizada de acordo com as recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde. O presente estudo foi aprovado pelo comitê de ética da Universidade Federal de São Paulo pela Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa. Foram calculadas freqüências de variáveis categóricas e médias (desvios-padrão) e medianas das variáveis contínuas. Para a identificação de diferenças entre as médias utilizou o teste t de Student, enquanto proporções foram comparadas pelo teste do qui-quadrado de Pearson, adotando-se P< 0,05. Utilizou-se o programa SPSS (17.0) para analise dos dados. Resultados: Entre os menores de 5 anos, 55,9% eram do sexo feminino e 44,1% tinham idade inferior a 24 meses. A maioria das crianças nasceu no hospital, e 82,4% das maes tiveram 6 ou mais consultas de pre-natal. Mais de 80% das mesmas estavam com o esquema vacinal em dia a época da pesquisa e havia tomado a megadose de vitamina A. Apenas 8,8% das crianças tinham o registro do acompanhamento do crescimento no último mês anterior a pesquisa. A prevalência de hospitalização nos últimos 12 meses foi de 23,5%, mas nenhuma internação foi devida a infecções respiratórias e apenas uma criança foi internada com diarreia. Ocorrência de diarreia na última semana foi relatada para 17,6% das crianças e tosse para 35,3%. Devido ao fato dos déficits estaturais e ponderais serem inexistentes nesta população e o excesso de peso ter acometido somente uma das crianças, não foi possível verificar a distribuição dos distúrbios nutricionais de acordo com as variáveis independentes, de forma a verificar-se possíveis associações. Conclusões: Comparado com a populacao de criancas indigenas brasileiras, alguns indicadores de saude entre os Pataxo tiveram melhor desempenho, como a baixa prevalência de internação hospitalar reportada para diarreia e IRAs, a alta cobertura vacinal e o percentual de gestantes que tiverm 6 ou mais consultas pre-natal. No entanto, melhorias na periodicidade de acompanhamento do crescimento e desenvolvimento sao necessarias.

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  • Forbidden crystals: Penrose tiling with molecules

    Nam, SJ; Waterhouse, GIN; Ware, David; Brothers, Penelope (2015-02-08)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Since the first discovery of quasicrystals by mathematicians in the 1960s, quasicrystalline patterns which possess unusual symmetric orders have become an issue among mathematicians. Observation of 5-fold crystal symmetry in metal alloys in 1984 has attracted other scientists. Penrose tiling is the simplest quasicrystal comprised of only pentagon motifs. Although quasicrystals have been observed in alloys and soft matter states (polymers, colloids), no one has yet successfully generated full molecular quasicrystals. Only small pieces of molecular Penrose tiling have been reported. We are working on this challenge by using molecules with 5-fold symmetry as molecular ‘tiles’ to create 2-dimensional molecular Penrose tilings. Alignment of the tiles is the key to creating the quasicrystalline pattern. Possible candidates as tiles which must be synthetically accessible are croconate and its derivatives, macrocycles such as campestarene and supramolecules such as cucurbituril. The techniques of coordination and supramolecular chemistry will direct the ordering of the tiles. After deposition of the synthesised tiles on substrates, surface imaging (STM and AFM) and analytical techniques (XPS, LEED, GI-SAXS) will be used to investigate the resulting films.

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  • Applying threshold concepts to unlock the ‘hidden’ core of a multifaceted health sciences curriculum

