22,135 results for Journal article

  • Parenteral treatment of clinical mastitis with tylosin base or penethamate hydriodide in dairy cattle

    McDougall, S.; Agnew, K. E.; Cursons, Raymond T.; Hou, X. X.; Compton, C. R. W. (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and bacteriological cure rates of cows with clinical mastitis following treatment with either tylosin base (5 g injected 3 times at 24-h intervals; n = 306) or penethamate hydriodide (5 g injected 3 times at 24-h intervals; n = 289). Duplicate milk samples were collected before treatment and again 14 ± 3 and 21 ± 3 d later for microbiological analysis. Only those quarters from which gram-positive mastitis pathogens were isolated before treatment were included in the analyses. Streptococcus uberis was the most prevalent isolate. The number of cows with clinical failure (i.e., retreated within 21 d of enrollment) did not differ between treatments (64 vs. 63, respectively). At the quarter level, there was no difference in the proportion of bacteriological cure between treatments (81.2 vs. 83.8% for penethamate hydriodide or tylosin, respectively). The proportions of clinical and bacteriological cure were influenced by age, herd, severity of mastitis, number of glands within the cow with clinical mastitis, bacterial species, and days postpartum at enrollment. There was no difference between treatment groups for SCC (4.46 vs. 4.44 ± 0.08, mean ± standard error of the difference in ln SCC for cows treated with penethamate hydriodide or tylosin, respectively) or production of milk solids (1.45 vs. 1.48 ± 0.02 kg/d of milk fat + protein, for the penethamate hydriodide or tylosin treatment, respectively). Overall, there was no difference in the proportions of clinical failure (17.3 vs. 16.5% of cows treated with penethamate hydriodide or tylosin, respectively) or bacteriological cure (79.8 vs. 82.0% of cows treated with penethamate hydriodide or tylosin, respectively), or in SCC or milk production between dairy cows with clinical mastitis and those treated for clinical mastitis with 1 of 2 parenteral antibiotic therapies.

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  • Wittrick-Williams algorithm proof of bracketing and convergence theorems for eigenvalues of constrained structures with positive and negative penalty parameters

    Ilanko, Sinniah; Williams, F.W. (2007)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The well-established Wittrick-Williams algorithm is used to derive novel and general proofs that show that the eigenvalues of systems with constraints can be bracketed by replacing the constraints by positive and negative pairs of either ordinary or inertial penalty parameters. It is also shown that convergence occurs from both above and below when the numerical values of these parameters are increased towards infinity. The proofs are applicable in many contexts but are derived in that of structural systems, for which the eigenvalues are either buckling load factors or the squares of natural frequencies of vibration; ordinary penalty parameters are stiffnesses of translational and rotational springs; and inertial penalty parameters are either masses or rotary inertias. The penalty parameters can be used to constrain a system or to impose constraints between systems. It is shown that the use of inertial penalty parameters has several advantages compared with using ordinary ones. Then the pth eigenvalue of a system with n constraints is bounded closely from above by the (p+n)th eigenvalue of the system with very large positive inertial penalty parameters and from below by the pth eigenvalue, when large negative values are used instead. This work is expected to enhance the versatility of numerical eigenproblem methods, e.g. the Rayleigh-Ritz method.

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  • Maintenance of cyanotoxin production by cryopreserved cyanobacteria in the New Zealand culture collection

    Wood, Susanna A.; Rhodes, Lesley L.; Adams, Serean L.; Adamson, Janet E.; Smith, Kirsty Fiona; Smith, John F.; Tervit, H. Robin; Cary, S. Craig (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A culture collection of freshwater planktonic and benthic cyanobacteria collected from sites across New Zealand has been established at the Cawthron Institute, Nelson, New Zealand. Limited resources led to uncertainty regarding the long-term maintenance of this collection. The present study demonstrates cryopreservation to be a viable method for long-term storage of cyanobacteria. Seventeen of 20 strains evaluated were successfully cryopreserved using the permeating cryopreservation agent dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2 SO), at a final concentration of 15% (v/v). Cyanotoxin analysis was undertaken on selected strains known to produce microcystins, nodularin, anatoxin-a, and saxitoxins. All strains retained their ability to produce these toxins following cryopreservation.

