763 results for Journal article, Lincoln University Research Archive

  • Phylogenetic congruence of lichenised fungi and algae is affected by spatial scale and taxonomic diversity

    Buckley, H. L.; Rafat, A.; Ridden, J. D.; Cruickshank, R. H.; Ridgway, H. J.; Paterson, A. M.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The role of species' interactions in structuring biological communities remains unclear. Mutualistic symbioses, involving close positive interactions between two distinct organismal lineages, provide an excellent means to explore the roles of both evolutionary and ecological processes in determining how positive interactions affect community structure. In this study, we investigate patterns of co-diversification between fungi and algae for a range of New Zealand lichens at the community, genus, and species levels and explore explanations for possible patterns related to spatial scale and pattern, taxonomic diversity of the lichens considered, and the level sampling replication. We assembled six independent datasets to compare patterns in phylogenetic congruence with varied spatial extent of sampling, taxonomic diversity and level of specimen replication. For each dataset, we used the DNA sequences fromthe ITS regions of both the fungal and algal genomes fromlichen specimens to produce genetic distance matrices. Phylogenetic congruence between fungi and algae was quantified using distance-based redundancy analysis and we used geographic distance matrices inMoran's eigenvector mapping and variance partitioning to evaluate the effects of spatial variation on the quantification of phylogenetic congruence. Phylogenetic congruence was highly significant for all datasets and a large proportion of variance in both algal and fungal genetic distances was explained by partner genetic variation. Spatial variables, primarily at large and intermediate scales, were also important for explaining genetic diversity patterns in all datasets. Interestingly, spatial structuring was stronger for fungal than algal genetic variation. As the spatial extent of the samples increased, so too did the proportion of explained variation that was shared between the spatial variables and the partners' genetic variation. Different lichen taxa showed some variation in their phylogenetic congruence and spatial genetic patterns and where greater sample replication was used, the amount of variation explained by partner genetic variation increased. Our results suggest that the phylogenetic congruence pattern, at least at small spatial scales, is likely due to reciprocal co-adaptation or co-dispersal. However, the detection of these patterns varies among different lichen taxa, across spatial scales and with different levels of sample replication. This work provides insight into the complexities faced in determining how evolutionary and ecological processes may interact to generate diversity in symbiotic association patterns at the population and community levels. Further, it highlights the critical importance of considering sample replication, taxonomic diversity and spatial scale in designing studies of co-diversification.

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  • Roadside behaviour of Porphyrio porphyrio melanotus (Aves: Rallidae)

    Washington, C. M.; Paterson, A. M.; Sixtus, C.; Ross, J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The pukeko, or purple swamphen (Porphyrio porphyrio melanotus), commonly uses road margins throughout New Zealand, increasing the risk of road-induced mortality. We examined whether pukeko were exploiting the roadside as a resource. Potential resources on the roadside included food (e.g. new grass shoots and invertebrates), grit, and open areas for social behaviour. Using behavioral observations and the contents of gizzards and crops, we found evidence consistent with foraging (but not necessarily on invertebrates), and grit collection. There also appeared to be a strong social component. We examined the effect of roadside resource use on the ecology of pukeko.

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  • An improved 1080 paste for control of possums (Trichosurus vulpecula)

    Ross, J.; Henderson, R. J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    A new 1080 paste (PTP) was developed by Pest-Tech Ltd. and then evaluated in a series of comparative trials with Pestoff possum paste (POP). The research indicated that PTP was significantly more palatable to captive possums than POP following 57 h of exposure to ‘hot’ conditions (hot conditions were 30°C for 6 h followed by 18 h at 13°C on a 24 h cycle). Acceptance by bees was low with significantly less PTP than POP removed by forager bees over a 30 h period. In the field, the control efficacy of both pastes was high (89%-94% kill), with no significant differences between treatments. Based on these results, it is recommend that PTP is registered for possum control in New Zealand.

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  • Improving techniques for the WaxTag® possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) monitoring index

    Ogilvie, S.; Paterson, A. M.; Ross, J.; Thomas, M. D.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    To manage brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) accurate estimates of abundance are essential. Direct counts are not feasible for large populations and index techniques are normally employed. A new index technique for estimating possum abundance is the WaxTag®. They are potentially more effective than traps because they are small, easier to use, very lightweight and, therefore, higher numbers can be set out in the field. Whilst a national monitoring protocol for WaxTag®s has been developed, it is important to determine whether improvements can be made. This study investigated firstly whether luminescent-coloured WaxTag®s were more attractive than the WaxTag® with a ‘flour blaze’ and, secondly, whether raising the WaxTag®s 700 mm above the ground reduced detectability. Possums significantly preferred the flour blaze over luminescence and raising WaxTag®s did not significantly reduce detectability. Accordingly, WaxTag®s could be raised up above ground-dwelling non-target species without reducing statistical precision.

