22,247 results for Journal article

  • Making home, making identity: Asian garden making in New Zealand, 1850s–1930s

    Beattie, James John (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A ‘garden breathes spirit, atmosphere’ into space, a garden makes place home.¹ Gardenmaking, as KatieHolmes, SusanMartin and KylieMirmohamadi observe, is ‘an act of memory and settlement’, one looking ‘back to recollected forms and forward to new growth’.² For most settlers to New Zealand, making a home through gardening meant recreating aspects of their European heritage. It meant introducing, as environmental historian Thomas Dunlap notes, ‘European grass growing in imitation of English meadows’. It involved recreating the lowlands of Scotland through gorse hedges and thistle. Or, it meant cultivating an environment to incorporate familiar flowers and trees, and new varieties too.³ This article, however, complicates this picture of settler garden making as a reminder of home in Europe. It instead examines those Europeans who fashioned gardens and landscapes as reminders of a home in Asia. By examining their hidden histories of garden making, it complicates assumptions made in New Zealand and overseas garden history literature about settlers invariably hailing from Europe and inevitably recreating gardens reminiscent of their home there.⁴ My findings also challenge preconceived notions that the only people making Asian gardens in New Zealand were Chinese migrants themselves.⁵ Equally, I do not discuss the popularity of Asian species or cultivars in settler society, as planted for purely aesthetic responses. Instead this article only examines planting to recall the places from which the varieties originated.⁶ In revealing this hidden history, so to speak, of Europeans brought up in Asia or having spent much of their life there and using garden making and landscape features to recall that history, this article extends the recent research of Duncan Campbell and others into the important connections New Zealand maintained with Asia, from the collection of rare and valuable Chinese objects through to settler recreations of Japanese games, and literary and aesthetic influences. To quote Campbell’s chapter title, itself taken from a work by the New Zealand/British writer Katherine Mansfield (1888–1923), this article gives spatial and visual life to ‘[w]hat lies beneath those strange rich surfaces’ of colonial New Zealand.⁷ Scraping away the surfaces of three of those gardens—two in colonial Canterbury, in New Zealand’s South Island, and one in its subtropical north of the 1920s and 1930s— reveals a rich patina of Asian influences colouring New Zealand’s garden history. My hope is for this article to mark the beginning of a project drawing together the warp of literature on settler garden making using Chinese plants and designs with the weft of the history of the garden making of the Chinese themselves.⁸

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  • Toxicology and ecotoxicology of para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP) – a new predator control tool for stoats and feral cats in New Zealand

    Eason, C. T.; Miller, A.; MacMorran, D.; Murphy, E. C.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP) paste was approved as a stoat control agent in New Zealand by the Environmental Protection Authority in August 2011 and for feral cat control in November 2011. PAPP was originally researched in Europe and the USA as treatment for cyanide and radiation poisoning. Over the last 10 years, our research has focused on several factors, including determining its toxicity to predators, field effectiveness for controlling stoats and feral cats, animal welfare profile, toxicology, ecotoxicology, and understanding and reducing non-target risks. PAPP has been developed specifically for the control of stoats and feral cats because of the special sensitivity displayed by these species. Its toxicity is mediated by the induction of methaemoglobinaemia (the ferric state of haemoglobin). Normally, methaemoglobin levels in the blood are below 1%. Levels of methaemoglobin in the blood above 70% are usually fatal, creating a lethal deficit of oxygen in cardiac muscle and the brain. In stoats and feral cats, death after a lethal dose usually occurs within 2 h after eating bait, with clinical signs first appearing in 10 to 20 min for stoats and at around 35 min for cats. Animals become lethargic and sleepy before they die, hence PAPP is relatively humane. A simple antidote exists, namely methylene blue. Further, birds display a lack of toxicity to PAPP when compared with other vertebrate pesticides. A paste containing 40% PAPP has been developed for use in meat baits in New Zealand. A toxic dose for stoats and feral cats is achieved when pea-sized amounts of paste are delivered in 10–20 g meat baits. When meat baits containing PAPP are applied in bait stations in field settings, stoat and feral cat numbers can be rapidly reduced. However, there has been limited practical experience with PAPP to date, especially when compared with alternative tools such as traps or sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) baits. Additional practical experience should enable the effective use of PAPP as a tool to help protect native species from introduced predators. In the future, PAPP will be developed in long-life bait and in a resetting toxin delivery system.