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  • Valuing quality changes in Caribbean coastal waters for heterogeneous beach visitors

    Beharry-Borg, Nesha; Scarpa, Riccardo (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The quality of the coastal waters is now a major environmental issue in Tobago due to its role in supporting the economically important tourism sector and for safeguarding public health. In this paper we report the results of two choice experiments designed to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) for an improvement in coastal water quality for two groups of beach recreationists: snorkellers and nonsnorkellers. Responses from 284 respondents were analyzed and included both locals and tourists to the island who participated in beach recreation. Latent class and mixed multinomial logit models were used in the analysis of the responses to explain the presence of any unobserved taste heterogeneity. An additional advantage of using these models was the ability to determine individual-specific WTP estimates for each attribute. The results indicate that individual specific-means of WTP estimates vary significantly between snorkellers and nonsnorkellers. The results from the analysis using the latent class model identified two subgroups with distinct preferences with the snorkeller group. Unobserved taste heterogeneity was better represented for the nonsnorkellers with a mixed multinomial logit model. This study not only addresses the lack of valuation estimates on this island but also demonstrates the importance of using estimation methods that account for individual-specific differences in WTP estimates. The inclusion of individual preferences is especially important in the context of a small-island developing country where there is a need to prioritise policy recommendations due to limited financial resources and conflicting objectives for natural resource management.

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  • Comparison of spatial prediction techniques for developing Pinus radiata productivity surfaces across New Zealand

    Palmer, David John; Hock, Barbara K.; Kimberley, Mark O.; Watt, Michael S.; Lowe, David J.; Payn, Tim W. (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Spatial interpolation is frequently used to predict values across a landscape enabling the spatial variation and patterns of a property to be quantified. Inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK), regression kriging (RK), and partial least squares (PLS) regression are interpolation techniques typically used where the region of interest's spatial extent is relatively small and observations are numerous and regularly spaced. In the current era of data ‘mining’ and utilisation of sparse data, the above criteria are not always fully met, increasing model uncertainties. Furthermore, regression modelling and kriging techniques require good judgement, experience, and expertise by the practitioner compared with IDW with its more rudimentary approach. In this study we compared spatial predictions derived from IDW, PLS, RK, and OK for Pinus radiata volume mean annual increment (referred to as 300 Index) and mean top height at age twenty (referred to as Site Index) across New Zealand using cross-validation techniques. Validation statistics (RMSE, ME, and R2) show that RK, OK, and IDW provided predictions that were less biased and of greater accuracy than PLS predictions. Standard deviation of rank (SDR) and mean rank (MR) validation statistics showed similar results with OK the most consistent (SDR) predictor, whereas RK had the lowest mean rank (MR), closely followed by IDW. However, the mean performance rankings for validation observations classified according to their distance to the nearest model data point indicate that although PLS provided the poorest predictions at relatively close separation distances (<2 km), in the medium range ( 4–8 km) performance was of similar ranking to that of the other techniques, and at greater separation distances PLS outperformed the other techniques. Maps illustrating the spatial variation of P. radiata forest productivity are provided.

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  • Clustering performance on evolving data streams: Assessing algorithms and evaluation measures within MOA

    Kranen, Philipp; Kremer, Hardy; Jensen, Timm; Seidl, Thomas; Bifet, Albert; Homes, Geoff; Pfahringer, Bernhard (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In today's applications, evolving data streams are ubiquitous. Stream clustering algorithms were introduced to gain useful knowledge from these streams in real-time. The quality of the obtained clusterings, i.e. how good they reflect the data, can be assessed by evaluation measures. A multitude of stream clustering algorithms and evaluation measures for clusterings were introduced in the literature, however, until now there is no general tool for a direct comparison of the different algorithms or the evaluation measures. In our demo, we present a novel experimental framework for both tasks. It offers the means for extensive evaluation and visualization and is an extension of the Massive Online Analysis (MOA) software environment released under the GNU GPL License.