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  • The coefficient of friction of individual potatoes and various handling materials

    Bishop, C.; Gash, A.; Heslim, C.; Hanney, S.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The dynamic coefficient of friction of single potatoes was determined on mild steel, rubber and plastic, for tubers in each of four conditions: dry and dirty, wet and dirty, clean and wet and clean and dry. Steel had the lowest overall mean coefficient of friction. The highest value was recorded for plastic, but this material also had the largest coefficient of variation. Overall, rubber was considered to be the most suitable all-condition material for tubers in a range of conditions

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  • Evaluation of the AGDISP ground boom spray drift model

    Woodward, S. J. R.; Connell, R. J.; Zabkiewicz, J. A.; Steele, K. D.; Praat, J.-P.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    AGDISP is a well-established spray drift model that has been validated for aerial spraying of forests. Recently a prototypical ground boom option has been added to AGDISP. This was evaluated in the current study by collecting data from spray trials over a grass sward using a ground boom sprayer and representative application parameters. Spray solutions were made up of water, sticker adjuvant and a metal cation, which was changed for each spray application. Deposition from spray drift was measured by analyses of the cation deposits on artificial targets (plastic tapes) placed on the grass surface. Measured deposition was compared with profiles calculated using AGDISP. AGDISP overpredicted deposition from spray drift by a factor of 3.5-100 outside the spray block. Possible reasons for these discrepancies are given. Options are to improve measured deposition and the algorithms for the deposition on the downwind swath of the spray block and evaporation of droplets.

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  • Comparison of the mechanistic AGDISP ground boom spray model with experimental data

    Connell, R. J.; Schou, W. C.; Nuyttens, D.; Wolf, T.; Praat, J.-P.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Since work reported in 2008, developments on the AGDISP ground boom model have improved results against New Zealand field trial drift data and also compare better with ground boom drift data sets from Belgium and Canada. The model still predicts more drift than the experimental data in most cases, especially for smaller droplet sizes, but does predict less drift for larger droplets at large distances downwind. The original AGDISP ground model was calibrated from Spray Drift Task Force data from the United States. The experimental methods need to be developed to improve collection efficiency and mass balance. The physics behind the model are discussed and proposed methods for improvement are suggested, including air velocities in the spray jet below the nozzle, the dispersion of the spray plume cloud at ground level due to atmospheric turbulence and wakes from the spraying equipment. © 2012 New Zealand Plant Protection Society (Inc.).

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  • Doing agribusiness in China

    Lucock, X.; Woodford, K.; Cone, M.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    There is a widespread belief that partner arrangements between New Zealand and Chinese businesses have a high risk of failure as a result of different ways of doing business. This article presents perspectives on these cross-cultural problems, developed from interviews with nine informants from the food and agribusiness sector, including four New Zealand entrepreneurs who currently work and live in China. Also interviewed were five Chinese who are either entrepreneurs themselves, or middle to senior management working closely with New Zealanders. The information presented here is the first stage of a research project investigating cross-cultural business relationships between New Zealanders and Chinese in New Zealand agribusinesses operating in China.

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  • Sexually dimorphic vocalisations of the great spotted kiwi (Apteryx haastii)

    Dent, J. M.; Molles, L. E.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    © The Ornithological Society of New Zealand Inc. Kiwi (Apteryx spp.) are the most vocal of the ratites. Of the 5 Apteryx species only 2 have previously been subject to detailed vocal analysis: the North Island brown kiwi (A. mantelli) and the little spotted kiwi (A. owenii). This paper describes the vocalisations of the great spotted kiwi (A. haastii), the largest of the Apteryx species. Acoustic recorders were installed near the breeding den sites of 7 great spotted kiwi pairs residing in Hawdon Valley, Canterbury between November 2012 and March 2013. A total of 133 whistle vocalisations from 10 individuals were subject to detailed temporal and spectral analysis. Male and female syllables were found to be sexually dimorphic; syllables in male calls tended to be longer and more highly pitched than their female counterparts. Despite this dimorphism, patterns of intra-call variation were consistent between the sexes. It appears that intra-call variation is a trait which varies markedly within the Apteryx genus.