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  • Systematic care to reduce ethnic disparities in diabetes care

    Kenealy, Timothy; Eggleton, Kyle; Robinson, Elizabeth; Sheridan, Nicolette (2010-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aims We sought to determine whether systematic care can reduce the gap in diabetes control between Maori and non-Maori. Methods A Primary Health Organisation implemented a chronic care management programme for diabetes in 2005. The data constitute an open, prospective cohort followed for approximately two years. Data describing process were also collected. Results There were 1311 people with diabetes (354 Maori, 957 non-Maori). Maori started with higher HbA1c (mean 8.1%, SD 1.9) than non-Maori (7.1%, SD 1.4) but over about 2 years HbA1c for Maori improved to that of non-Maori. LDL and systolic blood pressure decreased for both groups. Improved glucose in Maori was not due to starting insulin or metformin, and rates of sulphonylurea prescription increased in both groups. Urinary albumin:creatinine ratio remained higher for Maori throughout. Smoking rates and Body Mass Index (both higher in Maori) did not change. There is no evidence of selective retention in the cohort. Conclusion Likely essential components of the programme were that governance was equally shared between Maori and non-Maori; prolonged nurse consultations were free to the patient; nurses used a formal written wellness plan; nurses were formally trained to support patient self-management; and a computer template supported structured care.

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  • Galadriel and Morgan le Fey: Tolkien's Redemption of the Lady of the Lacuna

    Carter, Susan (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Abstract: Morgan le Fey of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and Galadriel of Lord of the Rings are both ladies of the lacunae: women who exert control out of sight. Tolkien, who translated Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, redeems this trope in Galadriel. There are many similarities between Morgan and Galadriel (as well as an obvious moral difference, since Morgan is a menacing agent, Galadriel, good, a moral difference marked by their different appearances). This paper focuses on the lacunae effect, and also on the Celtic Loathly Lady connection. Morgan and Bertilak,s lady enter Sir Gawain and the Green Knight together as a dual representation of loathly and lovely femininity, something like the Loathly Lady of Irish sovereignty tales, and Chaucer,s Wife of Bath,s Tale. Galadriel too has an aspect of menace, and thus a glimpse of duality as a Loathly Lady. Suspicion that the alienation of the feminine is at work motivates this investigation of the uses of the extra-textuality (active lacunae and shape-shiftiness) around these women of power.

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  • Crustal and mantle influences and U–Th–Ra disequilibrium in andesitic lavas of Ngauruhoe volcano, New Zealand