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  • Nitrate removal and hydraulic performance of organic carbon for use in denitrification beds

    Cameron, Stewart Graham; Schipper, Louis A. (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Denitrification beds are a cost-effective technology for removing nitrate from point source discharge. To date, field trials and operational beds have primarily used wood media as the carbon source; however, the use of alternative more labile carbon media could provide for increased removal rate, lower installation costs and reduced bed size. While previous laboratory experiments have investigated the potential of alternative carbon sources, these studies were typically of short duration and small scale and did not necessarily provide reliable information for denitrification bed design purposes. To address this issue, we compared nitrate removal, hydraulic and nutrient leaching characteristics of nine different carbon substrates in 0.2 m³ barrels, at 14 and 23.5 °C over a 23-month period. Mean nitrate removal rates for the period 10–23 months were 19.8 and 15 g N m⁻³ d⁻¹ (maize cobs), 7.8 and 10.5 g N m⁻³ d⁻¹ (green waste), 5.8 and 7.8 g N m−³ d⁻¹ (wheat straw), 3.0 and 4.9 g N m−3 d−1 (softwood), and 3.3 and 4.4 g N m−³ d⁻¹ (hardwood) for the 14 and 23.5 °C treatments, respectively. Maize cobs provided a 3–6.5-fold increase in nitrate removal over wood media, without prohibitive decrease in hydraulic conductivity, but had higher rates of nutrient leaching at start-up. Significant difference in removal rate occurred between the 14 and 23.5 °C treatments, with the mean Q₁₀ temperature coefficient = 1.6 for all media types in the period 10–23 months.

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  • The controlled in vitro susceptibility of gastrointestinal pathogens to the antibacterial effect of manuka honey

    Lin, Shih-Min (Sam); Molan, Peter C.; Cursons, Raymond T. (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The susceptibility of common gastrointestinal bacteria against manuka honey with median level non-peroxide antibacterial activity (equivalent to that of 16.5% phenol) was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) using a standardized manuka honey with the broth microdilution method. The measured sensitivity of bacteria showed that manuka honey is significantly more effective than artificial honey (a mixture of sugars as in honey), indicating that osmolarity is not the only factor that is responsible for the antibacterial activity of the honey. Most tested gastrointestinal pathogens have MIC and MBC values in the range of 5–10% of honey, other than Enterobacter spp. which was in the range of 10–17%. The difference in efficacy between the honey with and without hydrogen peroxide removed was also studied, and it was found that both hydrogen peroxide and the non-peroxide components contribute to the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of the honey. It was also found that treatment against multi-antibiotic resistant microorganisms such as Salmonella typhimurium DT104 and ESBL-producing organisms with manuka honey may be promising.

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  • Image data fusion for the remote sensing of freshwater environments

    Ashraf, Muhammad Salman; Brabyn, Lars; Hicks, Brendan J. (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Remote sensing based mapping of diverse and heterogeneous freshwater environments requires high-resolution images. Data fusion is a useful technique for producing a high-resolution multispectral image from the merging of a high-resolution panchromatic image with a low-resolution multispectral image. Given the increasing availability of images from different satellite sensors that have different spectral and spatial resolutions, data fusion techniques that combine the strengths of different images will be increasingly important to Geography for land-cover mapping. Different data fusion methods however, add spectral and spatial distortions to the resultant data depending on the geographical context; therefore a careful selection of the fusion method is required. This paper compares a technique called subtractive resolution merge, which has not previously been formally tested, with conventional techniques such as Brovey transformation, principal component substitution, local mean and variance matching, and optimised high pass filter addition. Data fusion techniques are grouped into spectral and spatial centric methods. Subtractive resolution merge belongs to a new class of data fusion techniques that uses a mix of both spatial and spectral centric approaches. The different data fusion techniques were applied to a QuickBird image of a semi-aquatic freshwater environment in New Zealand. The results were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively using spectral and spatial error metrics. This research concludes that subtractive resolution merge performed better than all the other techniques and will be a valuable technique for enhancing images for freshwater land-cover mapping.

