22,134 results for Journal article

  • Effects of prolonged oral administration of dicyandiamide to dairy heifers on excretion in urine and efficacy in soil

    Welten, Brendon Grant; Ledgard, Stewart F.; Schipper, Louis A.; Waller, J. E.; Kear, M. J.; Dexter, M. M. (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Oral administration of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) to grazing ruminants for excretion in urine represents a targeted mitigation strategy to reduce nitrogen (N) losses from grazed pastures. A field trial and allied laboratory incubation study were conducted to examine the effects of oral administration of DCD to non-lactating Friesian dairy heifers on excretion of DCD in urine and efficacy in soil. Dairy heifers were orally administered DCD daily at three treatment levels (low, medium and high; 12, 24 and 36 g DCD heiferˉ¹ day ˉ¹, respectively) and compared to a nil-DCD control group over a 90-day continuous dosing period. There were no adverse effects of DCD administration on heifer health or growth, as inferred by live-weight gain and measured blood metabolite levels. Prolonged administration of DCD to dairy heifers resulted in the sustained excretion of DCD in the urine over 90 days and inhibition of nitrification of urinary-N in the silty peat soil for up to 56 days (incubated at 20 °C; P < 0.001). Field soil sampling (0–75 mm depth) of individual urine patches for DCD analysis revealed that a 3-fold increase in the rate of DCD administered resulted in a similar increase in the concentration of DCD voided in the urine and subsequently deposited in urine patches (median equivalent DCD application rates of 22, 36 and 59 kg ha ˉ¹ for the low, medium and high DCD treatment levels, respectively; P < 0.001). However, large differences (up to 40-fold) existed between individual urine patches in the rate of DCD deposited at each treatment level, which showed a positively skewed distribution. This study highlights the viability of prolonged daily administration of DCD to ruminants for sustained excretion in urine and effective inhibition of nitrification in soil as a practical targeted mitigation technology to reduce urinary-N losses from grazed pastures.

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  • Marketing in the Flourishing Society Megatrend

    Varey, Richard J. (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    “New science” has profound implications for business. Industrial capitalism can no longer power prosperity. The mass society worldview is giving way to individualisation. The “standard enterprise logic” is challenged. Marketing has operated as an attention technology for sellers competing to capture customers. However, in an intention economy buyers are a scarce commodity, and it is intentions that drive production for specific needs. Change in marketing is overdue. Despite increased social disharmony and the mounting evidence of looming environmental disasters, progress is stagnant, often negative, as marketing exacerbates the problem by misallocating negative value goods. The commonality in the contemporary crises of financial meltdown, human-made climate change, economic inequality, distrust of government, and the social corrosion of consumerism is the moral limits of markets in civic society. Sustainable living provides the higher purpose of marketing: well-being and human flourishing. Sustainability is a socio-cultural, inherently ethical, respectful, intellectual construct for a life of careful and equitable resource use within limits and inter-dependencies. It is not the antithesis of competitive business, indeed business can flourish by competing on, and being rewarded for, the accomplishment of enduringly valuable outcomes. Sustainability is a transcendent societal “mega”-megatrend.

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  • Is there long-run convergence among regional house prices in the UK?

    Holmes, Mark J.; Grimes, Arthur (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This paper investigates the long-run convergence of regional house prices in the UK. Existing studies have failed to reach a consensus on whether or not regional house prices exhibit long-run convergence with each other. The application is proposed of a new test involving unit root testing of the first principal component based on regional—national house price differentials. Using mix-adjusted quarterly data for 1973—2006, it is found that the first principal component is stationary. This suggests that all UK regional house prices are driven by a single common stochastic trend. Further analysis suggests that those regions that are more distant from London exhibit the highest degrees of persistence with respect to deviations in house price differentials.