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  • Use of social media in the Australian and New Zealand wine industries

    Forbes, S. L.; Goodman, S.; Dolan, R.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Wineries are keen to adopt social media, but they struggle to identify the return on investment and there appears to be a distinct level of strategy regarding adoption. Sharon L Forbes, from the Faculty of Agribusiness and Markets at Lincoln University, New Zealand; together with Steve Goodman and Rebecca Dolan, from the Marketing & Management department of The University of Adelaide's Business School, have surveyed wineries about social media use and the perceived benefits.

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  • Comparison of analytical and predictive methods for water, protein, fat, sugar, and gross energy in marine mammal milk

    Oftedal, O. T.; Eisert, R.; Barrell, G. K.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Mammalian milks may differ greatly in composition from cow milk, and these differences may affect the performance of analytical methods. High-fat, high-protein milks with a preponderance of oligosaccharides, such as those produced by many marine mammals, present a particular challenge. We compared the performance of several methods against reference procedures using Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) milk of highly varied composition (by reference methods: 27-63% water, 24-62% fat, 8-12% crude protein, 0.5-1.8% sugar). A microdrying step preparatory to carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen (CHN) gas analysis slightly underestimated water content and had a higher repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) than did reference oven drying at 100°C. Compared with a reference macro-Kjeldahl protein procedure, the CHN (or Dumas) combustion method had a somewhat higher RSDr (1.56 vs. 0.60%) but correlation between methods was high (0.992), means were not different (CHN: 17.2±0.46% dry matter basis; Kjeldahl 17.3±0.49% dry matter basis), there were no significant proportional or constant errors, and predictive performance was high. A carbon stoichiometric procedure based on CHN analysis failed to adequately predict fat (reference: Röse-Gottlieb method) or total sugar (reference: phenol-sulfuric acid method). Gross energy content, calculated from energetic factors and results from reference methods for fat, protein, and total sugar, accurately predicted gross energy as measured by bomb calorimetry. We conclude that the CHN (Dumas) combustion method and calculation of gross energy are acceptable analytical approaches for marine mammal milk, but fat and sugar require separate analysis by appropriate analytic methods and cannot be adequately estimated by carbon stoichiometry. Some other alternative methods-low-temperature drying for water determination; Bradford, Lowry, and biuret methods for protein; the Folch and the Bligh and Dyer methods for fat; and enzymatic and reducing sugar methods for total sugar-appear likely to produce substantial error in marine mammal milks. It is important that alternative analytical methods be properly validated against a reference method before being used, especially for mammalian milks that differ greatly from cow milk in analyte characteristics and concentrations. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.

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  • New Zealand's dairy opportunities in China

    Woodford, K.; Lucock, X.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Increasing demand from China for internationally sourced milk powder has, in recent years, been underpinning prices for New Zealand dairy products. China is now by far the most important destination for these products. Without the increase in Chinese demand, international markets could not have absorbed the increased volumes coming out of New Zealand and the United States. The main reason for the large increase in demand can be traced back to the widely publicised melamine disaster of 2008. This, together with a raft of other food scandals less publicised in the west but well known to the Chinese, led to Chinese consumers losing confidence in their own food industries. However, it was not only consumers. The Chinese government also lost confidence in the existing dairy industry and it has directed that there must be major change. Specifically, the dairy industry is now moving to an industrialised model based on dairy herds of 3,000 to 5,000 cows, with individual companies owning multiple herds of this scale. In this article we discuss the implications for New Zealand of this change, together with the other changes occurring in China which will continue to influence Chinese demand for imported dairy products.

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  • Ways of knowing - out-of-sync or incompatible? Framing water quality and farmers' encounters with science in the regulation of non-point source pollution in New Zealand

    Duncan, R.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    This paper examines farmers’ ways of knowing water quality and their encounters with the science used in policy to address the cumulative effects of agriculture. Drawing on constructivist theories of knowledge and discussions with farmers in two locations of New Zealand's South Island region of Canterbury, the research identifies a significant divergence between farmers’ conception of the water quality problem compared to the issue's policy framing. In theory, and increasingly in practice, ways of knowing are assumed merely out-of-sync and their integration or coproduction possible and necessary. This paper poses the question: what if the ways of knowing of farmers and science have become incompatible? The presented research indicates incompatibility that derives from epistemic practices that mobilise different ontologies at different scales. It is shown how the predictive practices of science present what appear to be insurmountable obstacles to integration or coproduction. It is argued that collaborative governance needs to find ways to work with divergent ways of knowing – not for the purpose of integration or coproduction but co-existence.