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  • Carbon balance of an intensively grazed temperate pasture in two climatically contrasting years

    Mudge, Paul Lawrence; Wallace, Dirk Fraser; Rutledge, Susanna; Campbell, David I.; Schipper, Louis A.; Hosking, C.L. (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Grazed grasslands occupy 26% of the earth's ice free land surface and are therefore an important component of the global C balance. In New Zealand, pastoral agriculture is the dominant land use and recent research has shown that soils under intensive dairy pastures have lost large amounts of carbon (∼1000 kg C ha⁻¹ y⁻¹) during the past few decades. The objective of this research was to determine the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) of an intensively grazed dairy pasture in New Zealand. Net ecosystem CO₂ exchange (NEE) was measured using an eddy covariance (EC) system from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2009. Other C imports (feed) and exports (milk, methane, leaching, and harvested biomass) were calculated from farm production data and literature values. During 2008 there was a one in 100 year drought during summer/autumn, which was followed by a very wet winter. There were no prolonged periods of above or below average rainfall or soil moisture in 2009, but temperatures were consistently lower than 2008. The severe summer/autumn drought during 2008 caused a loss of CO₂ to the atmosphere, but annual NEE remained negative (a CO₂ sink, −1610 ± 500 kg C ha⁻¹), because CO₂ lost during the drought was regained during the winter and spring. The site was also a net CO₂ sink during 2009 despite the colder than usual conditions (−2290 ± 500 kg C ha⁻¹). Including C imports and exports in addition to CO₂ exchange revealed that the site was a C sink in both years, with a NECB of 590 ± 560 kg C ha⁻¹ in 2008, and 900 ± 560 kg C ha⁻¹ in 2009. The C sequestration found in this study is in agreement with most other Northern Hemisphere EC studies of grazed pastures on mineral soils, but is not consistent with the large C losses reported for soils under dairy pastures throughout New Zealand. In the current study (like many other EC studies) the influence of climatic conditions and management practices on the annual C balance was only semi-quantitatively assessed. An extended period of EC measurements combined with modelling is required to more accurately quantify the effect of different climatic conditions on the annual C balance, and the influence of different management practices needs to be quantified using specifically designed studies (such as paired EC towers), so that practices which minimise C losses and maximise C sequestration can be identified.

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  • Non-attendance to attributes in environmental choice analysis: a latent class specification

    Campbell, Danny; Hensher, David A.; Scarpa, Riccardo (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    There is a growing literature on the design and use of stated choice experiments. Analysts have developed sophisticated ways of analysing such data, using a form of discrete choice model to identify the marginal (dis)utility associated with observed attributes linked to an alternative, as well as accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. There is also a growing literature studying the attribute processing rules that respondents use as a way of simplifying the task of choosing. Using the latent class framework, we define classes based on rules that recognise the non-attendance to one or more attributes. These processing rules are postulated to be used in real markets as a form of cognitive rationalisation. The empirical study involves a choice amongst rural environmental landscape improvements in the Republic of Ireland. We estimate models and calculate a marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for four landscape improvements, and contrast it with the results from a model specification in which all attributes are assumed to be attended to with parameter preservation. We find that the marginal WTP is, on average, significantly higher when full attribute preservation specification is adopted, raising questions about the appropriateness of current practice that assume a fully compensatory attribute choice rule.

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  • The Effect of Aqueous Urea on the Processing, Structure and Properties of CGM

    Pickering, Kim L.; Verbeek, Casparus Johan R.; Viljoen, Carmen (2012-06)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Corn gluten meal (CGM) is potentially a cost-effective raw material for producing a bioderivable thermoplastic. However, CGM disintegrates to a powder subsequent to processing with polar plasticisers, such as water. The hypothesis of this study was that aqueous urea could be used to denature protein within CGM and therefore encourage protein–protein interactions leading to consolidated bioplastics when using water as a plasticiser. To assess this, the effects of aqueous urea on structure and properties of CGM with particular focus on storage were assessed. Processing of CGM with aqueous urea produced consolidated materials. FTIR analysis showed secondary structure was modified during processing, leading to increased amounts of α-helices and random coils and reduction of the amount of intermolecular β-sheets and turns. Above 6 wt% free water, the plasticising efficiency of water in processed CGM increased as the amount of denatured proteins increased. Below 6 wt% free water, protein secondary structure did not have a significant influence on thermal and flexural properties. It was found that storage environment and urea concentration influenced the rate of drying, however, the final water content was constant relative to CGM, and not urea. The materials were resistant to cracking at urea concentrations above 8 M, provided the mass loss during storage did not exceed 15 wt%.

