393 results for Journal article, Otago University Research Archive

  • The energy cultures framework: Exploring the role of norms, practices and material culture in shaping energy behaviour in New Zealand

    Stephenson, Janet; Barton, Barry; Carrington, Gerry; Doering, Adam; Ford, Rebecca; Hopkins, Debbie; Lawson, Rob; McCarthy, Alaric; Rees, David; Scott, Michelle; Thorsnes, Paul; Walton, Sara; Williams, John; Wooliscroft, Ben (2015-05)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The energy cultures framework was developed in 2009 to support interdisciplinary investigation into energy behaviour in New Zealand. In this paper, we discuss the framework in light of 5 years of empirical application and conceptual development. The concept of culture is helpful in seeking to better understand energy behaviour because it conveys how behaviours are embedded within the physical and social contexts of everyday life, and how they are both repetitive and heterogeneous. The framework suggests that the energy culture of a given subject (e.g. an individual, a household, a business, a sector) can be studied by examining the interrelationships between their norms, practices and material culture, and how these, in turn, are shaped by external influences. We discuss the key theoretical influences of the framework, and how the core concepts of the framework have evolved as we have applied them in different research situations. We then illustrate how we have applied the framework to a range of topics and sectors, and how it has been used to support interdisciplinary research, in identifying clusters of energy cultures, in examining energy cultures at different scales and in different sectors, and to inform policy development.

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  • Sustaining the physical and social dimensions of wilderness tourism: the perceptual approach to wilderness management in New Zealand

    Higham, James E S (1998)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Full text available only via related link.

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  • Pricing differentials for organic, ordinary and genetically modified food

    Mather, Damien W; Knight, John G; Holdsworth, David K (2005)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This is a post-print (i.e., final draft post-refereeing) of this article. There may be some differences between this version and the final version published in the journal.

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  • Carpeno: interfacing remote collaborative virtual environments with table-top interaction

    Regenbrecht, Holger; Haller, Michael; Hauber, Joerg; Billinghurst, Mark (2006-09-07)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The is the Post Print version of the original published article. The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com. The related link leads to the article on the Springer website.

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  • Women who offend: Their experiences explored

    King, Denise; Gibbs, Anita (2002)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The following piece describes the findings of a Masters project in social work, undertaken in New Zealand, which looked at women's experience of crime and their perceptions of various interventions from the criminal justice system. The views of probation officers were also explored. The experiences of six 'women as criminals' interviewed for the project were invariably based on histories of being victims of physical, psychological and sexual abuse, having substance misuse problems and making bad life choices. However, their stories revealed a group of “rational’ actors capable of desisting from crime, reassessing their lives for the positive factors and beginning to live some of their dreams.

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  • Reconceptualising the Role of the New Zealand Environment Court

    Warnock, Ceri (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    What does the specialised nature of an environment court entitle it to do? The recent decision of the New Zealand Supreme Court in Environmental Defence Society Incorporated v Marlborough District Council (‘the King Salmon case’)[2014] NZSC 38 helps to answer this question. For the last twenty years, the New Zealand Environment Court has decided applications within a framework of the broadly defined statutory purpose of sustainable resource management. The King Salmon case narrows this wide discretion. This article analyses the implications of the decision, suggesting that it helps to delineate between functions of specialist environment courts that may be considered appropriate (adjudicative and legislative fact finding) and decision-making that strays too far into the policy-sphere.

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  • From tourist to treasure hunter: a self-guided orientation programme for first-year students

    Thompson, Kate; Kardos, Rosemary; Knapp, Lynne (2008-01-31)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Students arriving for the first time at university can be overwhelmed: numerous people, diverse buildings, the campus to navigate, lots to do and general information overload. A number of strategies are developed to assist students upon arrival, but the focus is on meeting immediate needs of administration, accommodation and socializing. Preliminary lectures are held and the academic year is underway. The first written tasks are set and the student discovers that an adequate result is obtained by simply ‘going online’, perhaps using ‘Google Scholar’. A visit to the large and somewhat intimidating space of a university library can be avoided; in effect, may never need to be visited. Such students will miss a significant aspect of a university education. Most higher education institutions are aware of the problem and have proactive library staff members who provide support for students, as individuals or as a component of their programme.

