22,247 results for Journal article

  • Great oaks from tiny acorns: the beginnings of TESOL in New Zealand

    Wallace, Leith (2009-12-23)

    Journal article
    Whitireia Community Polytechnic

    TESOL is now a multi-million dollar industry, and an integral part of the New Zealand education system, but it had its beginnings as a foreign aid initiative, based in a two-storey brick and wooden house at the edge of Victoria University's campus. Some great names in education in New Zealand have been part of this development, centred on the English Language Institute at Victoria University of Wellington. The history and importance of the institute is recorded.

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  • Link Rot: How the Inaccessibility of Electronic Citations Affects the Quality of New Zealand Scholarly Literature

    Parker, Ailsa (2010-01-11)

    Journal article
    Whitireia Community Polytechnic

    'Link rot' or the decay of a URL as a result of removal of its website, content change or redirection, is recognised as a major problem in a variety of information retrieval areas. Library catalogues, distance learning resources and reference lists within scholarly literature are all affected. Within reference lists of scholarly articles, various trends have been researched and identified. An increase in the use of electronic citations has been paralleled by the decay of their links. Rates of decay vary within specific disciplines and electronic domains, and most researchers express concern at the resultant impact on one of the foundations of scholarly research. This New Zealand research investigates citation trends within six New Zealand journals in different disciplines between 2002-2005. Reasons for the failure to connect to sites are analysed in terms of Eppler's (2003) information model of deficit responsibility and results compared with overseas studies. Suggestions are then made as to how electronic citations could be stabilised and to future areas of research.

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  • Immigration futures: New Zealand in a global context

    Bedford, Richard; Ho, Elsie (2006)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    At no other time in the past century has there been such focused and intense global interest in international migration. Never before has there been such interest, internationally, in how Australia, Canada and New Zealand manage their international migration. These countries have become models for governments elsewhere who are seeking to develop policy that has a more direct impact on the quality of the population flows into their countries. New Zealand is unusual by OECD standards in that it has a high level of emigration of citizens at the same time that it has a very high per capita rate of immigration. New Zealand’s contemporary migration flows are examined briefly and it is demonstrated that the system is not nearly as dominated by migration from countries in northeast Asia as it was a decade ago. A more flexible approach to the attainment of permits to reside in a country is being adopted in most countries now. The prospective migrants take the opportunity to assess employment opportunities and the quality of life in a prospective new home (perhaps not their only home either), while working or studying on temporary permits and gaining the sort of local experience that is valued in the points-based immigrant selection systems. The paper concludes with a brief analysis of data relating to transition to residence in New Zealand.

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  • Does seclusion result in a calmer patient?

    Trimmer, Wendy (2010-01-08)

    Journal article
    Whitireia Community Polytechnic

    This critically appraised topic focuses on seclusion as an intervention for acutely mentally unwell patients. Seclusion is defined as "the placing of a person, at any time and for any duration, alone in an area where he/she cannot freely exit" (Ministry of Health, 2001, p. 43). Seclusion can be legally implemented under the Mental Health (Compulsory Assessment and Treatment) Act 1992 when "other methods of clinical management cannot safely be used, or have been used without success" (p. 34). Despite the common use of seclusion as an intervention, it is suggested that many patients feel that seclusion does not have a calming effect.

    The following is an example of how seclusion is explored against evidence-based practice. A scenario, search question and terms are identified. A literature search was undertaken and Greenhalgh (2001) was utilised to assess methodological quality. The most relevant research article that would assist in answering the search question was identified and is critically appraised as follows.

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  • New Zealand’s Performance Based Research Funding (PBRF) model undermines Maori research

    Roa, Tom; Beggs, Jacqueline R.; Williams, Jim; Moller, Henrik (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The Performance Based Research Funding (PBRF) model was instigated in 2002 to increase “the quality of research through peer assessment and performance indicators” in New Zealand (Ministry of Education 2002: 17). It is used to allocate funding between universities, departments and researchers according to the putative quality and quantity of their research outputs over the preceding 6 years. PBRF is expected to incentivise improved research excellence and efficiency, and allow government to invest research funds where greatest returns will result. This is potentially a huge gain for Māori. However, “by changing the conditions of knowledge production, research assessment exercises may also alter the shape and direction of disciplines by diverting and channelling researchers’ intellectual attention and political engagement, influencing what they study, how they do it, and how they report and write” (Middleton 2009: 194). Indeed, universities repeatedly encourage researchers to focus on activities that will improve their PBRF rankings. We believe that an unintended consequence of PBRF is the creation of significant barriers to increasing the volume, scope and quality of environmental research for Māori.