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  • Is there long-run convergence among regional house prices in the UK?

    Holmes, Mark J.; Grimes, Arthur (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This paper investigates the long-run convergence of regional house prices in the UK. Existing studies have failed to reach a consensus on whether or not regional house prices exhibit long-run convergence with each other. The application is proposed of a new test involving unit root testing of the first principal component based on regional—national house price differentials. Using mix-adjusted quarterly data for 1973—2006, it is found that the first principal component is stationary. This suggests that all UK regional house prices are driven by a single common stochastic trend. Further analysis suggests that those regions that are more distant from London exhibit the highest degrees of persistence with respect to deviations in house price differentials.

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  • SCG3 transcript in peripheral blood Is a prognostic biomarker for REST-deficient small cell lung cancer

    Moss, Adrian C.; Jacobson, Gregory M.; Walker, Lauren E.; Blake, Neil W.; Marshall, Ernie; Coulson, Judy M. (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Purpose: Specific markers of circulating tumor cells may be informative in managing lung cancer. Because the RE-1 silencing transcription factor (REST/NRSF) is a transcriptional repressor that is inactivated in neuroendocrine lung cancer, we identified REST-regulated transcripts (CHGA, CHGB, SCG3, VGF, and PCSK1) for evaluation as biomarkers in peripheral blood. Experimental Design: Transcripts were screened across lung cancer and normal cell lines. Candidates were assessed by reverse transcription-PCR and hybridization of RNA extracted from the peripheral blood of 111 lung cancer patients obtained at clinical presentation and from 27 cancer-free individuals. Results: Expression profiling revealed multiple chromogranin transcripts were readily induced on REST depletion, most notably SCG3 was induced >500-fold. The SCG3 transcript was also overexpressed by 12,000-fold in neuroendocrine compared with nonneuroendocrine lung cancer cells. In peripheral blood of lung cancer patients and cancer-free individuals, we found that SCG3 was more tumor-specific and more sensitive than other chromogranin transcripts as a biomarker of circulating tumor cells. Overall, 36% of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and 16% of non-SCLC patients scored positively for normalized SCG3 transcript. This correlated with worse survival among SCLC patients with limited disease (n = 33; P = 0.022) but not extensive disease (n = 29; P = 0.459). Interestingly, the subcohort of 6 SCLC patients with resistance to platinum/etoposide chemotherapy all scored positively for peripheral blood SCG3 transcript (P = 0.022). Conclusions: SCG3 mRNA, a component of the REST-dependent neurosecretory transcriptional profile, provides a sensitive prognostic biomarker for noninvasive monitoring of neuroendocrine lung cancer.

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  • The utility of single nucleotide DNA variations as predictors of postoperative pain

    Jacobson, Gregory M.; Law, Corinne J.; Johnston, Harriet; Chaddock, Mark; Kluger, Michal; Cursons, Raymond T.; Sleigh, James W. (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Objectives: Genetic variation is an important contributor to postsurgical pain and thereby analgesia requirements. A description of the potential predictive power of genetic variants in pain should instruct improvements in pain management postoperatively. We set out to examine whether a set of genetic variants in pain related genes would show any association with actual pain outcomes in a typical surgical population. Methods: A candidate gene study was carried out in 135 surgical patients with 12 DNA variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms or ‘SNPs’) in known or putative pain pathway genes to detect associations with postoperative pain - measured by a verbal rating score (VRS) and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) usage rate. Standard PCR based molecular biology approaches were used. Results: At 20-24h after surgery, patients with the 1032G/1032G variant pair for the A1032G variant of the potassium channel KCNJ6 gene had a slightly higher median VRS than those with 1032A/1032A or 1032A/1032G pairs (p=0.04; dominant genetic model). This small difference was most apparent in the orthopaedic surgery patients where the 1032G/1032G pair associated with VRS (median(interquartile range)) of 5(4-6) vs. 3(0.5-4) in 1032A/1032A or 1032A/1032G groups. For PCA, patients with 3435C/3435C or 3435C/3435T pairs for ATPdependent efflux pump gene ABCB1 variant C3435T used PCA at a considerably higher rate of 0.89(0.07-1.66) mg.h-1 compared with just 0.11 (0-0.52) mg.h-1 for the 3435T/3435T pair (p=0.03; dominant model). A significantly higher usage rate was also detected for opioid receptor OPRM1 variant IVS2-691 with usage of 0.77(0.01-1.56) mg.h-1 for the IVS2C/IVS2C or IVS2C/IVS2G group vs. 0.24(0-1.26) mg.h-1 in the IVS2G/IVS2G group (p=0.04; recessive model). Conclusion: While this study has identified some significant statistical associations the potential utility of the studied DNA variants in prediction of postoperative pain and patient-controlled opioid analgesia requirements appears to be quite limited at present.