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  • Liquefaction features produced by the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence in southwest Christchurch, New Zealand, and preliminary assessment of Paleoliquefaction features

    Villamor, P.; Almond, P.; Tuttle, M. P.; Giona-Bucci, M.; Langridge, R. M.; Clark, K.; Ries, W.; Bastin, S. H.; Eger, A.; Vandergoes, M.; Quigley, M. C.; Barker, P.; Martin, F.; Howarth, J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Liquefaction features and the geologic environment in which they formed were carefully studied at two sites near Lincoln in southwest Christchurch. We undertook geomorphic mapping, excavated trenches, and obtained hand cores in areas with surficial evidence for liquefaction and areas where no surficial evidence for liquefaction was present at two sites (Hardwick and Marchand). The liquefaction features identified include (1) sand blows (singular and aligned along linear fissures), (2) blisters or injections of subhorizontal dikes into the topsoil, (3) dikes related to the blows and blisters, and (4) a collapse structure. The spatial distribution of these surface liquefaction features correlates strongly with the ridges of scroll bars in meander settings. In addition, we discovered paleoliquefaction features, including several dikes and a sand blow, in excavations at the sites of modern liquefaction. The paleoliquefaction event at the Hardwick site is dated at A.D. 908-1336, and the one at the Marchand site is dated at A.D. 1017-1840 (95% confidence intervals of probability density functions obtained by Bayesian analysis). If both events are the same, given proximity of the sites, the time of the event is A.D. 1019-1337. If they are not, the one at the Marchand site could have been much younger. Taking into account a preliminary liquefaction-triggering threshold of equivalent peak ground acceleration for an Mw 7.5 event (PGA7:5) of 0:07g, existing magnitude-bounded relations for paleoliquefaction, and the timing of the paleoearthquakes and the potential PGA7:5 estimated for regional faults, we propose that the Porters Pass fault, Alpine fault, or the subduction zone faults are the most likely sources that could have triggered liquefaction at the study sites. There are other nearby regional faults that may have been the source, but there is no paleoseismic data with which to make the temporal link.

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  • Translocations of North Island kokako, 1981-2011

    Innes, J.; Molles, L. E.; Speed, H.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The North Island kokako (Callaeas wilsoni) is a threatened endemic passerine whose distribution has declined greatly on the New Zealand mainland due primarily to predation by ship rats (Rattus rattus) and brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula). It persists in 21 populations, of which 10 (48%) have been established by translocation, and 1 has been supplemented by translocation. Of the 11 populations subject to translocation, 4 are on islands and the remainder are on the mainland; 7 translocations have resulted in successful new or supplemented populations and another 4 translocations are in progress. Translocations to another 5 sites did not establish breeding populations for various reasons. In total, there were 94 translocations of 286 kokako to the 16 sites, and the number released at a site averaged 18 (range 3-33) birds. Kokako were released at a site over an average period of 49 months (range 1-159 months) with a mean of 3 birds (maximum 10) released per day. The small numbers of kokako released and the long time required to complete a translocation were due to the difficulty and high expense of catching kokako. Translocations will continue to be important for the conservation of this species, to establish further new populations and to limit inbreeding depression and allele loss in existing populations.

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  • "Acoustic anchoring" and the successful translocation of North Island kokako (Callaeas cinerea wilsoni) to a New Zealand mainland management site within continuous forest

    Molles, L. E.; Calcott, A.; Peters, D.; Delamare, G.; Hudson, J. D.; Innes, J.; Flux, I.; Waas, J. R.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    In Jul and Aug 2005, 18 North Is kokako (Callaeas cinerea wilsoni) were released into a 450-ha area of New Zealand native forest subject to intensive control of introduced mammalian predators. The area, Ngapukeriki (near Omaio, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand), lies within a 13,000-ha matrix of native and exotic forest subject to lower and variable degrees of predator control. In contrast to most previous kokako translocations, this project employed 3 tactics to maximise the likelihood that kokako would remain in the target area: 1) many birds were released in a short period; 2) playback of kokako song was broadcast in the release area (potentially creating an “acoustic anchor”); and 3) a kokako pair was held at the release site in an aviary. Most birds approached to within 20 m of playback speakers, some approaching repeatedly. Several interactions between released birds were observed, including vocal interactions and instances of birds associating with one another temporarily. Visits to the aviary pair were rare. On 13 Apr 2006, all 8 trackable birds and 4 birds whose transmitters had failed remained in the core management area; locations of remaining birds (with lost or non-functional transmitters) were unknown. At least 5 territorial pairs had formed, and 1 chick was known to have fledged. To our knowledge, this was the 1st time song playback had been used as an attractant in a terrestrial bird reintroduction.

