1,055 results for Journal article, ScholarlyCommons@AUT

  • Markov Chain properties in terms of column sums of the transition matrix

    Hunter, JJ (2012-12-04)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Questions are posed regarding the influence that the column sums of the transition probabilities of a stochastic matrix (with row sums all one) have on the stationary distribution, the mean first passage times and the Kemeny constant of the associated irreducible discrete time Markov chain. Some new relationships, including some inequalities, and partial answers to the questions, are given using a special generalized matrix inverse that has not previously been considered in the literature on Markov chains.

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  • Markov Chain properties in terms of column sums of the transition matrix

    Hunter, JJ (2012-12-04)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Questions are posed regarding the influence that the column sums of the transition probabilities of a stochastic matrix (with row sums all one) have on the stationary distribution, the mean first passage times and the Kemeny constant of the associated irreducible discrete time Markov chain. Some new relationships, including some inequalities, and partial answers to the questions, are given using a special generalized matrix inverse that has not previously been considered in the literature on Markov chains.

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  • Decoy effects and brands

    Kim, J; Park, J; Ryu, G (2011-09-23)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    The relative preference for a target product over a competitor can be increased by providing a third alternative (a decoy) that is clearly inferior to the target but is not necessarily inferior to the competitor. We investigated how these “decoy” effects are influenced by the presence or absence of brand name information and the level of consumer brand knowledge. A field experiment was conducted with three hundred and twenty married females. Results indicated that overall, inclusion of a decoy in the choice set significantly increased the relative preference for the target (i.e., a decoy effect). However, identifying alternatives with real brand names eliminated this effect when participants possessed an extensive amount of knowledge about the brands, but it did not when participants had relatively limited knowledge. These results were generally consistent with implications of the category-based processing view about brand name information.

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  • Assessment of foot and ankle muscle strength using hand held dynamometry in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis

    Carroll, M; Joyce, W; Brenton-Rule, A; Dalbeth, N; Rome, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    The foot and ankle are frequently affected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). One of the negative consequences of RA on the physical function of patients is a decrease in muscle strength. However, little is known about foot and muscle strength in this population. The aim of the study was to evaluate significant differences in foot and ankle muscle strength between patients with established RA against age and sex-matched controls using hand-held dynamometry.

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  • Pelvic rotation and lower extremity motion with two different front foot directions in the tennis backhand groundstroke

    Iwamoto, S; Fukubayashi, T; Hume, P (2013-10-09)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    When a tennis player steps forward to hit a backhand groundstroke in closed stance, modifying the direction of the front foot relative to the net may reduce the risk of ankle injury and increase performance. This study evaluated the relationship between pelvic rotation and lower extremity movement during the backhand groundstroke when players stepped with toes parallel to the net (Level) or with toes pointed towards the net (Net). High school competitive tennis players (eleven males and seven females, 16.8 ± 0.8 years, all right- handed) performed tennis court tests comprising five maximum speed directional runs to the court intersection line to hit an imaginary ball with forehand or backhand swings. The final backhand groundstroke for each player at the backcourt baseline was analyzed. Pelvic rotation and lower extremity motion were quantified using 3D video analysis from frontal and sagittal plane camera views reconstructed to 3D using DLT methods. Plantar flexion of ankle and supination of the front foot were displayed for both Net and Level groups during the late phase of the front foot step. The timings of the peak pelvis rotational velocity and peak pelvis rotational acceleration showed different pattern for Net and Level groups. The peak timing of the pelvis rotational velocity of the Level group occurred during the late phase of the step, suggesting an increase in the risk of inversion ankle sprain and a decrease in stroke power compared to the Net group.

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  • Markov Chain properties in terms of column sums of the transition matrix

    Hunter, JJ (2012-12-04)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Questions are posed regarding the influence that the column sums of the transition probabilities of a stochastic matrix (with row sums all one) have on the stationary distribution, the mean first passage times and the Kemeny constant of the associated irreducible discrete time Markov chain. Some new relationships, including some inequalities, and partial answers to the questions, are given using a special generalized matrix inverse that has not previously been considered in the literature on Markov chains.