    Price, Richard C.; Turner, Simon; Cook, Craig; Hobden, Barbara J.; Smith, Ian E.M.; Gamble, John A.; Handley, Heather; Maas, Roland; Mobis, Anja (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The andesitic volcano Ngauruhoe, which is located within the Tongariro Volcanic Complex at the southern end of the Taupo Volcanic Zone in North Island, New Zealand, has been constructed over the past 5 ka and last erupted in 1975. Nearby Ruapehu volcano has a much longer eruptive history extending back beyond 230 ka B.P. The magmas erupted at both volcanoes have been predominantly medium-K basaltic andesites and andesites, which evolved through polybaric crystal fractionation and assimilation processes that took place within complex, dispersed magmatic storage systems. Despite their close spatial proximity, the two volcanoes show geochemical contrasts suggesting that in each case both the mantle-derived parental magmas and the crustal assimilants were different. Variations in major and trace element data for Ngauruhoe lavas indicate control by crystal fractionation and assimilation (AFC) but the data are difficult to reconcile with derivation from a single batch of compositionally unique, mantle-derived parental basalt. Geochemical variation can be approximated by generalised AFC models using average basement or crustal xenolith compositions but precise mathematical modelling is limited because of the sensitivity of models to the selection of a particular parental composition and the difficulty of determining the exact nature of the crustal assimilant compositions that might have been involved in each specific case. U–Th isotopic data for Ngauruhoe volcanic rocks show disequilibrium that defines a positively inclined array lying to the right of the equiline on a ²³⁰Th/²³²Th versus ²³⁸U/²³² Th diagram. U-series data for Ngauruhoe and post 1945 AD Ruapehu eruptives show similar patterns of disequilibrium but the Ngauruhoe data define an array with a different slope and a different intercept on the equiline. ²³⁰Th/²³⁸ U ratios in Ngauruhoe lavas range from close to secular equilibrium (0.979) to 0.864 with the youngest (post 1870 AD) eruptives showing the least disequilibrium. ²³⁰Th/²³⁸U and ⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sr ratios are correlated; the samples with the highest ⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sr values show the least disequilibrium. There is also a correlation between eruption age and Nd and Pb isotopic composition; the oldest samples tend to show the least radiogenic isotopic ratios. These data, in combination with major and trace element abundance data indicate that Ngauruhoe U–Th disequilibrium is determined by variations in parental magmatic compositions and AFC. Unlike the mature, long-lived Ruapehu system, Ngauruhoe's eruptive cycles can be directly connected to periodic magma recharge from the lower crust and mantle. For Ngauruhoe eruptives, ²²⁶Ra/²³⁰Th varies from 1.218 to 1.492. This compares with a range of 0.972 to 1.186 for Ruapehu lavas erupted between 1945 and 1996. Reconciling the ²²⁶Ra/²³⁰Th data with decay during fractional crystallisation requires relatively low rates of fractionation (1–5 × 10⁻⁵/year) and short (1000–2000 years) fractionation times.

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  • ‘A Curious Document’ Ta Moko as Evidence of Pre-European Textual Culture in New Zealand

    Gallagher, Sarah K.J. (2003)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Traditionally Maori have been viewed as having no written form of communication prior to the European colonization of New Zealand. The aim of this paper is to determine whether Ta Moko, Maori facial tattooing, can be construed as evidence a pre-European textual culture in New Zealand. Tattooing has a long history in the multi-various cultures of the world, yet the Maori form is exceptional in its method of application. It is also of particular interest bibliographically, because of its use by Maori as a signature on legal documents.

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  • Language shift and host society attitudes: Dutch migrants who arrived in New Zealand between 1950 and 1965

    Crezee, I (2012-01-26)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Language shift and host society attitudes - Dutch migrants who arrived in New Zealand between 1950 and 1965 Abstract A study published in 2010 reported on past and current language use of a group of older Dutch migrants in New Zealand. Respondents interviewed for the study consisted of 30 retired Dutch migrants, all of whom had arrived in New Zealand between 1950 and 1965 when they were aged between 18 and 35 years of age. All respondents were living in the Greater Auckland area and were aged between 65 and 92 at the time of the interview. All respondents were asked questions based on a sociolinguistic life questionnaire and asked about their language use and experiences since migration. Interviews were recorded and information from interviews and questionnaires was supplemented by data collected from participants’ adult children.This paper will focus on respondents’ comments in relation to their motivation to either maintain their L1 Dutch or shift to their L2 English in the home environment. It appeared that external societal attitudes affected respondents’ language use in a number of domains, including the home environment.

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  • Examining immunisation in New Zealand

    Petousis-Harris, Helen; Turner, Nicola (2009-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In New Zealand, the first formal schedule for universal immunisation was drawn up in November 1960; this was for the delivery of the diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine (DTP), which was provided to practitioners free of charge. Since September 2008, the schedule includes universal free vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal disease, measles, mumps, rubella and human papillomavirus (HPV). Special groups also receive the influenza, hepatitis B immunoglobulin and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines free.