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  • Supramolecular Isomerism in a Cadmium Bis(N-Hydroxyethyl, N-isopropyldithiocarbamate) Compound: Physiochemical Characterization of Ball (n = 2) and Chain (n = ∞) Forms of {Cd[S₂CN(iPr)CH₂CH₂OH] ₂•solvent}n

    Tan, Yee Seng; Sudlow, Anna L.; Molloy, Kieran C.; Morishima, Yui; Fujisawa, Kiyoshi; Jackson, Wendy J.; Henderson, William; Halim, Siti Nadiah Binti Abdul; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R.T. (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Needles of [{Cd[S₂CN(iPr)CH₂CH₂OH] ₂}₃•MeCN]∞ (2) were harvested from a dry acetonitrile solution of Cd[S₂CN(iPr)CH₂CH₂OH] ₂ after one or two days and proved to be a coordination polymer in which all dithiocarbamate ligands are μ₂,κ²-tridentate, bridging two cadmium atoms and simultaneously chelating one of these. If the same solution was allowed to stand for at least several days, 2 is replaced by blocks comprising a supramolecular isomer of 2, dimeric 1, with formula {Cd[S₂CN(iPr)CH₂CH₂OH] ₂}₂•2H₂O•2MeCN, and two ligands coordinating μ₂,κ² as in 2 and the other two purely κ2-chelating. The time dependency correlates with the pivotal role of water in driving the conversion of “chain” 2 to “ball” 1; crystals of 2 could not be isolated from “wet” acetonitrile. When each of 1 and 2 are dissolved in solution, they exhibit comparable spectroscopic attributes (¹H, ¹³C, and ¹¹³Cd NMR and UV/vis), indicating the solution structures are the same. Both 1 and 2 are luminescent in the solid state with 1 being significantly brighter than 2. Greenockite CdS nanoparticles are generated by the thermal decomposition of both 1 and 2.

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  • The utility of single nucleotide DNA variations as predictors of postoperative pain

    Jacobson, Gregory M.; Law, Corinne J.; Johnston, Harriet; Chaddock, Mark; Kluger, Michal; Cursons, Raymond T.; Sleigh, James W. (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Objectives: Genetic variation is an important contributor to postsurgical pain and thereby analgesia requirements. A description of the potential predictive power of genetic variants in pain should instruct improvements in pain management postoperatively. We set out to examine whether a set of genetic variants in pain related genes would show any association with actual pain outcomes in a typical surgical population. Methods: A candidate gene study was carried out in 135 surgical patients with 12 DNA variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms or ‘SNPs’) in known or putative pain pathway genes to detect associations with postoperative pain - measured by a verbal rating score (VRS) and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) usage rate. Standard PCR based molecular biology approaches were used. Results: At 20-24h after surgery, patients with the 1032G/1032G variant pair for the A1032G variant of the potassium channel KCNJ6 gene had a slightly higher median VRS than those with 1032A/1032A or 1032A/1032G pairs (p=0.04; dominant genetic model). This small difference was most apparent in the orthopaedic surgery patients where the 1032G/1032G pair associated with VRS (median(interquartile range)) of 5(4-6) vs. 3(0.5-4) in 1032A/1032A or 1032A/1032G groups. For PCA, patients with 3435C/3435C or 3435C/3435T pairs for ATPdependent efflux pump gene ABCB1 variant C3435T used PCA at a considerably higher rate of 0.89(0.07-1.66) mg.h-1 compared with just 0.11 (0-0.52) mg.h-1 for the 3435T/3435T pair (p=0.03; dominant model). A significantly higher usage rate was also detected for opioid receptor OPRM1 variant IVS2-691 with usage of 0.77(0.01-1.56) mg.h-1 for the IVS2C/IVS2C or IVS2C/IVS2G group vs. 0.24(0-1.26) mg.h-1 in the IVS2G/IVS2G group (p=0.04; recessive model). Conclusion: While this study has identified some significant statistical associations the potential utility of the studied DNA variants in prediction of postoperative pain and patient-controlled opioid analgesia requirements appears to be quite limited at present.