    Petersen, L; Egan, John; Barrow, Mark (2015-07-07)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Title: Applying threshold concepts to unlock the ‘hidden’ core of a multifaceted health sciences curriculum Background/context: In 2014, a curriculum implementation plan was developed to comprehensively map the existing Bachelor of Health Sciences (BHSc) curriculum so as to inform a cohesive workforce-related vision for the future. However, prior to mapping the curriculum, staff first needed to agree upon what the future-focused set of graduate capabilities across their diverse programme should be. To do so, we applied Meyer and Land’s (2003) notion of threshold concepts to enable us to unpack and clarify what felt like a complex, and at times hidden, core curriculum. Research/evaluation method: The existing BHSc programme was analysed using the frame of threshold concepts through a series of staff and student focus group sessions. This led to a refining of six central threshold concepts for the degree. This in turn informed the revision of a set of programme-wide graduate capabilities. Pre-review course outlines (n=24) and assessments (n=104) were analysed using thematic coding in NVivo and then mapped against the proposed graduate capabilities and thresholds for the revised BHSc. Lecturers validated these data using co-constructed matrices to explore coverage of these thesholds across the programme. At the end of 2014, teaching staff involved in the curriculum project (n=14) completed an evaluation analysing their perception of the effects of applying threshold concepts to their own development, and to their BHSc programme knowledge development. Outcomes: Evaluation results indicate that staff now report a greater common sense of purpose, increased collegiality and a more clarified overarching vision for the BHSc programme (which encompasses at least six distinct pathways of learning within the health sciences). By applying the frame of threshold concepts to the programme curriculum, many staff reported surprise that ‘taken for granted’ competencies such as academic, information and professional literacies were not actually being systematically built upon across the three years of the BHSc. This has been the springboard to a programme-wide redevelopment of the BHSc core courses assisted by external health sector representatives. Additionally, two new complementary ‘capstone’ courses have been planned for stage three of the programme which will more purposefully address real-world, essential graduate capabilities. How the conference sub-themes are addressed (200 words): This poster focuses centrally on conference theme one by exploring how threshold concepts can assist the process of establishing what capabilities are required of (BHSc) graduates and how we can ensure these are responsive to (health) sector needs. It highlights examples from practice in the Bachelor of Health Sciences programme. We first show how an overarching programme purpose was reframed in conjunction with external sector input by utilising Meyer & Land’s notion of threshold concepts. Next we illustrate examples of effective tools and processes (co-constructed matrices) that were applied by academic staff to shed light on gaps and overlaps in existing core course content and assessment tasks. Related to this we address questions from conference theme three concerned with how we can assess, embed and evaluate these graduate capabilities once we have mapped them across our courses. Examples also illustrate the processes utilised in designing stage three ‘capstone’ courses to embed and assess these graduate capabilities.

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  • Protein-Based Identification of Epithelial Cell Types in Forensic Samples

    Simons, Joanne; Vintiner, SK (2007-09-04)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Although the value of DNA profiles found at a crime scene is indisputable, there is increasing importance in identifying the cellular source of the DNA as well as the identity of the person to whom the profile belongs. Knowledge regarding the cellular source from which the DNA profile originates increases the evidential value of the sample. Our research involves investigation of protein candidates in order to find an epithelial cell type-specific protein that will enable differentiation of vaginal, buccal and skin cells in forensic samples. We have used several methods including histochemical stains, western analysis and immunohistochemistry to investigate candidate proteins known to be present in various types of epithelial cells. Our most current results from these studies will be presented here.

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  • Investigations At Hi-SEAS into Team Function and Performance on Long Duration Exploration Missions

    Binsted, KA; Basner, M; Bedwell, W; Caldwell, Bryan; Chang, D; Hunter, J; Kozlowski, S; Nasrini, J; Roma, P; Santoro, J; Seibert, M; Shiro, B; Wu, P (2016-02-09)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    HI-SEAS HI-SEAS (Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation, www.hi-seas.org) is a habitat on an isolated Mars-like site on the Mauna Loa side of the saddle area on the Big Island of Hawaii at approximately 8200 feet above sea level. HI-SEAS is unique, in addition to its setting in a distinctive analog environment, as: - we select the crew to meet our research needs (in contrast, at serendipitous analogs, such as Antarctic stations, crew selection criteria are not controlled by researchers); - the conditions (habitat, mission, communications, etc.) are explicitly designed to be similar to those of a planetary exploration mission; - the site is accessible year round, allowing longer-duration isolated and confined environment studies than at other locations; - the Mars-like environment offers the potential for analog tasks, such as geological field work by human explorers and/or robots. The ability to select crew members to meet research needs and isolate them in a managed simulation performing under specific mission profiles makes HI-SEAS ideal for detailed studies in space-flight crew dynamics, behaviors, roles and performance, especially for long-duration missions. MISSIONS TO DATE As of February 2016, there have been three missions completed at HI-SEAS, two of four months in length, and one of eight months. The fourth mission, which is twelve months long, is currently under way, and will end in August 2016. UPCOMING MISSIONS The next cycle of missions will see the research focus at HI-SEAS shift from crew cohesion and performance to crew composition. We expect the first of three eight-month missions to start in late 2016. CURRENT RESEARCH The current research projects being carried out at HI-SEAS focus on crew cohesion, function and performance. Preliminary results from each of these projects are being presented in detail by the co-authors separately at this meeting. This presentation will provide an overview of the research conducted to date, and the plans for the future. OPPORTUNISTIC RESEARCH In order to maximize research return, and to provide HI-SEAS crews with a realistic workload, we welcome proposals for opportunistic research to be carried out during HI-SEAS missions. Proposed projects must a) advance human space exploration by addressing NASA’s needs and requirements; b) require a long-duration analog for desired research outcomes; and c) not confound the primary research. If you are interested in submitting an opportunistic research proposal, please contact the first author.