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  • Effects of prolonged oral administration of dicyandiamide to dairy heifers on excretion in urine and efficacy in soil

    Welten, Brendon Grant; Ledgard, Stewart F.; Schipper, Louis A.; Waller, J. E.; Kear, M. J.; Dexter, M. M. (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Oral administration of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) to grazing ruminants for excretion in urine represents a targeted mitigation strategy to reduce nitrogen (N) losses from grazed pastures. A field trial and allied laboratory incubation study were conducted to examine the effects of oral administration of DCD to non-lactating Friesian dairy heifers on excretion of DCD in urine and efficacy in soil. Dairy heifers were orally administered DCD daily at three treatment levels (low, medium and high; 12, 24 and 36 g DCD heiferˉ¹ day ˉ¹, respectively) and compared to a nil-DCD control group over a 90-day continuous dosing period. There were no adverse effects of DCD administration on heifer health or growth, as inferred by live-weight gain and measured blood metabolite levels. Prolonged administration of DCD to dairy heifers resulted in the sustained excretion of DCD in the urine over 90 days and inhibition of nitrification of urinary-N in the silty peat soil for up to 56 days (incubated at 20 °C; P < 0.001). Field soil sampling (0–75 mm depth) of individual urine patches for DCD analysis revealed that a 3-fold increase in the rate of DCD administered resulted in a similar increase in the concentration of DCD voided in the urine and subsequently deposited in urine patches (median equivalent DCD application rates of 22, 36 and 59 kg ha ˉ¹ for the low, medium and high DCD treatment levels, respectively; P < 0.001). However, large differences (up to 40-fold) existed between individual urine patches in the rate of DCD deposited at each treatment level, which showed a positively skewed distribution. This study highlights the viability of prolonged daily administration of DCD to ruminants for sustained excretion in urine and effective inhibition of nitrification in soil as a practical targeted mitigation technology to reduce urinary-N losses from grazed pastures.

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  • Accurate photometric redshift probability density estimation - method comparison and application

    Rau, Michael M.; Seitz, Stella; Frank, Eibe; Brimioulee, Fabrice; Friedrich, Oliver; Gruen, Daniel; Hoyle, Ben (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    We introduce an ordinal classification algorithm for photometric redshift estimation, which significantly improves the reconstruction of photometric redshift probability density functions (PDFs) for individual galaxies and galaxy samples. As a use case we apply our method to CFHTLS galaxies. The ordinal classification algorithm treats distinct redshift bins as ordered values, which improves the quality of photometric redshift PDFs, compared with non-ordinal classification architectures. We also propose a new single value point estimate of the galaxy redshift, that can be used to estimate the full redshift PDF of a galaxy sample. This method is competitive in terms of accuracy with contemporary algorithms, which stack the full redshift PDFs of all galaxies in the sample, but requires orders of magnitudes less storage space. The methods described in this paper greatly improve the log-likelihood of individual object redshift PDFs, when compared with a popular Neural Network code (ANNz). In our use case, this improvement reaches 50% for high redshift objects (z ≥ 0.75). We show that using these more accurate photometric redshift PDFs will lead to a reduction in the systematic biases by up to a factor of four, when compared with less accurate PDFs obtained from commonly used methods. The cosmological analyses we examine and find improvement upon are the following: gravitational lensing cluster mass estimates, modelling of angular correlation functions, and modelling of cosmic shear correlation functions.