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  • Treatment with a copper-selective chelator causes substantive improvement in cardiac function of diabetic rats with left-ventricular impairment

    Lu, J; Pontré, B; Pickup, S; Choong, SY; Li, M; Xu, H; Gamble, GD; Phillips, AR; Cowan, BR; Young, AA; Cooper, GJ (2013-11-16)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background Defective copper regulation is implicated as a causative mechanism of organ damage in diabetes. Treatment with trientine, a divalent-copper-selective chelator, improves arterial and renal structure/function in diabetes, wherein it also ameliorates left-ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. However, direct in vivo evidence that trientine can improve cardiac function in heart failure has hitherto been lacking. Methods To determine whether trientine treatment could improve in vivo outcome, we measured cardiac function in groups of trientine-treated diabetic (TETA-DIA), non-drug-treated diabetic (DIA) and sham-treated control (SHAM) rats, by using in vivo high-field cardiac magnetic-resonance imaging (cMRI) and an ex vivo isolated-perfused working heart method. Forty age-matched animals underwent a cMRI scan after which 12 were randomized to the SHAM group and 28 underwent streptozotocin-injection; of these, 25 developed stable diabetes, and 12 were then randomized to receive no treatment for 16 weeks (DIA) and the other 13 to undergo 8-weeks’ untreated diabetes followed by 8-weeks’ drug treatment (TETA-DIA). Animals were studied again by cMRI at 8 and 16 weeks following disease induction, and finally by measurement of ex vivo cardiac function. Results After eight weeks diabetes, rats (DIA/TETA-DIA) had developed significant impairment of LV function, as judged by impairment of ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac output (CO), and LV mass (LVM)/body-mass (all P < 0.001). Conclusions Trientine treatment significantly improved cardiac function in diabetic rats with substantive LV impairment. These results implicate impaired copper regulation in the pathogenesis of impaired cardiac function caused by diabetic cardiomyopathy, and support ongoing studies of trientine treatment in patients with heart failure.

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  • The use of built environments in the formation and change of national identities: the case of Macedonia and ‘Skopje 2014’

    Muratovski, G (2013-12-09)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    While the expressive power of architecture as a signifier of social, economic or political authority during times of prosperity is recognised in the literature, its role during times of political crisis (such as during times of critical national restructuring) has not been fully studied or theorised. This paper aims to address this gap and will argue that built environments, if used as a tool for national propaganda, can act as a signifier of national identity alongside other signifiers such as the language, flag, emblem or anthem. A particular case that will be examined includes Macedonia and the controversial ‘Skopje 2014’ government-funded project for the redevelopment of the Skopje city centre.

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  • Primer in B2B brand-building strategies with a reader practicum

    Glynn, MS (2013-12-04)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    This primer examines the empirical evidence about business-to business (B2B) brands and its implications for brand strategy. Some of world's most valuable brands are predominantly B2B in nature, however brand marketing texts typically assume a consumer branding (B2C) perspective. The question arises as to whether or not branding is important in B2B marketing. This primer considers the following question. How do B2B brands create and deliver value for firms in inter-organizational transactions? The paper begins by examining the relevance of current theoretical frameworks of branding to B2B value creation. Next the study considers the brand value chain and the contribution of extant B2B research at its various stages. The paper concludes by examining areas for future research in B2B branding and presents a reader practicum.

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  • Text classification for medical informatics: a comparison of models for data mining radiological medical records

    Claster, WB; Shanmuganathan, S; Ghotbi, N; Sallis, PJ (2013-12-11)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    In this study we analyze 1024 free text digital records from pediatric patients who underwent CT scanning. The free text reports are from the digital records of patients who underwent CT scanning in a one-year period in 2004 at the Nagasaki University Medical Hospital in Japan. We use text mining algorithms to model the records. Each scan was evaluated by an expert in the field and classified as to whether the CT scan was necessary or not. A model was built that predicts this classification. The results show that models developed on raw text could contribute significantly to the physician’s decision to order a CT scan. Practically this is important because radiation at levels ordinarily used for CT scanning may pose significant health risks especially to children and thus the modeling of unnecessary scanning may lead to less exposure to radiation.

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  • Corporate brand-rapture theory: antecedents, processes, and consequences

    Lloyd, ST; Woodside, A (2013-12-11)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Purpose – This study provides analytical insights into corporate brand-rapture (CBR), its antecedents and consequences, and contributes to methodology for modeling CBRs. Design/methodology/approach – The paper defines the construct and develops a theory that explains how corporate brand-rapture works and is testable empirically. Findings - CBR merits further investigation as a potentially valid, operational concept in marketing that underpins the conscious and unconscious drivers of the corporate brand’s strongest stakeholders and that lays the foundations of research into corporate brand-rapture communication. Research limitations/implications - The paper, while remaining conceptual, identifies a dynamic concept of interest to researchers and to corporate brand marketing management and proposes seven fundamental propositions for modeling CBR. Practical implications – The paper provides researchers and corporate brand marketing with a more rigorous understanding of the foundations of engagement with a corporate brand. Originality/value – This paper is the first so far on CBR theory and provides insights that are important to corporate brand marketers and their communications strategies.