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  • Spatial Variability of the Response to Climate Change in Regional Groundwater Systems - Examples from Simulations in the Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    Waibel, M. Scott; Gannett, Marshall W.; Chang, Heejun; Hulbe, Christina L. (2013-04-12)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    We examine the spatial variability of the response of aquifer systems to climate change in and adjacent to the Cascade Range volcanic arc in the Deschutes Basin, Oregon using downscaled global climate model projections to drive surface hydrologic process and groundwater flow models. Projected warming over the 21st century is anticipated to shift the phase of precipitation toward more rain and less snow in mountainous areas in the Pacific Northwest, resulting in smaller winter snowpack and in a shift in the timing of runoff to earlier in the year. This will be accompanied by spatially variable changes in the timing of groundwater recharge. Analysis of historic climate and hydrologic data and modeling studies show that groundwater plays a key role in determining the response of stream systems to climate change. The spatial variability in the response of groundwater systems to climate change, particularly with regard to flow-system scale, however, has generally not been addressed in the literature. Here we simulate the hydrologic response to projected future climate to show that the response of groundwater systems can vary depending on the location and spatial scale of the flow systems and their aquifer characteristics. Mean annual recharge averaged over the basin does not change significantly between the 1980s and 2080s climate periods given the ensemble of global climate models and emission scenarios evaluated. There are, however, changes in the seasonality of groundwater recharge within the basin. Simulation results show that short-flow-path groundwater systems, such as those providing baseflow to many headwater streams, will likely have substantial changes in the timing of discharge in response changes in seasonality of recharge. Regional-scale aquifer systems with flow paths on the order of many tens of kilometers, in contrast, are much less affected by changes in seasonality of recharge. Flow systems at all spatial scales, however, are likely to reflect interannual changes in total recharge. These results provide insights into the possible impacts of climate change to other regional aquifer systems, and the streams they support, where discharge points represent a range of flow system scales.

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  • Can a Darwinian be a Christian?

    Dawes, Gregory W. (2007)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Gregory W. Dawes, Can a Darwinian Be a Christian? Religion Compass 1/6 (2007) pp. 711–724

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  • Biometric attack vectors and defences

    Roberts, Chris M (2007-02)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This is a post-print of the paper (i.e., draft post-refereeing). There may be small differences between this version and the final published version; please refer to the publisher's web site for the final published version.

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  • Why it’s good to be bad: the role of conflict in contributing towards sustainable tourism in protected areas

    Lovelock, Brent (2002)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Full text available only via related link.

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  • Knowledge transfer within Japanese multinationals: building a theory

    Štrach, Pavel; Everett, André M (2006-01)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This is a post-print of the paper (i.e., final draft post-refereeing) published in the 'Journal of Knowledge Management'. Please refer to the publisher's web site for the final published version.

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  • Race tactics: The racialised athletic body

    Hokowhitu, Brendan (2003-12)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    In the nineteenth century, the savage was an instance of the primordial primitive, a living fossil signifying past imperfection healed by time in the emerging evolution. In the twentieth century, the savage was no longer even primitive. She was only data and evidence. In the twenty-first century, the savage Other is still an allegorical figure that represents what the civilised Self is not. However, in mainstream Western culture at least, racism no longer has the overt brutality of its predecessor, the twentieth century. Today racism tends to be veiled within positively framed cultural clichés that enable a global Western culture, which preaches freedom for all, to maintain its façade. One of the most significant sites where this neo-racism exists is in images of the racialised athletic body. The image of the coloured body soaring above adversity into the echelons of sporting success is a powerful symbol of freedom and hope, but ironically, it shackles people of colour to the physical realm and prevents them from being self-determining. We should question those ‘terminal truths’ that make it natural for people to think of the person of colour as inherently good at sport. This article employs poststructuralism to deconstruct the bodies of athletes of colour, which are viewed as genealogical representations of power that have their roots in eighteenth and nineteenth century bio-racist discourses. The central premise of this article is that over time, the body of the athlete of colour has consistently corresponded with the dominant discourse on race by transformation or mutation, enabling it to provide an allegorical juxtaposition for the transitory Self. I begin by describing the debate regarding the predominant success of athletes of colour as largely apolitical, situated within the tenets of modernism and, hence, from a poststructural perspective, merely a buttress for the subjugation of people of colour. I then reframe the debate within a political and poststructural paradigm, suggesting that the racialised athletic body functions to Otherise people of colour. The discussion that follows describes a discursive genealogical representation of the coloured body as inherently physical and one that is steeped in Social Darwinism. Sport is then shown to be a contemporary conduit of this genealogical representation. The constructed body of the athlete of colour is depicted as a neo-racist representation because it is an optimistic portrayal of empowerment that ironically serves to further limit people of colour to their embodied physicality and limited intelligence.