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  • Characterisation of the Genetic Controls of Branching in Petunia

    Simons, Joanne; Templeton, KR; Plummer, K; Beveridge, CA; Snowden, KC (2005-10-12)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Branching is a fundamental process affecting plant form and is a source of much of the wide variety of plant architecture seen in nature. Our aim is to understand the function of genes involved in branching using petunia as a model system. This research involves the study of the decreased apical dominance (dad) mutants in petunia, which have increased basal branching compared with wild type. It also involves the investigation of genes known to affect branching in other plant species to discover their effects in petunia. One of these genes, MAX2, was identified from an increased branching mutant in Arabidopsis, and its effects in petunia are being investigated by misexpression of the petunia orthologue. Previous grafting experiments using the dad mutants in petunia have shown that a graft-transmissible signal is involved in causing the increased branching phenotype. Hormones are graft-transmissible chemicals and variation in their levels play important roles in the control of apical dominance, one of the most studied controls in lateral branching. Auxin and cytokinin levels in dad mutant and wild type plants were investigated, but the levels of these hormones were not consistent with them being the graft-transmissible signal modified by the DAD genes. In order to investigate the relationships between the DAD genes, the branching phenotypes of the single and double dad mutants were characterised and analysed. Grafting experiments to investigate the interactions between the DAD genes in controlling the branching signal were also undertaken. This work has revealed interactions between the DAD genes and provided evidence for the order of action of these genes.

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  • Investigation into the racemic X-ray structure of the antimicrobial protein snakin-1

    Yeung, Ho; Yosaatmadja, Yuliana; Squire, Christopher; Harris, Paul; Baker, Edward; Brimble, Margaret (2015-08-31)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Snakin-1 is a 63 residue antimicrobial protein originally isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum).1 It is active against a number of bacterial and fungal phytopathogens such as Clavibacter michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae and Fusarium solani. Snakin-1 is a member of the GASA (gibberellic acid stimulated in Arabidopsis)/snakin family and the mature protein consists of a GASA domain incorporating six intramolecular disulfide bonds.2 The amino acid sequences of these proteins do not correspond to any known structural motifs. GASA/snakin proteins are found in a variety of plant species and appear to be involved in a range of functions including cell elongation and cell division.2 Their expression profiles support these roles and are commonly linked to development.2 It has also been speculated that the 12 conserved cysteines in these proteins perform a role in redox regulation.2 We have recently completed the total chemical synthesis of native Snakin-1 and showed that its antimicrobial activity is comparable to that of the naturally occurring protein.3 In an attempt to understand how this small protein functions we have determined its threedimensional structure by X-ray crystallography using a quasi-racemic protein system.4 Phase information for structural determination was obtained by radiation-damage induced phasing.5 The structure of snakin-1 appears to be novel, different to known classes of cysteine-rich plant antimicrobial peptide. Its features include a large and distinctly electropositive loop that we speculate to be membrane targeting, and a two helix bundle which is a potential membrane-interacting feature able to disrupt the structural integrity of its target bacteria.