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  • Accurate photometric redshift probability density estimation - method comparison and application

    Rau, Michael M.; Seitz, Stella; Frank, Eibe; Brimioulee, Fabrice; Friedrich, Oliver; Gruen, Daniel; Hoyle, Ben (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    We introduce an ordinal classification algorithm for photometric redshift estimation, which significantly improves the reconstruction of photometric redshift probability density functions (PDFs) for individual galaxies and galaxy samples. As a use case we apply our method to CFHTLS galaxies. The ordinal classification algorithm treats distinct redshift bins as ordered values, which improves the quality of photometric redshift PDFs, compared with non-ordinal classification architectures. We also propose a new single value point estimate of the galaxy redshift, that can be used to estimate the full redshift PDF of a galaxy sample. This method is competitive in terms of accuracy with contemporary algorithms, which stack the full redshift PDFs of all galaxies in the sample, but requires orders of magnitudes less storage space. The methods described in this paper greatly improve the log-likelihood of individual object redshift PDFs, when compared with a popular Neural Network code (ANNz). In our use case, this improvement reaches 50% for high redshift objects (z ≥ 0.75). We show that using these more accurate photometric redshift PDFs will lead to a reduction in the systematic biases by up to a factor of four, when compared with less accurate PDFs obtained from commonly used methods. The cosmological analyses we examine and find improvement upon are the following: gravitational lensing cluster mass estimates, modelling of angular correlation functions, and modelling of cosmic shear correlation functions.

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  • Keratin and S100 calcium-binding proteins are major constituents of the bovine teat canal lining

    Smolenski, Grant A.; Cursons, Raymond T.; Hine, Brad C; Wheeler, Thomas T. (2015-09-25)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The bovine teat canal provides the first-line of defence against pathogenic bacteria infecting the mammary gland, yet the protein composition and host-defence functionality of the teat canal lining (TCL) are not well characterised. In this study, TCL collected from six healthy lactating dairy cows was subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry. The abundance and location of selected identified proteins were determined by western blotting and fluorescence immunohistochemistry. The variability of abundance among individual cows was also investigated. Two dominant clusters of proteins were detected in the TCL, comprising members of the keratin and S100 families of proteins. The S100 proteins were localised to the teat canal keratinocytes and were particularly predominant in the cornified outermost layer of the teat canal epithelium. Significant between-animal variation in the abundance of the S100 proteins in the TCL was demonstrated. Four of the six identified S100 proteins have been reported to have antimicrobial activity, suggesting that the TCL has additional functionality beyond being a physical barrier to invading microorganisms. These findings provide new insights into understanding host-defence of the teat canal and resistance of cows to mastitis.

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  • DNA adsorption by nanocrystalline allophane spherules and nanoaggregates, and implications for carbon sequestration in Andisols

    Huang, Yu-Tuan; Lowe, David J.; Churchman, G. Jock; Schipper, Louis A.; Cursons, Raymond T.; Zhang, Heng; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Cooper, Alan (2016-02-01)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This study provides fundamental knowledge about the interaction of allophane, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and organic matter in soils, and how allophane sequesters DNA. The adsorption capacities of salmon-sperm DNA on pure synthetic allophane (characterised morphologically and chemically) and on humic-acid-rich synthetic allophane were determined, and the resultant DNA–allophane complexes were characterised using synchrotron-radiation-derived P X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure (XANES) spectroscopy and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The synthetic allophane adsorbed up to 34 μg mg⁻¹ of salmon-sperm DNA. However, the presence of humic acid significantly lowered the DNA uptake on the synthetic allophane to 3.5 μg mg⁻¹ by occupying the active sites on allophane so that DNA was repulsed. Both allophane and humic acid adsorbed DNA chemically through its phosphate groups. IR spectra for the allophane–DNA complex showed a chemical change of the Si–O–Al stretching of allophane after DNA adsorption, possibly because of the alteration of the steric distance of the allophane outer wall, or because of the precipitation of aluminium phosphate on allophane after DNA adsorption on it, or both. The aluminol groups of synthetic allophane almost completely reacted with additions of small amounts of DNA (~ 2–6 μg mg⁻¹ ), but the chemical adsorption of DNA on allophane simultaneously led to the formation of very porous allophane aggregates up to ~ 500 μm in diameter. The formation of the allophane nano- and microaggregates enabled up to 28 μg mg⁻¹ of DNA to be adsorbed (~ 80% of total) within spaces (pores) between allophane spherules and allophane nanoaggregates (as “physical adsorption”), giving a total of 34 μg mg⁻¹ of DNA adsorbed by the allophane. The stability of the allophane–DNA nano- and microaggregates likely prevents encapsulated DNA from exposure to oxidants, and DNA within small pores between allophane spherules and nanoaggregates may not be accessible to enzymes or microbes, hence enabling DNA protection and preservation in such materials. By implication, substantial organic carbon is therefore likely to be sequestered and protected in allophanic soils (Andisols) in the same way as demonstrated here for DNA, that is, predominantly by encapsulation within a tortuous network of nanopores and submicropores amidst stable nanoaggregates and microaggregates, rather than by chemisorption alone.