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  • Cross‐cultural environmental research and management: Challenges and progress

    Moller, Henrik; Stephenson, Janet (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The Royal Society of New Zealand encouraged this Forum on cross-cultural environmental research and management following the publication of a special issue of the New Zealand Journal of Zoology in September 2009 called "Mātauranga Māori, science and seabirds" (Moller 2009). Mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge) is concerned with all aspects of Te Ao Māori (the Māori world view), including their version of what overseas scholars have variously termed Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), Traditional Knowledge, Local Knowledge, Ethnoscience or Ethnobiology. The most widely used definition of TEK is "a cumulative body of knowledge, practice, and belief, evolving by adaptive processes and handed down through generations by cultural transmission, about the relationship of living beings (including humans) with one another and the environment" (Berkes 2008: 7). Mātauranga Māori, and especially its interface with science, is a particularly important issue for New Zealand because of its colonial history, the partnership principles derived from the Treaty of Waitangi, and the government's Vision Mātauranga to 'unlock the innovation potential of Māori Knowledge, Resources and People' (MoRST 2005). The Mātauranga Māori, science and seabirds special issue of New Zealand Journal of Zoology featured 10 papers from the Kia Mau Te Tītī Mo Ake Tonu Atu ("Keep the Tītī Forever") research project. Tītī is the Māori term for 'muttonbirds', the chicks of sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus). The 'tītī project' was a 14-year collaboration of Rakiura Māori kaitiaki (environmental guardians) and their mātauranga with University of Otago ecologists and mathematicians (Moller et al. 2009c). Its main aim was to assess the sustainability of the current harvest of tītī and identify ways that the tītī can remain plentiful enough for the Rakiura mokopuna (grandchildren) to be able to continue their cultural heritage of muttonbirding. However, another aim of the project was compare science and mātauranga (or TEK in its international context) as ways of knowing and guiding ecological management. As the tītī project is a long-running and detailed example of a cross-cultural science-mātauranga partnership, the Royal Society of New Zealand enabled us to invite a range of researchers to comment on the lessons from the tītī project, and more generally to explore challenges and enablers of partnerships between knowledge systems of different cultures.

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  • Guidelines for cross‐cultural Participatory Action Research partnerships: A case study of a customary seabird harvest in New Zealand

    Moller, Henrik; Lyver, Philip O'B; Bragg, Corey; Newman, Jamie; Clucas, Rosmary; Fletcher, David; Kitson, Jane; McKechnie, Sam; Scott, Darren (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Adaptive co‐management and Participatory Action Research (PAR) promotes social ecological resilience by simultaneously protecting wildlife and its habitat and promoting capacity and motivation for sustainable harvest management by communities. We report here on a case study of learning through a partnership (1994–2009) between science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to determine the sustainability of titi (sooty shearwater, Puffinus griseus) harvests by Rakiura Maori in southern New Zealand. Testimony of Maori elders and titi harvesters (birders), members of the Rakiura Titi Islands Administering Body, researchers and participants in workshops and meetings were recorded throughout the 14‐year research project to identify critical determinants of success of the partnership. A large majority of participants supported the research, mainly because it expanded their knowledge by investigating the reasons for declining bird numbers and the means of ensuring the continuation of their muttonbirding heritage. Initial concerns about the research included fear that prohibition or quota would be imposed through political pressure from external groups; the intrusion of strangers on the islands; the misconception that the research was being promulgated by government regulatory agencies; and scepticism about research findings. Research also precipitated conflict and division within the Rakiura community, and some birders feared that science might displace matauranga Maori (TEK) of the Rakiura people for guiding harvest management. Core conditions for community engagement included trust between parties, effective communication of the science, equitable decision‐making responsibility, and building scientific capability and monetary support to enable meaningful participation. The most fundamental requirement is mutual respect for each party's knowledge. Attention to this inclusive, equitable, slow and prolonged process makes it more likely that the community will uptake results to improve sustainability of harvesting. The research has heightened awareness within the harvesting community of conservation issues facing the titi and of potential options to mitigate them. Eradication or control of weka (Gallirallus australis), and reducing titi harvest levels from around a quarter of the manu (family birding territories), are the main practical ways of increasing sustainability, but the magnitude and direction of climate change impacts on the shearwater population remains uncertain.