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  • Synthesis and mechanistic studies of PLA₂ inihibition by the marine alkaloid hyrtiosulawesine

    Liew, Lydia; Bourguet-Kondracki, M-L; Copp, Brent (2010-10-17)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The first isolation of hyrtiosulawesine (1) was from an Indonesian collection of the marine sponges Hyrtios erectus and H. reticulatus.1 The β-carboline alkaloid was subsequently re-isolated from a Red Sea collection of Hyrtios sp. and found to display anti-phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity with an IC50 value of 14 μM. Phospholipase A2 catalyses the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids at the sn-2 position to generate arachidonic acids (AA).3,4 AA are precursors to a large family of compounds known as the eicosanoids associated with inflammatory reactions.4 PLA2 inhibition by hyrtiosulawesine would lead to a decrease in AA and proinflammatory eicosanoids, with anti-inflammatory effect.4 In an effort to understand the structural attributes of the natural product (1) that cause PLA2 inhibition, hyrtiosulawesine and a series of related model compounds (2, 3) will be synthesised and evaluated for biological activity. Biomimetic nucleophiles will be used to probe hyrtiosulawesine and related compounds in order to determine their reactivity and possible site of reaction. Bioactive members of the library of compounds will subsequently be subjected to reaction with bee venom phospholipase A2 to identify the presence of any covalent adducts. Further studies may be directed to discovering the nature and location of the covalent linkage within the enzyme active site. The latest results will be presented. References 1. Salmoun, M.; Devijver, C.; Daloze, D.; Braekman, J.-C.; Van Soest, R. W. M. J. Nat. Prod. 2002, 65, 1173-1176. 2. Sauleau, P.; Martin, M.-T.; Dau, M.-E. T. H.; Youssef, D. T. A.; Bourguet-Kondracki, M.-L. J. Nat. Prod. 2006, 69, 1676-1679. 3. Balsinde, J.; Balboa, M. A.; Insel, P. A.; Dennis, E. A. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1999, 39, 175-189. 4. Parente, L. J. Rheumatol. 2001, 28, 2375-2382.

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  • Polyamine diamide orthidine F as a potent and selective antimalarial lead compound

    Liew, Lydia; Kaiser, M; Copp, B (2013)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    THE POLYAMINE DIAMIDE ORTHIDINE F AS A POTENT AND SELECTIVE ANTIMALARIAL LEAD COMPOUND Orthidine F (1) was isolated from an extract of the marine organism Aplidium orthium, found at Three Kings Islands, New Zealand.1 An initial screen of the natural product 1 against a panel of parasitic protozoa (Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum K1 dual drug-resistant strain) identified selective inhibitory activity for T. brucei rhodesiense (IC50 78 μM) against T. cruzi, no detectable activity towards L. donovani and moderate activity against P. falciparum. Furthermore, the natural product was found to be non-toxic in the non-malignant L6 rat myoblast cell line, thus representing an attractive target as an antiparasitic drug. A preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) study identified analogues with a similar activity profile to the natural product. The analogues were found to exhibit moderate inhibitory activity against T. brucei rhodesiense (IC50 3.2–210 μM), more potent inhibitory activity against P. falciparum (IC50 0.0086–0.61 μM), and no significant activity against T. cruzi and L. donovani. The analogues also continued to display little or no cytotoxic effect in the L6 cell line, this combined with the potent IC50 values obtained for inhibition of P. falciparum afforded a series of analogues with impressive properties which warranted further studies. This led to a second series of analogues with the intention of improving its antimalarial activity. The analogues generated from this exercise exhibited potent in vitro activities (IC50 0.0086–0.61 μM) while retaining selectivity against P. falciparum. Three analogues were selected based on the in vitro data obtained and evaluated for in vivo activity in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model of malaria; which in this instance did not yield significant activity.