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  • Immunisation education in the antenatal period

    Petousis-Harris, Helen; Boyd, E; Turner, Nicola (2004)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background The antenatal period is known to be an important time for parents’ decision-making around immunisation. Historically parents have discussed immunisation issues within the general practice environment. However with most antenatal and early postnatal care now occurring outside the general practice, many parents now have little contact with the general practice. Other antenatal avenues for education are now likely to be their only source of information. There is no definitive research on what information is being disseminated to parents on this topic. Aim This study aimed to determine what immunisation literature is provided to parents in antenatal education classes in Central Auckland. Methods This small study involved 40 parents recruited from visits to a large Auckland maternity hospital. They were asked a range of questions on what sources of immunisation information they were given in antenatal classes and on their decision-making processes. Results Thirty-four (85%) recalled receiving immunisation information during antenatal classes. Twenty-one parents (52%) did not feel they had enough information with which to make a decision, and of the identifiable sources of information given out, nearly half (7/15) included known anti-immunisation literature. Overall, two-thirds considered themselves very likely to immunise, but only one-third felt confident about their decision. Key Message Immunisation education needs more focus in the antenatal education arena and provision of anti-immunisation material is inappropriate to support decision-making processes for parents, which needs to be based on reliable, quality information.

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  • Estimating values of environmental impacts of dairy farming in New Zealand

    Baskaran, Ramesh; Cullen, Ross; Colombo, Sergio

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    New Zealand is the world’s largest exporter of dairy products, supplying about one third of global trade. The dairy sector strives to maintain international competitiveness by continued increases in productivity and intensification in the use of inputs. Increasing intensity of dairy farming and unsustainable agricultural activities contribute to degradation of several Ecosystem Services such as clean air and water. The New Zealand dairy industry receives widespread public criticism of its environmental impacts. This paper provides a case study of the intensification of dairy farming in New Zealand and its detrimental environmental impacts such as nitrate leaching to streams and rivers, methane gas emissions, demands for surface and groundwater for irrigation and reduced variety in pastoral landscapes. To design efficient policies that will incentivise farmers to adopt more environmentally friendly practices, resource managers and decision makers need information on the relative values attached by the public to these detrimental environmental impacts. The study uses choice modelling method, in particular Mixed Logit model, to evaluate these relative values (willingness to pay), incorporating sources of preference heterogeneity (both observed and unobserved heterogeneity) within a sampled population. The research provides information for policy makers that will be useful in designing policy instruments to encourage farmers to reduce the principal harmful effects of dairy farming on the environment.

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  • Cycling and walking to work in New Zealand, 1991-2006: regional and individual differences, and pointers to effective interventions.

    Tin Tin, S; Woodward, Alistair; Thornley, Simon; Ameratunga, Shanthi (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: Active commuting increases levels of physical activity and is more likely to be adopted and sustained than exercise programmes. Despite the potential health, environmental, social and economic benefits, cycling and walking are increasingly marginal modes of transport in many countries. This paper investigated regional and individual differences in cycling and walking to work in New Zealand over the 15-year period (1991-2006). METHODS: New Zealand Census data (collected every five years) were accessed to analyse self-reported information on the "main means of travel to work" from individuals aged 15 years and over who are usually resident and employed in New Zealand. This analysis investigated differences in patterns of active commuting to work stratified by region, age, gender and personal income. RESULTS: In 2006, over four-fifths of New Zealanders used a private vehicle, one in fourteen walked and one in forty cycled to work. Increased car use from 1991 to 2006 occurred at the expense of active means of travel as trends in public transport use remained unchanged during that period. Of the 16 regions defined at meshblock and area unit level, Auckland had the lowest prevalence of cycling and walking. In contrast to other regions, walking to work increased in Wellington and Nelson, two regions which have made substantial investments in local infrastructure to promote active transport. Nationally, cycling prevalence declined with age whereas a U-shaped trend was observed for walking. The numbers of younger people cycling to work and older people walking to work declined substantially from 1991 to 2006. Higher proportions of men compared with women cycled to work. The opposite was true for walking with an increasing trend observed in women aged under 30 years. Walking to work was less prevalent among people with higher income. CONCLUSION: We observed a steady decline in cycling and walking to work from 1991 to 2006, with two regional exceptions. This together with the important differences in travel patterns by age, gender and personal income highlights opportunities to target and modify transport policies in order to promote active commuting.

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  • Hand-held internet tablets for school-based data collection.