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  • Predictive habitat modelling to estimate petrel breeding colony sizes: Sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus) and mottled petrels (Pterodroma inexpectata) on Whenua Hou Island

    Scott, Darren; Moller, Henrik; Fletcher, David; Newman, Jamie; Aryal, Jagannath; Bragg, Corey; Charleton, Kristin (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Between 2001 and 2006, we systematically sampled the entire coast of Whenua Hou, a rugged offshore island in southern New Zealand, to estimate the population densities of sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus) and mottled petrels (Pterodroma inexpectata) by counting the entrances of breeding burrows. A two‐step regression modelling process using binomial errors was used to predict the presence of a colony, and a normal general linear model was used to predict the density of entrances within colonies. Aerial photography, GIS and a Digital Elevation Model were used to extract relevant habitat and location variables, and a combination of both regression models was used to predict the density of breeding burrows within each 5.32 m2 pixel on the island. This complex GIS and habitat prediction modelling approach gave population estimates very similar to a more traditional simple area extrapolation method and gave no improvement in precision. However, correction for the slope of the land increased our simple area estimates of population size by 11%. We estimate populations of sooty shearwater and mottled petrel breeding pairs at 173 000 (162 000–190 000) and 160 000 (123 000–197 000) respectively. Based on this number of breeding pairs, we calculate that Whenua Hou supports a total population of 868 000 (554 000–1 270 000) sooty shearwaters. Our estimate of the total mottled petrel population 202 000 pairs (162 000–242 000) is comparable with the only published estimate, but could be an underestimate because mottled petrels are sometimes found in large burrows. More research for robust estimation of population trends is needed to assess the conservation status of mottled petrels.

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  • Traditional Ecological Knowledge and scientific inference of prey availability: Harvests of sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) chicks by Rakiura Maori

    Moller, Henrik; Charleton, Kristin; Knight, Ben; Lyver, Phil (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This study of customary harvests of sooty shearwater Puffinus griseus chicks by Rakiura Maori compares the utility of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and ecological science for understanding patterns in prey availability. We recorded TEK of 28 muttonbirders about emergence patterns and variation in chick size at different aspects of 14 breeding islands and in their coastal fringe compared to inland areas. Spatial and temporal variation of chick availability were measured using the methods of ecological science in the 2001 harvest season across Putauhinu Island, south west of Rakiura, New Zealand. As predicted by TEK, titi emerged earlier from west than east coast locations on Putauhinu. Scientific measures were also consistent with an earlier emergence in coastal compared to inland areas as asserted by TEK, but conclusive inference is potentially confounded by movement of chicks between burrows just before fledging. A TEK construct predicting heavier chicks on the west coast was not supported by scientific measurements. We also measured the characteristics of areas preferred for harvesting so that we could gauge representativeness of the areas “sampled” by the muttonbirders to accumulate their TEK. Within forested habitat, areas harvested by muttonbirders had 62–65% higher chick density than unharvested areas. The muttonbirders concentrated harvesting where there was less ground cover and taller canopy cover and only hunted on nights and times of the season when harvesting was most profitable. Therefore, TEK may be less able to detect wider‐scale variation and harvest impacts on prey in particular. Short runs of scientific information from spatially and temporally stratified sampling will complement and assist inference from longer term TEK. As shown in this case study, TEK and science often agree on pattern, but are likely to disagree on why a pattern exists.

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  • Austral seabirds: challenges and opportunities for research and conservation

    Knight, Ben; Moller, Henrik; Bradley, Stuart; Davis, Margeret (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This paper draws together the themes of papers on procellariiform biology contained within this special issue of the Papers and Proceedings ofthe Royal Society ofTasmania which is a tribute to Irynej Skira. The role of these birds as generalised biomonitors of marine ecosystem health as well as their important interactions with commercial fisheries and human societies are major considerations. Seabird conservation faces challenges from introduced pest loss of habitat to urban development, marine pollution and climate and oceanographic changes. Studies are hampered by the difficulties of dealing with birds in remote areas (that are therefore expensive to study), a paucity of funds and problems of overlapping national and international jurisdictions in their individual home ranges or on their migration routes. There is a real need for long-term studies ofseabirds because they have delayed breeding systems, a slow rate ofreproduction, long life-spans and high adult survival. Such knowledge is important in understanding their population dynamics, the effects of changing climate, the impacts of commercial fishing, pollution, breeding habitat loss and the harvesting of chicks. The value of the long-term studies of Shorttailed Shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris on Fisher Island, Tasmania, is considered in the light of the importance of research investment in basic curiosity-driven research. Neglect of long-term studies and the diminishing role of local scientific journals in the dissemination of baseline data on which to build generalities are the result of changing priorities of government and other funding agencies towards shortterm output-based assessment models. Our present inability to answer the basic question of what determines seabird population abundance and distribution highlights a lack of fundamental population data in Austral seabird research. This must be addressed so that a mixture of comparative, experimental and modelling studies can be mobilised to complement descriptive studies.

