85 results for Journal article, 1970

  • Nitrate dependent anaerobic acetylene-reduction and nitrogen-fixation by soybean bacteroids

    Rigaud, J.; Bergersen, F.J.; Turner, G.L.; Daniel, Roy M. (1973)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Bacteroids isolated from nodules produced by one strain of Rhizobium japonicum (CC705) had strong nitrate-reducing activity and reduced C₂H₂ to C₂H₄ and N₂ to NH₃ anaerobically with nitrate. Bacteroids of another strain (CB1809) were much less active nitrate reducers and reduced little C₂H₂ anaerobically. Nitrite, which accumulated in the medium in anaerobic assays, was an inhibitor of C₂H₂reduction in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Succinate, at about 25 mM, stimulated both nitrate reduction and C₂H₂ reduction under aerobic conditions. Glucose stimulated C₂H₂ reduction up to 120 mM but nitrate reduction was inhibited in the presence of glucose. In terms of electrons transferred, the aerobic pathway appeared to be about 2.5 times more efficient than the anaerobic pathway in supporting nitrogenase activity of CC705 bacteroids.

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  • Fractionation of nitrogen isotopes by animals: a further complication to the use of variations in the natural abundance of ¹⁵N for tracer studies

    Steele, K.W.; Daniel, Roy M. (1978)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A study of the fractionation of nitrogen isotopes in the diet by cattle is described and the results discussed. Compared with the diet, urine had a lower ratio of ¹⁵N to ¹⁴N, but faeces, blood and milk all had a higher ratio. It is argued that the use of natural ¹⁵N as a tracer in grazed ecosystems is more complicated than was at first thought.

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  • The occurrence and role of ubiquinone in electron transport to oxygen and nitrate in aerobically, anaerobically and symbiotically grown Rhizobium japonicum

    Daniel, Roy M. (1979)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Ubiquinone was extracted from free-living Rhizobium japonicum, grown aerobically or anaerobically, and from the symbiotic bacteroid form; it was tentatively identified as the Q-10 homologue. The ubiquinone concentration was highest in symbiotically grown R. japonicum but the ratio ubiquinone:total cytochrome was about 1•5:1 in membrane particles from organisms grown under all three conditions. The ubiquinone was reduced 75% by NADH, completely oxidized by oxygen but not oxidized by nitrate. NADH oxidase activity and nitrate reductase activity in membrane particles from organisms grown under the different conditions were similar except that nitrate reductase activity was low in aerobically grown organisms. It is concluded that ubiquinone functions in electron transport to oxygen but not to nitrate.

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  • The electron transport system of an extremely thermophilic bacterium

    Hickey, Christopher W.; Daniel, Roy M. (1979)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Active, membrane-bound NADH and succinate oxidase activities with a temperature optimum of 75 ℃ were demonstrated in an extremely thermophilic bacterium. These were relatively stable in cell-free extracts and respiratory particles at 75 ℃, but at 90 ℃ the half-lives of these oxidase systems were about 15 min in respiratory particles and 80 min in cell-free extracts. The stability of the NADH oxidase in respiratory particles at 90 ℃ was enhanced by 2 M-(NH₄)₂SO₄, 50% (v/v) glycerol and by NADH. A number of other substrates were oxidized by the electron transport system. Respiratory particles contained cytochromes a-613, a-602, b-559, cytochrome o and at least one c-type cytochrome, c-555. The soluble fraction contained at least two c-type cytochromes, at least one of which was CO-reactive. The sensitivity of NADH and succinate oxidases to a range of inhibitors was determined.

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  • Lie theory and separation of variables. 3. The equation ftt−fss =γ2f

    Kalnins, Ernie G.; Miller, W., Jr. (1974-07)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Kalnins has related the 11 coordinate systems in which variables separate in the equation ftt−fss = γ 2f to 11 symmetric quadratic operators L in the enveloping algebra of the Lie algebra of the pseudo-Euclidean group in the plane E(1,1). There are, up to equivalence, only 12 such operators and one of them, LE, is not associated with a separation of variables. Corresponding to each faithful unitary irreducible representation of E(1,1) we compute the spectral resolution and matrix elements in an L basis for seven cases of interest and also give overlap functions between different bases: Of the remaining five operators three are related to Mathieu functions and two are related to exponential solutions corresponding to Cartesian type coordinates. We then use these results to derive addition and expansion theorems for special solutions of ftt−fss = 2f obtained via separation of variables, e.g., products of Bessel, Macdonald and Bessel, Airy and parabolic cylinder functions. The exceptional operator LE is also treated in detail.