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  • A new method to extract and purify DNA from allophanic soils and paleosols, and potential for paleoenvironmental reconstruction and other applications

    Huang, Yu-Tuan; Lowe, David J.; Zhang, Heng; Cursons, Raymond T.; Young, Jennifer M.; Churchman, G. Jock; Schipper, Louis A.; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Wood, Jamie R.; Cooper, Alan (2016-07-15)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Andisols, developed from late-Quaternary tephra (volcanic ash) deposits and dominated by the nanocrystalline aluminosilicate, allophane, contain large stores of organic matter and are potential reservoirs for DNA. However, DNA recovery from Andisols and other allophane-bearing soils has been difficult and inefficient because of strong chemical bonding between DNA and both allophane and organic matter, and also because much DNA can be encased and physically protected in nanopores in allophane nano/microaggregates. We have therefore developed a new two-step DNA isolation method for allophanic soils and buried paleosols, including those low in clay, which circumvents these problems. The method centres on (1) releasing mainly microbial DNA, and extracellular (unbound) DNA, using an alkaline phosphate buffer (“Rai’s lysis buffer”) that blocks re-adsorption sites on the allophanic materials, and (2) the novel application of acidified ammonium oxalate (Tamm’s reagent) to dissolve the allophane and to release DNA which had been chemically-bound and also which had been protected within nanopores. Ammonium oxalate has not previously been applied to soil DNA extraction. DNA yields up to 44.5 µg g-1 soil (oven-dry basis) were obtained from three field-moist natural allophanic soil samples from northern New Zealand using this two-step method. Following extraction, we evaluated different DNA purification methods. Gel electrophoresis of the extracted DNA followed by gel purification of the DNA from the agarose gel, despite some DNA loss, was the only purification method that removed sufficient humic material for successful DNA amplification using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of multiple gene regions. Sequencing of PCR products obtained from a buried allophanic paleosol at 2.2-m depth on a sandy Holocene tephra yielded endemic and exotic plants that differed from the European grasses growing currently on the soil’s surface. This difference suggests that the DNA extraction method is able to access (paleo)environmental DNA derived from previous vegetation cover. Our DNA extraction and purification method hence may be applied to Andisols and allophane-bearing paleosols, potentially offering a means to isolate paleoenvironmental DNA and thus facilitate reconstruction of past environments in volcanic landscapes, datable using tephrochronology, and also aid biodiversity understanding of andic soils and paleosols.

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  • Development of a qPCR method to measure mitochondrial and genomic DNA damage with application to chemotherapy-induced DNA damage and cryopreserved cells

    Evans, Stephen O.; Jameson, Michael B.; Cursons, Raymond T.; Peters, Linda M.; Bird, Steve; Jacobson, Gregory M. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    DNA damage quantitation assays such as the comet assay have focused on the measurement of total nuclear damage per cell. The adoption of PCR-based techniques to quantify DNA damage has enabled sequence- and organelle-specific assessment of DNA lesions. Here we report on an adaptation of a qPCR technique to assess DNA damage in nuclear and mitochondrial targets relative to control. Novel aspects of this assay include application of the assay to the Rotor-Gene platform with optimized DNA polymerase/fluorophore/primer set combination in a touchdown PCR protocol. Assay validation was performed using ultraviolet C radiation in A549 and THP1 cancer cell lines. A comparison was made to the comet assay applied to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and an estimation of the effects of cryopreservation on ultraviolet C-induced DNA damage was carried out. Finally, dose responses for DNA damage were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells following exposure to the cytotoxic agents bleomycin and cisplatin. We show reproducible experimental outputs across the tested conditions and concordance with published findings with respect to mitochondrial and nuclear genotoxic susceptibilities. The application of this DNA damage assay to a wide range of clinical and laboratory-derived samples is both feasible and resource-efficient.