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  • Marketing in the Flourishing Society Megatrend

    Varey, Richard J. (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    “New science” has profound implications for business. Industrial capitalism can no longer power prosperity. The mass society worldview is giving way to individualisation. The “standard enterprise logic” is challenged. Marketing has operated as an attention technology for sellers competing to capture customers. However, in an intention economy buyers are a scarce commodity, and it is intentions that drive production for specific needs. Change in marketing is overdue. Despite increased social disharmony and the mounting evidence of looming environmental disasters, progress is stagnant, often negative, as marketing exacerbates the problem by misallocating negative value goods. The commonality in the contemporary crises of financial meltdown, human-made climate change, economic inequality, distrust of government, and the social corrosion of consumerism is the moral limits of markets in civic society. Sustainable living provides the higher purpose of marketing: well-being and human flourishing. Sustainability is a socio-cultural, inherently ethical, respectful, intellectual construct for a life of careful and equitable resource use within limits and inter-dependencies. It is not the antithesis of competitive business, indeed business can flourish by competing on, and being rewarded for, the accomplishment of enduringly valuable outcomes. Sustainability is a transcendent societal “mega”-megatrend.

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  • Keratin and S100 calcium-binding proteins are major constituents of the bovine teat canal lining

    Smolenski, Grant A.; Cursons, Raymond T.; Hine, Brad C; Wheeler, Thomas T. (2015-09-25)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The bovine teat canal provides the first-line of defence against pathogenic bacteria infecting the mammary gland, yet the protein composition and host-defence functionality of the teat canal lining (TCL) are not well characterised. In this study, TCL collected from six healthy lactating dairy cows was subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry. The abundance and location of selected identified proteins were determined by western blotting and fluorescence immunohistochemistry. The variability of abundance among individual cows was also investigated. Two dominant clusters of proteins were detected in the TCL, comprising members of the keratin and S100 families of proteins. The S100 proteins were localised to the teat canal keratinocytes and were particularly predominant in the cornified outermost layer of the teat canal epithelium. Significant between-animal variation in the abundance of the S100 proteins in the TCL was demonstrated. Four of the six identified S100 proteins have been reported to have antimicrobial activity, suggesting that the TCL has additional functionality beyond being a physical barrier to invading microorganisms. These findings provide new insights into understanding host-defence of the teat canal and resistance of cows to mastitis.

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  • Supramolecular Isomerism in a Cadmium Bis(N-Hydroxyethyl, N-isopropyldithiocarbamate) Compound: Physiochemical Characterization of Ball (n = 2) and Chain (n = ∞) Forms of {Cd[S₂CN(iPr)CH₂CH₂OH] ₂•solvent}n

    Tan, Yee Seng; Sudlow, Anna L.; Molloy, Kieran C.; Morishima, Yui; Fujisawa, Kiyoshi; Jackson, Wendy J.; Henderson, William; Halim, Siti Nadiah Binti Abdul; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R.T. (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Needles of [{Cd[S₂CN(iPr)CH₂CH₂OH] ₂}₃•MeCN]∞ (2) were harvested from a dry acetonitrile solution of Cd[S₂CN(iPr)CH₂CH₂OH] ₂ after one or two days and proved to be a coordination polymer in which all dithiocarbamate ligands are μ₂,κ²-tridentate, bridging two cadmium atoms and simultaneously chelating one of these. If the same solution was allowed to stand for at least several days, 2 is replaced by blocks comprising a supramolecular isomer of 2, dimeric 1, with formula {Cd[S₂CN(iPr)CH₂CH₂OH] ₂}₂•2H₂O•2MeCN, and two ligands coordinating μ₂,κ² as in 2 and the other two purely κ2-chelating. The time dependency correlates with the pivotal role of water in driving the conversion of “chain” 2 to “ball” 1; crystals of 2 could not be isolated from “wet” acetonitrile. When each of 1 and 2 are dissolved in solution, they exhibit comparable spectroscopic attributes (¹H, ¹³C, and ¹¹³Cd NMR and UV/vis), indicating the solution structures are the same. Both 1 and 2 are luminescent in the solid state with 1 being significantly brighter than 2. Greenockite CdS nanoparticles are generated by the thermal decomposition of both 1 and 2.

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