    Denny, Simon; Milfont, Taciano; Utter, Jennifer; Robinson, Elizabeth; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Merry, Sally; Fleming, Theresa; Watson, Peter (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background In the last 20 years, researchers have been using computer self-administered questionnaires to gather data on a wide range of adolescent health related behaviours. More recently, researchers collecting data in schools have started to use smaller hand-held computers for their ease of use and portability. The aim of this study is to describe a new technology with wi-fi enabled hand-held internet tablets and to compare adolescent preferences of laptop computers or hand-held internet tablets in administering a youth health and well-being questionnaire in a school setting. Methods A total of 177 students took part in a pilot study of a national youth health and wellbeing survey. Students were randomly assigned to internet tablets or laptops at the start of the survey and were changed to the alternate mode of administration about half-way through the questionnaire. Students at the end of the questionnaire were asked which of the two modes of administration (1) they preferred, (2) was easier to use, (3) was more private and confidential, and (4) was easier to answer truthfully. Results Many students expressed no preference between laptop computers or internet tablets. However, among the students who expressed a preference between laptop computers or internet tablets, the majority of students found the internet tablets more private and confidential (p < 0.001) and easier to answer questions truthfully (p < 0.001) compared to laptop computers. Conclusion This study demonstrates that using wi-fi enabled hand-held internet tablets is a feasible methodology for school-based surveys especially when asking about sensitive information.

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  • Which population level environmental factors are associated with asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema? Review of the ecological analyses of ISAAC Phase One

    Asher, Monica Innes; Stewart, Alistair; Mallol, J; Montefort, S; Lai, CKW; and the ISAAC Phase One Study Group; Ait-Khaled, N; Odhiambo, J; Clayton, Tadd; Mitchell, Edwin; Ellwood, Philippa (2010-01-21)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase One showed large worldwide variations in the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema, up to 10 to 20 fold between countries. Ecological analyses were undertaken with ISAAC Phase One data to explore factors that may have contributed to these variations, and are summarised and reviewed here.In ISAAC Phase One the prevalence of symptoms in the past 12 months of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema were estimated from studies in 463,801 children aged 13-14 years in 155 centres in 56 countries, and in 257,800 children aged 6-7 years in 91 centres in 38 countries. Ecological analyses were undertaken between symptom prevalence and the following: Gross National Product per capita (GNP), food intake, immunisation rates, tuberculosis notifications, climatic factors, tobacco consumption, pollen, antibiotic sales, paracetamol sales, and outdoor air pollution.Symptom prevalence of all three conditions was positively associated with GNP, trans fatty acids, paracetamol, and women smoking, and inversely associated with food of plant origin, pollen, immunisations, tuberculosis notifications, air pollution, and men smoking. The magnitude of these associations was small, but consistent in direction between conditions. There were mixed associations of climate and antibiotic sales with symptom prevalence. The potential causality of these associations warrant further investigation. Factors which prevent the development of these conditions, or where there is an absence of a positive correlation at a population level may be as important from the policy viewpoint as a focus on the positive risk factors. Interventions based on small associations may have the potential for a large public health benefit.

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  • Remembering kauri on the 'Kauri Coast'

    Boswijk, Ingrid (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper explores how the recent history of kauri is remembered and commemorated on the Kauri Coast, western Northland, focusing on three specific heritage sites: The Kauri Museum at Matakohe, Trounson Kauri Park, and Waipoua Forest Sanctuary. Each site was established to preserve elements of the past before they were lost or irrevocably altered. The museum commemorates the pioneers and the kauri timber and gum industries, while Trounson Kauri Park and Waipoua Forest were intended to represent primeval forest and stand as monuments to people who advocated their protection.

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  • Cultural citizenship online: the Internet and digital culture

    Goode, Luke (2010-01-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper explores connections between cultural citizenship and Internet-based media. It argues that engaging with cultural citizenship assists in moving debates beyond misleadingly narrow conceptions of the digital divide. It suggests that cultural citizenship invokes questions of access, visibility and cultural recognition, as well as tensions between intra- and inter-cultural communication online. The paper calls for a reflexive and critical research agenda which accounts for the 'attention economy' of the Internet and issues of cultural ethics online. The paper concludes that research and debate in this field must acknowledge ongoing tensions and contradictions between a postmodern 'remix' ethic in which the Internet serves as an open cultural archive which citizens can freely access and rework, on the one hand, and claims for cultural authorship, sovereignty and protection, on the other.