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  • Immigration futures: New Zealand in a global context

    Bedford, Richard; Ho, Elsie (2006)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    At no other time in the past century has there been such focused and intense global interest in international migration. Never before has there been such interest, internationally, in how Australia, Canada and New Zealand manage their international migration. These countries have become models for governments elsewhere who are seeking to develop policy that has a more direct impact on the quality of the population flows into their countries. New Zealand is unusual by OECD standards in that it has a high level of emigration of citizens at the same time that it has a very high per capita rate of immigration. New Zealand’s contemporary migration flows are examined briefly and it is demonstrated that the system is not nearly as dominated by migration from countries in northeast Asia as it was a decade ago. A more flexible approach to the attainment of permits to reside in a country is being adopted in most countries now. The prospective migrants take the opportunity to assess employment opportunities and the quality of life in a prospective new home (perhaps not their only home either), while working or studying on temporary permits and gaining the sort of local experience that is valued in the points-based immigrant selection systems. The paper concludes with a brief analysis of data relating to transition to residence in New Zealand.

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  • Does seclusion result in a calmer patient?

    Trimmer, Wendy (2010-01-08)

    Journal article
    Whitireia Community Polytechnic

    This critically appraised topic focuses on seclusion as an intervention for acutely mentally unwell patients. Seclusion is defined as "the placing of a person, at any time and for any duration, alone in an area where he/she cannot freely exit" (Ministry of Health, 2001, p. 43). Seclusion can be legally implemented under the Mental Health (Compulsory Assessment and Treatment) Act 1992 when "other methods of clinical management cannot safely be used, or have been used without success" (p. 34). Despite the common use of seclusion as an intervention, it is suggested that many patients feel that seclusion does not have a calming effect.

    The following is an example of how seclusion is explored against evidence-based practice. A scenario, search question and terms are identified. A literature search was undertaken and Greenhalgh (2001) was utilised to assess methodological quality. The most relevant research article that would assist in answering the search question was identified and is critically appraised as follows.

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  • Great oaks from tiny acorns: the beginnings of TESOL in New Zealand

    Wallace, Leith (2009-12-23)

    Journal article
    Whitireia Community Polytechnic

    TESOL is now a multi-million dollar industry, and an integral part of the New Zealand education system, but it had its beginnings as a foreign aid initiative, based in a two-storey brick and wooden house at the edge of Victoria University's campus. Some great names in education in New Zealand have been part of this development, centred on the English Language Institute at Victoria University of Wellington. The history and importance of the institute is recorded.

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  • Link Rot: How the Inaccessibility of Electronic Citations Affects the Quality of New Zealand Scholarly Literature

    Parker, Ailsa (2010-01-11)

    Journal article
    Whitireia Community Polytechnic

    'Link rot' or the decay of a URL as a result of removal of its website, content change or redirection, is recognised as a major problem in a variety of information retrieval areas. Library catalogues, distance learning resources and reference lists within scholarly literature are all affected. Within reference lists of scholarly articles, various trends have been researched and identified. An increase in the use of electronic citations has been paralleled by the decay of their links. Rates of decay vary within specific disciplines and electronic domains, and most researchers express concern at the resultant impact on one of the foundations of scholarly research. This New Zealand research investigates citation trends within six New Zealand journals in different disciplines between 2002-2005. Reasons for the failure to connect to sites are analysed in terms of Eppler's (2003) information model of deficit responsibility and results compared with overseas studies. Suggestions are then made as to how electronic citations could be stabilised and to future areas of research.

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