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  • Design and implementation of a community based sustainable development action research method

    Krumdieck, S.; Dale, M.; Page, S.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Local community groups have been forming around taking action on the issues of Peak Oil and Climate Change. People perceive a risk to their security and are alarmed by the lack of action at the government level. Sustainability of local communities, their infrastructure and social assets is a field that should gain as much attention from the engineering professions as green technology. This paper reports the development of the Transition-Scape methodology and implementation in a weekend workshop in a rural town in New Zealand. The methodology was designed from first principles of action research and group psychology. The objective of the workshop was to transition the community from a point of fear and concern to a state of action by initiating community-generated projects that mitigate the risk of external un-sustainability. The workshop was a success, with numerous projects resulting from the one weekend. We recommend that Transition Engineering practitioners could deliver this workshop at a reasonable cost to communities around the world.

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  • Which rhizobia nodulate which legumes in New Zealand soils?

    Andrews, M.; Jack, D.; Dash, D.; Brown, S.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Recent work which genotypically characterised rhizobia of native, crop and weed legumes in New Zealand and examined their cross-nodulation ability is reviewed and related to earlier work with focus on New Zealand pasture systems. The New Zealand native legumes were exclusively effectively nodulated by novel strains of Mesorhizobium which did not nodulate crop or weed legumes. Clovers, lucerne, Lotus and grain legumes were effectively nodulated by different genera, species and biovars of rhizobia primarily originating from inoculum. Rhizobial symbionts of white clover have established over wide areas in New Zealand. Weed legumes are effectively nodulated by different genera/species of rhizobia depending on species. Bradyrhizobia that cross-nodulate lupins, gorse, European broom and tagasaste are widespread in New Zealand

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  • Regulating agricultural land use to manage water quality: The challenges for science and policy in enforcing limits on non-point source pollution in New Zealand

    Duncan, R.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Non-point source pollution from agricultural land use is a complex issue for the management of freshwater worldwide. This paper presents a case study from New Zealand to examine how predictive modelling and land use rules are being used to regulate diffuse pollution to manage water quality. Drawing on a science studies conceptual framework, the research evaluates the deployment of a numeric regime to enforce compliance with resource limits. It shows that in contrast to claims that a quantitative modelled 'outputs-based' approach would provide certainty and clarity and remove ambiguity in the implementation of resource limits at the farm scale, the opposite is unfolding. It is argued from the case study that in the development of land use policy greater recognition and understanding is needed of the social and political dimensions of numbers and predictive models. This research highlights epistemological, institutional and practical challenges for the workability and enforceability of policy regimes seeking to regulate diffuse pollution that tightly link numbers derived from predictive models to compliance and enforcement mechanisms.

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  • Optimizing land use for the delivery of catchment ecosystem services

    Doody, D.; Withers, P. J. A.; Dils, R. M.; McDowell, R. W.; Smith, V.; McElarney, Y. R.; Dunbar, M.; Daly, D.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    © The Ecological Society of America. Despite widespread implementation of best management practices, sustainable farming is neither practical nor possible in certain locations, where protecting water quality and promoting agricultural production are likely to be incompatible. Some strategic prioritization of land-use options and acceptance of continually degraded waterbodies may be required to ensure optimization of multiple ecosystem services in catchments (also known as watersheds or drainage basins). We examine approaches to prioritization and propose catchment buffering capacity as a concept to manage the pressure–impact relationship between land use and aquatic ecosystems. Catchment buffering capacity can be considered as a continuum of biogeochemical, hydrological, and ecological catchment properties that define this relationship. Here, we outline a conceptual framework to assist prioritization: (1) establish a water-quality target, (2) quantify the gap in compliance to achieve the desired target, (3) assess catchment sensitivity to change, and (4) determine the adaptive capacity of catchment communities to reach the target.

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