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  • Revisiting French terrorism in the Pacific: Rainbow Warrior revelations

    Robie, D (2012-07-17)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    No abstract.

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  • Bridging the digital divide: Students’ access to digital technologies in a language department

    Hobbs, Moira; Haines, Karen (2010-01-01)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    In many institutions in New Zealand from primary to tertiary level, the use of technology by both students and teachers to support learning and teaching is assumed. This article reports briefly on research done in a New Zealand tertiary institution in order to discover students‟ perceptions of their access to and use of computer technologies. As well as giving a general overview of feedback from the 161 English as a Second or Other Language (ESOL) students in the study, responses are analysed in relation to age, gender and nationality groups. Results suggest that general access for students is high, but that differences exist in relation to gender and nationality. Such individual differences must always be considered by classroom teachers and accounted for as much as possible, as teachers continue to integrate technology use into their classroom practice.

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  • Illness and Treatment Perceptions Are Associated With Adherence to Medications, Diet, and Exercise in Diabetic Patients

    Broadbent, Elizabeth; Donkin, L; Stroh, JC (2011-02-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate diabetic patients' perceptions of illness and treatments, and explore relationships to adherence and blood glucose control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--Forty-nine type 1 and one hundred and eight type 2 diabetic patients completed questionnaires assessing illness perceptions, treatment beliefs, and adherence to medications, diet, and exercise. Blood glucose control was assessed from blood tests. RESULTS--patients rated medication more important than diet and exercise, and reported higher adherence to medications. Insulin was perceived as more helpful for diabetes, while antihypertensives and cholesterol medication were perceived more helpful for preventing heart problems. Perceptions were associated with adherence to insulin, cholesterol and antihypertensive medications, exercise, and diet. Blood glucose control in type 1 diabetic patients was associated with insulin adherence and perceived personal control, and in type 2 diabetic patients to being prescribed insulin or antihypertensives, and perceived personal control. CONCLUSIONS--Patients hold specific mental models about diabetes treatments, which are associated with adherence.

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  • Haunted Histories: Time-slip Narratives in the Antipodes

    Marquis, Claudia (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In a startling moment in Margaret Mahy's The Trickslers, Harry draws apart from the rest of her family in her attic bedroom in the family beach house, Carnival's Hide. She looks into a mirror and sees her image dismantle, allowing a very diflerent, but nevertheless clearly related figure to emerge. This is a typical event in time-slip stories, with their peculiar interest in the problematic construction of subjectivity. In this case the characters who slip between times are a bizarre trio of brothers who erupt into the more or less ordinary family lives of the Hamiltons, disturbing the modern moment with ancient memories, igniting passions, provoking revelations, raising questions about identity, threatening fragmentation, but finally harnessed in the interests of the ongoing narrative in which Harry's adult life forms. ....

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  • Consequences of human-mediated marine intrusions on the zooplankton community of a temperate coastal lagoon

    Duggan, Ian C.; White, Michelle A. (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Barrier bars separating lagoons from oceans are frequently breached as a management tool to prevent flooding of terrestrial ecosystems. The effects of such human-mediated openings on zooplankton have been investigated only in one tropical system. We investigated the temperate Waituna Lagoon, New Zealand, over a 2-year period when the barrier bar was 'artificially' breached on three occasions. Increases in salinity associated with opening of the barrier bars greatly influenced zooplankton community composition, and recovery of communities was dependent on the rate at which salinity returned to pre-disturbance conditions. As such, resilience of zooplankton in coastal lagoons is a function of the lagoon conditions returning to those experienced prior to barrier breach, rather than being a result of the zooplankton community simply recovering from a single defined disturbance event. In contrast to the tropical lagoon studies, temperature in Waituna Lagoon was inferred to explain a significant proportion of the variability in zooplankton community composition, independent of salinity. Appropriate timing for the opening of barrier bars by management authorities in temperate lagoons, which would allow the greatest opportunity for freshwater zooplankton communities to recover rapidly, will rely on determining the best time for rapid barrier bar reformation and high freshwater inflow rates (i.e. the recovery of zooplankton relies on return to initial conditions). However, such an approach is in direct conflict with the opening of barrier bars for management of water levels.

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