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  • Spatiotemporal habitat use by breeding sooty shearwaters Puffinus griseus

    Shaffer, Scott; Weimerskirch, Henri; Scott, Darren; Pinaud, David; Thompson, David; Sagar, Paul; Moller, Henrik; Taylor, Graeme; Foley, David; Tremblay, Yann; Costa, Daniel (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Breeding sooty shearwaters Puffinus griseus cycle between long (11 to 14 d) and short (1 to 2 d) foraging bouts at sea, but no information exists on bird behavior during these trips. We tested the hypothesis that shearwaters use these long trips to travel to distant Antarctic waters compared to remaining in local waters. Patterns of habitat use of 28 breeding sooty shearwaters were studied using 6 g archival data loggers that recorded location, environmental temperature, and diving behavior. Dive activity was compared to remotely-sensed environmental data to characterize the habitats visited by shearwaters on long and short trips. Sooty shearwaters traveled predominantly (70% of all long trips) to cold oceanic waters along the Polar Front (mean ± SD, 1970 ± 930 km from colony) on long trips or remained within warmer neritic waters of the New Zealand shelf (515 ± 248 km from colony) on short trips. Diving depths (mean depth 15.9 ± 10.8 m, max depth 69.9 m, n = 2007 dives) were not significantly different between excursion types. Activity patterns suggest that shearwaters commuted between distant foraging grounds (e.g. Polar Front) and the breeding colony and that more than 95% of diving activity occurred during daylight hours. Although shearwaters traveled primarily to Antarctic waters on long trips, occasional trips around New Zealand waters were observed; all but 2 birds were from the northern-most study colony. Oceanic habitats in Antarctic waters were substantially different from neritic habitats around New Zealand, indicating that shearwaters experience dramatically different environmental conditions associated with each excursion type. The ability of sooty shearwaters to use 2 vastly different habitats provides greater flexibility for maximizing resource acquisition during breeding and reduces competition near the colony.

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  • After the ‘Organic Industrial Complex’: An ontological expedition through commercial organic agriculture in New Zealand

    Campbell, Hugh; Rosin, Chris (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This article uses the evolving understandings of commercial organic agriculture within two research programmes in New Zealand to address three problematic claims and associated framings that have underpinned analysis of the political economy of commercial organic agriculture. These three framings are: 1) that recent commercial developments in organic agriculture have become organised around a grand binary of large-scale, corporate, industrialised organic agriculture that is inhabited by pragmatic newcomers to the industry, against a small-scale, local, authentic remnant of the original organic social movement. This grand binary is most popularly recognisable in the claim by author Michael Pollan of the existence of an ‘Organic Industrial Complex’ that is slowly subsuming authentic organic agriculture. This relates to claim 2) that commercialisation creates inevitable pressures by which organic agriculture becomes ‘conventionalised’. Finally, claim 3) positions organic agriculture alone as the only option for enabling improved environmental outcomes in agriculture. The Greening Food and ARGOS research programmes in New Zealand have studied the emergence of commercial forms of organic and other ‘sustainable’ agriculture in the period since 1995. A series of key engagements are highlighted in the unfolding history of these two programmes which demonstrate moments of transition in understandings of commercial organic, particularly in relation to situations of engagements between the research team and wider actors in the organic sector. These key engagements establish a clear sense in which the three major framings around the political economy of organic commercialisation could not explain the unfolding dynamics of the New Zealand organic sector. Rather, engagement with diverse actors enabled a whole new set of theoretical questions that opened up new areas of politics, contestation and elaboration of commercial forms of organic agriculture e particularly around shifts in power to the retail end of the agri-food chain, around new forms of agri-food governance, and around the politics of new audit systems. Within these shifts, the ontology of some of the researchers within these projects underwent parallel transformation. These transformative in!uences operated in two simultaneous directions. While the engaged research strategy of the two programmes clearly discomforted the researchers’ underlying assumptions for framing the major trajectories of commercial organic development, the presence of the two research programmes also had an important enactive power in the sector by both rendering ‘thinkable’ particular trajectories and economic experiments and also by reinforcing a ‘metric-centric’ tendency in the evolution of global environmental audit systems. Seen in this light, these engagements open up new questions about the research programmes themselves in terms of the emerging politics of what Philip Lowe describes as a more ‘enactive’ rural sociology and help direct attention to an emerging ‘ontological turn’ in the practice and politics of research.

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