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  • Forget China: no shark trade in Tonga - yeah right

    Brown Pulu, TJ (2013-12-17)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    In the South Pacific winter of 2013, Michael Brassington reported from Tonga that “China is now the South Pacific’s most valued VIP.” The Australian journalist was interviewing Pesi Fonua, longstanding Tongan publisher who commented: “They are definitely calling the shots. Whatever they want they can negotiate or take it.” Referring to China, he ranked this regional power as a twenty first century precursor for South Seas debt, diplomacy, and indebtedness. By Fonua’s description China was the debt stress killer. In 2014, Tonga would start repaying Chinese soft loans worth 40% of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) spent on buildings, wharfs, bridges, roads. Ordinary people in this small island developing state were worried the government might default on loan payments. Then what would happen? Would China own Tonga? What have Pakeha New Zealanders’ perceptions of Pacific Islanders got to do with any of this? Reconfiguring South Pacific relations with China as a contending power sparked off anxiety for the United States, Australian, and New Zealand governments. The question was how did political unease shape strategies to control the region? For Tonga’s national affliction of debt distress, did New Zealand’s regional engagement consider how an age old attitude towards Pacific Islanders weighed down this country’s excess baggage carried over from the 19th and 20th centuries, nudging them closer to China?

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  • Rethinking development in Tonga: dialogues with Sefita Hao’uli,vKalafi Moala, and Melino Maka

    Brown Pulu, TJ (2013-12-17)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Acknowledging the work of the late Tongan professors, Futa Helu and Epeli Hau’ofa, this is the first in a series of four articles. Teena Brown Pulu revisits Helu’s criticism of development in Tonga by framing interview conversations with Sefita Hao’uli, Kalafi Moala and Melino Maka in a Hau’ofa-styled narrative that draws on satire and tongue-in-cheek prodding as a form of criticism. This is Tongan storytelling with a critical edge which will leave the reader much clearer about the convoluted circumstances and unpredictable politics driving development and democracy in the Kingdom of Tonga.

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  • Climate change blues: sustaining village life in Tonga

    Brown Pulu, TJ (2013-12-17)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    The loss of small island states will affect us all. Climate change refugees will become a very serious issue for all countries. Lord Ma’af On the afternoon of December 15th 2009, Tonga’s Minister for Environment and Climate Change, Lord Ma’afu, made a passionate plea to the international press assembled at the 15th United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, Denmark. He had a message he wanted to get out to the world. Politically, Ma’afu awoke a subconscious fear developed countries stepped around not wanting to stir and be forced to deal with. Snared in the small island uncertainty of rising sea levels was the inevitability climate change refugees might need another place to live (Bedford and Bedford, 2010; Fagan, 2013). Where would they go? Who would take them in? What countries would help the Pacific Islands? Despite sociologists and political scientists documenting the failure of global governance to deliver a legally binding agreement for controlling climate change (Giddens, 2009; Held and Hervey, 2009; Fisher, 2004), alternatives put forward have not been taken up. What other methods for governing over bad weather are there? (Goldin, 2013). And how is village life in Tonga coping with climate blues?

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  • Report went to court: Tonga's parliamentary report on the Nuku'alofa reconstruction

    Brown Pulu, TJ (2013-12-17)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Chief Justice Michael Dishington Scott signed a court order in the Supreme Court of Tonga on December the 4th 2012, signifying structural reform in the South Pacific Kingdom. Whether the Kingdom of Tonga was ready or not, clued-up on what a judicial review was or not, the legal process for initiating one to get a judge to review parliamentary procedure was underway. Dishington Scott’s Supreme Court order issued by the Nuku’alofa Registry “ordered that the application for leave to apply for Judicial Review is to be heard inter parties on 23 January, 2013 at 09:00 am in Court” (Supreme Court of Tonga, 2012). The application was made by Tonga’s former Prime Minister, Feleti Sevele, and a former Minister for Transport in his cabinet, Paul Karalus. The other party, meaning the people defending themselves against the application, were six men. They were named on the court order as “Samuela ‘Akilisi Pohiva, Lord Lasike now known as Hikule’o Havea, Lord Tu’i’afitu, Dr Sitiveni Halapua, Pohiva Tu’i’onetoa, and Posesi Bloomfield” (Supreme Court of Tonga, 2012). These men were contributors to the Report of the Parliamentary Select Committee: The Nuku’alofa Development Council/Corporation and the Reconstruction of Nuku’alofa Central Business District, dated 5 June 2012 (Parliamentary Select Committee, 2012). And it was this very report of 181 pages, which had brought about Sevele and Karalus’ joint application to the Supreme Court for a judicial review. Put simply, Sevele and Karalus wanted the report quashed. What compelled the Prime Minister of Tonga Lord Tu’ivakano to call for a parliamentary select committee headed by the opposition leader and deputy to write this report? What did it allege to prompt court action from Sevele and Karalus? If there was a judicial review of the parliamentary system governing how and why the report was carried out, then what constitutional principles might come under the court’s examination? At the 2010 general election, this small island developing state was applauded by New Zealand, Australia, and the United States of America for moving to a more democratic system of parliament and government. In 2013, what did the report that went to court indicate about political climate change and how key actors in the new system measured up?