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  • Estado nutricional de los indígenas Pataxó de 5 aldeas de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Castro, TG; Oliveira, SNLG; Mazzetti, CMS; Conde, WL; Leite, MS; Pimenta, AM (2012-11-13)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Introducción: En las últimas décadas los estudios brasileños sobre el estado nutricional no incluyeron la población indígena como un segmento de análisis, generando brechas de informaciones para el direccionamiento de políticas de alimentación y nutrición para el grupo. Objetivo: Evaluar el estado nutricional de los indígenas Pataxó de 5 aldeas de Minas Gerais. Metodología: Estudio transversal que evaluó 257 indígenas (87,4% del total) en 2011. El peso y la altura fueran evaluados conforme las orientaciones de la OMS. La circunferencia de la cintura (CC) fue tomada en el punto medio entre la cresta ilíaca y la última costilla. Las clasificaciones nutricionales fueron hechas a partir de los índices altura para edad (A/E), índice de masa corporal para edad (IMC/E), índice de masa corporal (IMC) y CC, utilizando las referencias de la OMS y de Lipschitz (para ancianos). Resultados: Fueron evaluados 70 niños (27,3%), 59 adolescentes (23,0%), 116 adultos (45,0%) y 12 ancianos (4,7 %). Ninguno de los niños presentó déficit para A/E, 1,4% presentaron bajo IMC/E y 2,9% peso elevado para IMC/E. Fue observado déficit de altura en 3,4% de los adolescentes y peso excesivo (IMC/E) en 8,5%. Altas prevalencias de sobrepeso/obesidad y valores elevados de CC fueron apuntados para adultos (56,0% y 56,8 %, respectivamente) y ancianos (25,0% y 75%, respectivamente). Conclusión: Se destacan el exceso de peso en la población de forma ascendente desde la niñez y la baja frecuencia de déficits nutricionales entre niños y adolescentes. Financiación: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais.

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  • Kai Time in ECE Survey

    Gerritsen, Sarah; Morton, Susan; Wall, C (2014-06-11)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    Kai Time in ECE is a one-off online survey collecting information about nutrition and physical activity practices and policies for 3-4 year olds in licensed Early Childhood Education (ECE) services in Auckland, Counties Manukau and Waikato. The survey results will be used in PhD research on the influence of childcare on preschool dietary patterns and body size.

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  • The potential of urban forests to mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentrations

    Weissert, Lena; Salmond, Jennifer; Schwendenmann, Luitgard (2013)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

    The urban population in New Zealand is expected to increase significantly over the next years. Urban areas are generally large sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, attempts to quantify atmospheric CO2 concentrations and fluxes have suggested that densily vegetated urban areas may absorb sufficient quantities of anthropogenic CO2 to act as a local sink. Consequently, urban greening programs now form an important part of many urban climate change mitigation policies globally as well as in New Zealand. However, knowledge about the direct contribution of urban vegetation on atmospheric CO2 concentrations is still limited and measurements scarce. This paper examines the methods used to date to estimate / measure carbon pools and CO2 fluxes from urban vegetation and soils (collectively known as urban forests) and aggregates currently available results. Results from the northern hemisphere show that carbon pools in urban forests were comparable to 3 – 60% of the annually released fossil fuel emissions, while photosynthetic uptake accounted for 0.3 – 2.6% of the total estimated emissions in urban areas. Whilst vegetation did not offset CO2 emissions on an annual basis in these scenarios, vegetative CO2 uptake resulted in significantly lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations in summer. However, the currently available results are related to a large degree of uncertainty due to the limitations of the applied methods, the limited number of urban areas studied and the temporal / spatial resolution of the fieldwork. This paper demonstrates that in order to effectively quantify and encorporate carbon fluxes from urban areas into annual CO2 budgets, future research needs to use a combination of methodologies and be aware of the scales of their studies. Thus, before investing in urban greening programs the potential of urban vegetation as a climate change mitigation measure needs to be further investigated, particularly for cities in the southern hemisphere.

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  • fMRI Measures of the Dorsal Visual Cortex Correlates with Behavioral Performance and Cortical Thickness

    Poppe, Tanya; Leung, Myra; Tottman, Anna; Harding, Jane; Bloomfield, Francis; Alsweiler, Jane; Thompson, Benjamin (2015)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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