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  • Notice from the Editor

    Selby, Michael J. (1971)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Notice from the Editor from Volume 5, Number 2, 1971 of Earth Science Journal.

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  • An appraisal of nutrient supplies available for tree growth in a pumice soil

    Knight, P.J.; Will, G.M. (1970)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Chemical analyses have confirmed and explained the results of an earlier pot trial in which the availability of major nutrients in six pumice ash layers of Kaingaroa silty sand was assessed by the growth of radiata pine seedlings. Almost all of the tree-available P is found in the present topsoil: the quantities-of P that occur in two buried soils (Waimihia and Rotoma ashes) are almost entirely in the form of organic P which is apparently very resistant to breakdown due to complexing with allophane. The N in these layers is similarly unavailable. The mineral layers, about 4 ft in thickness (Taupo pumice and lapilli), which lie between the present topsoil and the uppermost buried soil, are very low in total N and P and exchangeable Mg, but relatively high in exchangeable K. Only the lower buried soil contains a reasonable quantity of exchangeable Mg and has a Mg : K ratio in favour of Mg.

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  • Book reviews and Book notices

    Waikato Geological Society (1970)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Book reviews and Book notices from Volume 4, Number 2, 1970 of Earth Science Journal.

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  • Input and output considerations in estimating rates of chemical denudation

    Goudie, Andrew (1970)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Estimation of rates of solutional denudation in river basins necessitates some consideration of salt inputs as well as consideration of salt outputs. Recent work in nutrient cycling has stressed the complexity and importance of the input factor, particularly when throughfall chemistry is taken into account. Frequently the differences between rates of input and output of salt in a river basin are small, suggesting that many published rates of solutional denudation, which consider outputs alone, or inputs only in part, are excessive. The input of salts, which may take place in rain, snow, fog and throughfall are most important in coastal areas. Analysis of data, for both the semi-arid United States and the Cotswold Hills in England, illustrate the need for long-term sampling, and for a detailed spatial network of sampling points.

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  • The soils of the southeastern sector of Egmont National Park

    Tonkin, Philip J. (1970)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The soils of the southeastern slopes of Egmont National Park, Taranaki, are youthful in absolute age and also in soil development. They are classed as recent soils on a parent material basis: andesitic tephras, alluvium, and peat with interbedded tephra. Of these groups the former covers the greatest part of the surveyed area and was studied in the most detail. The recent soils from andesitic tephra have a profile form dominated by buried soil horizons and little weathered tephra layers, the youngest of which was erupted 210 years ago. Characteristic features are the very weak weathering of minerals in the upper soil layers, the variable depth of melanisation, the extremely leached state of the soil profile and lastly the marked similarity of the soil chemical parameters despite appreciably different biotic regimes and a range in slope and altitude. It is concluded that the extremely high rainfall, in excess of 150 inches per annum, so controls soil processes that the variables of site and vegetation are not expressed in the measured soil parameters.

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  • Measurement of tide induced changes to water table profiles in coarse and fine sand beaches along Pegasus Bay, Canterbury

    Ericksen, Neil (1970)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Measurements of changing water table profiles in beaches along Pegasus Bay, Canterbury, show an interchange of water between the sea and beach sand pores throughout a single semi-diurnal tidal cycle. The velocity of water escaping from the water table in response to an ebbing tide does not appear sufficient to elutriate material of silt size or larger from the beach. The low computed velocity is thought to be due to hydrostatic control, by sand dunes at the back of the beach, on water table amplitude. Fresh water and wave wash are considered important supplementary sources to that of tidal water in influencing water table profiles.

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  • Contorted stratification with clay lobes in volcanic ash beds, Raglan-Hamilton region, New Zealand

    Tonkin, Philip J. (1970)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Contorted stratification in basal volcanic ash beds of the Pleistocene Hamilton Ash Formation incorporates halloysitic clay lobes which project upward into a bed of predominantly allophanic material. The forms produced are similar to convolute laminations described in other marine and non-marine sedimentary sequences. The halloysitic clay lobes have been described previously as concretions and as the products of differential weathering processes. A third hypothesis is proposed to explain the formation of the clay lobes and associated contorted stratification of these basal ash beds, namely, that the beds were deformed by plastic flowage of halloysitic clay into a sensitive allophanic bed. This deformation was possibly a result of water-saturated beds rapidly losing strength as a result of cyclic reversals of stress and strain produced by earthquake shock waves.