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  • Defects of tensioned membrane structures (TMS) in tropics

    Wang, C; Abdul-Rahman, H; Wood, LC; Mohd-Rahim, FA; Zainon, N; Saputri, E (2013-12-18)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    The wide use of tensioned membrane structures (TMS) becomes prominent in many designs because of its aesthetic, ergonomic, and economical nature. Recently, TMS has been applied in the tropics with zone success,fully yet its defects specific to this region have received little attentionhave been hardly specified for this region. Through a questionnaire survey among of 890 uses and technicians of TMS in three different areas in Malaysia, this study identified the most frequently occurringed TMS defects in the tropics, such as "deterioratione of roof coatings", "corrodesion or fatigued in fixings", "fungal decay, mould growth, and dirty in membrane", "corrosion in anchor cables", and "degradation of fabrics". These defects are which were quite different from those in other climatic zones. The top five causes of TMS defects in the tropics are weather, aging, design, construction/installation, and material selection. However, Oonly "corrodesion or fatigued in fixings" is a significant predictor for "deterioration of roof coatings". Though it While this is not a causal effect, in practice in light of this, a practical implication is that TMS maintainers maintenance workers do not have to climb up to the roof to check the deterioration in coating but only need to predict that the deterioration through the corrossioncorrosionde levels in of the fixings instead. Further, seven countermeasures for TMS in tropic were are recommended. This study is the first comprehensive study examining tensioned membrane structure defects in the tropics zone.

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  • Challenging the conventions of personal correspondence: txting times for literacy snobs

    Mules, PA (2014-01-29)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Changes in the way we produce, consume and distribute personal commmunication are subtly mediating new perceptions about communication appropriateness and literacy. While not denying that ideational content is an important carrier of meaning, this paper argues that it is the changing material composition of screen based (as opposed to paper based) personal correspondence that is challenging traditional perceptions. It outlines two methodological perspectives that allow us to compare personal correspondence, such as a letter written on paper, with a text or a tweet. It then compares several different examples of personal correspondence from pre-digital and digital times in order to show how our perceptions of what constitutes effective, appropriate and literate personal correspondence are changing, and to show that the conventions around the personal textual communication of traditional letters were just a highly formalised genre – a set of snobberies shaped by the unique materialities of the literacy tools of the day.

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  • The effects of commercially available footwear on foot pain and disability in people with gout: a pilot study

    Rome, K; Stewart, S; Vandal, AC; Gow, P; McNair, P; Dalbeth, N

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    There is limited evidence on non-pharmacological interventions for gout. The aim of the study was to determine whether a footwear intervention can reduce foot pain and musculoskeletal disability in people with gout.

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  • Marx after Heidegger

    Jackson, ML

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    In the ten years between the publication of The Savage Anomaly (1981/1991b) and Insurgencies (1992/1999), the Italian political philosopher Antonio Negri substantially defined a contemporary theory of power and the State that presents the crisis of democracy as a crisis of the absolute subject in relation to constitutionalism, that which limits democracy and absolute government. From a Spinozist thinking of power as pure immanence, Negri, in Insurgencies, develops a political philosophy around two competing notions: constituent power and constituted power where the former is thought as an incessant transformative ontology of being and the latter as the relative stasis that structures threshold conditions for transformation. In discussing such transformative ontology, Negri emphasises the temporality of constituent power as an ontology of the event, and compares directly the ontological understandings of time of Marx and of Heidegger, assaying them as diametrically opposed. While this essay begins with a critical engagement with the “absolute” of Negri’s Spinoza in order to open a space of encounter for Negri, of Marx and Heidegger, its aim is not so much to articulate a philosophical understanding of time but rather to argue for a radical engagement with Heidegger within the legacies of Spinoza and Marx.

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  • From campus to newsroom in the South Pacific: credible media career paths versus "academic anaemia"

    Robie, D; Singh, S (2012-07-17)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    The University of the South Pacific’s Regional Journalism Programme, which caters for 12 member countries1 from the Cook Islands in the east to the Solomon Islands in the west, was founded in 1994 with French Government aid. It began producing double major graduate journalists for the South Pacific from 1996. Two-thirds of the graduates live and work in Fiji. While some news media organisations in Fiji have generally recruited graduates, others have preferred to hire untrained school leavers. Parallel with draft legislation designed to turn the self-regulating Fiji Media Council into a statutory body, there have been public calls for higher media standards and more professional training and education. This article explores the career attitudes and destination of the university’s 68 journalism graduates between 1996 and 2002 based on empirical data from a five-year monitoring project that started in 1998. It also examines the policies of the Fiji media industry towards graduates and education.

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