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  • The movement of sediment in a channel in relation to magnitude and frequency concepts- a New Zealand example

    Pain, C.F.; Hosking, Peter L. (1970)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In areas where surface wash contributes most of the debris to a channel network, the effect of events of moderate magnitude and frequency appear to be more important than catastrophic events for land form development. In previous studies this idea has been emphasised, largely as a result of the fact that the contribution of bedload to sediment yield has rarely been considered. Examination of these ideas under certain New Zealand conditions would seem to present a somewhat different picture. Where rapid mass movement is the main contributor of sediment to the channel, both the development of hill-slope form and the movement of sediment in channels must be related to the frequency of occurrence of mass movements. The evidence seems to suggest that most major mass movements are triggered during high-intensity, low-frequency storms. The Orere River catchment in the Hunua greywacke block of South Auckland, New Zealand, is examined to test these ideas. Although historical data are limited, the character of the sediments in the lower catchment would suggest a succession of major periods of deposition. High-intensity storms of 1966 and 1967 resulted in the deposition of large amounts of material in the channels throughout the catchment, with a gradual removal of material mainly from the upper catchment since that time. From the limited evidence that is available, a simple model of sediment movement through the catchment is presented.

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  • Coverpage and Contents

    Waikato Geological Society (1970)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Coverpage and Contents from Volume 4, Number 2, 1970 of Earth Science Journal.

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  • Quaternary warping at Gorge Saddle, western Southland

    Force, Eric R.; Force, Lucy M.; Thyne, Martin L. (1970)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Gorge Saddle is one low point on a drainage divide between Fiordland and the Southland Plain. Eastward sloping Quaternary terraces east of the divide and westward sloping terraces to the west contain granitic pebbles which could have been derived only from the west. This suggests doming at the present divide concurrent with transport from the west.

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  • A flume for studying the relative erodibility of soils and sediments

    Selby, Michael J. (1970)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A flume has been built for studying the erodibility of soils and sediments by gullying. It consists of two boxes containing undisturbed soil samples. One box is set above the other and water from a stilling tank passes over the soil of the upper box and falls onto the soil of the lower box causing lip and channel scour and plunge-pool erosion. The sediment is collected and measured, and a measure of erodibility related to discharge, length of test and sediment yield is thus available.

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  • The Sydney duricrusts: their terminology and nomenclature

    Faniran, Adetoye (1970)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Two main duricrust types - laterites and ferricretes - and their underlying materials are mapped and described for the northern parts of the Sydney district, New South Wales. Laterites are by far the more widespread, being found both in the Wainamatta-Shales and in the Hawkesbury-Sandstone areas, particularly on the broad hilltops and interfiuves of the major divide between the three drainage systems - the north-flowing Hawkesbury-Broken Bay, the south-flowing Parramatta-Port Jackson and the east-flowing Pacific Ocean systems. The ferricretes occur mainly in the drier parts of the northwest, especially in the conglomeratic river gravels of the Maroota area. The two materials have similar profile characteristics but they are different in hand specimen, in textural and structural characteristics, and also in mineralogical composition. The duricrusts and their profiles have been widely destroyed and differentially truncated, so that their various zones and subzones are presently exposed at different places. These materials, especially in respect of laterites, are classified from field and laboratory evidence, according to their recognised, or assigned, position in the typical deep weathering profile. Names are assigned, depending on the area where the best examples were found.

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  • Dust from Australia- A reappraisal

    Healy, T.R. (1970)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This paper reviews the meteorological events of October 1928 associated with severe duststorms in Australia and subsequent transport of dust to New Zealand. In the light of contemporary knowledge of the jet streams, and from reappraisal of the original synoptic charts, reported meteorological conditions and press reports pertaining to these duststorms, it is postulated that for dust to be deposited upon New Zealand within 24 hours, of duststorms in Australia it presumably travelled via the jet stream region of the' middle and upper troposphere.

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  • Coverpage and Contents

    Waikato Geological Society (1970)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Coverpage and Contents from Volume 4, Number 1, 1970 of Earth Science Journal.

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  • Further comments-Waihi Terrace and Hamilton Ash Ages

    Kear, David; Waterhouse, B.C. (1971)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The authors of the previous paper (Selby et al. 1971) kindly allowed us to see their manuscript, prior to publication. They have made a significant contribution to Bay of Plenty late Quaternary stratigraphy in recognising established ash beds in the coastal terrace sequence at Waihi Beach (Kear & Waterhouse, 1961). This brief note acknowledges their work, and uses their data to produce an alternative age interpretation, that implies broad dates for the formation of each of the coastal terraces and for the Hamilton Ash.

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