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  • Evaluating the influence of lake morphology, trophic status and diagenesis on geochemical profiles in lake sediments

    Trolle, Dennis; Hamilton, David P.; Pilditch, Conrad A. (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Recent geochemical studies provide evidence that changes in vertical distributions of nutrients in lake sediments are driven by anthropogenic activities, based primarily on trends of increasing concentrations in upper sediment layers. However, we show that vertical concentration profiles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in lake sediments can be higher in the upper, most recently deposited sediment strata, driven largely by natural diagenetic processes and not eutrophication alone. We examined sediment cores from 14 different lakes in New Zealand and China ranging from oligotrophic to highly eutrophic and shallow to deep, and found that the shape of vertical profiles of total P, a key nutrient for lake productivity, can be similar in sediments across gradients of widely differing trophic status. We derived and applied empirical and mechanistic diagenesis steady state profile models to describe the vertical distribution of C, N and P in the sediments. These models, which focus on large scale temporal (decades) and spatial (up to 35 cm in the vertical) processes, revealed that density-differentiated burial and biodiffusive mixing, were strongly correlated with vertical concentration gradients of sediment C, N and P content, whereas lake trophic status was not. A sensitivity analysis of parameters included in the diagenetic model further showed that the processes including flux of organic matter to the sediment-water interface, burial (net sedimentation), breakdown of organic matter and biodiffusion all significantly can influence the vertical distribution of sediment P content. We conclude that geochemical studies attempting to evaluate drivers of the vertical distribution of sediment C, N, and P content in lake sediments should also account for the natural diagenetic drivers of vertical concentration gradients, assisted with application of similar models to those presented in this study. This would include quantification of key sediment diagenesis model parameters to separate out the influence of anthropogenic activities.

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  • Hindcasting cyanobacterial communities in Lake Okaro with germination experiments and genetic analyses

    Wood, Susanna A.; Jentzsch, Katrin; Rueckert, Andreas; Hamilton, David P.; Cary, S. Craig (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Cyanobacterial blooms are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Sparse historic phytoplankton records often result in uncertainty as to whether bloom-forming species have always been present and are proliferating in response to eutrophication or climate change, or if there has been a succession of new arrivals through recent history. This study evaluated the relative efficacies of germination experiments and automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) assays in identifying cyanobacteria in a sediment core and thus reconstructing the historical composition of cyanobacterial communities. A core (360 mm in depth) was taken in the central, undisturbed basin of Lake Okaro, New Zealand, a lake with a rapid advance of eutrophication and increasing cyanobacteria populations. The core incorporated a tephra from an 1886 volcanic eruption that served to delineate recent sediment deposition. ARISA and germination experiments successfully detected akinete-forming nostocaleans in sediment dating 120 bp and showed little change in Nostocales species structure over this time scale. Species that had not previously been documented in the lake were identified including Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi, a potent anatoxin-a producer. The historic composition of Chrococcales and Oscillatoriales was more difficult to reconstruct, potentially due to the relatively rapid degradation of vegetative cells within sediment.

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  • Vertical distributions of chlorophyll in deep, warm monomictic lakes

    Hamilton, David P.; O’Brien, Katherine R.; Burford, Michele A.; Brookes, Justin D.; McBride, Chris G. (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The factors affecting vertical distributions of chlorophyll fluorescence were examined in four temperate, warm monomictic lakes. Each of the lakes (maximum depth >80 m) was sampled over 2 years at intervals from monthly to seasonal. Profiles were taken of chlorophyll fluorescence (as a proxy for algal biomass), temperature and irradiance, as well as integrated samples from the surface mixed layer for chlorophyll a (chl a) and nutrient concentrations in each lake. Depth profiles of chlorophyll fluorescence were also made along transects of the longest axis of each lake. Chlorophyll fluorescence maxima occurred at depths closely correlated with euphotic depth (r ² = 0.67, P < 0.01), which varied with nutrient status of the lakes. While seasonal thermal density stratification is a prerequisite for the existence of a deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM), our study provides evidence that the depth of light penetration largely dictates the DCM depth during stratification. Reduction in water clarity through eutrophication can cause a shift in phytoplankton distributions from a DCM in spring or summer to a surface chlorophyll maximum within the surface mixed layer when the depth of the euphotic zone (z eu) is consistently shallower than the depth of the surface mixed layer (z SML). Trophic status has a key role in determining vertical distributions of chlorophyll in the four lakes, but does not appear to disrupt the annual cycle of maximum chlorophyll in winter.

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  • Preface: Lake restoration: an experimental ecosystem approach for eutrophication control

    Hamilton, David P.; Landman, Michael J. (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    From the issue entitled "Lake Restoration: An Experimental Ecosystem Approach for Eutrophication Control / Guest Editors: D.P. Hamilton, M.J. Landman // QuickBird Satellite Imagery as a Tool for Restoration and Rehabilitation of Lake Sevan, Armenia / Guest Editor: Martin A. Stapanian".

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  • Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton in solar salt ponds in Shark Bay, Western Australia

    Segal, Richard D.; Waite, Anya M.; Hamilton, David P. (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The aim of this research was to examine nutrient limitation of phytoplankton in solar salt ponds of varying salinity at Useless Inlet in Western Australia. These ponds use solar energy to evaporate seawater for the purpose of commercial salt production. A combination of techniques involving water column nutrient ratios, comparisons of nutrient concentrations to concentration of magnesium ions and bioassays were used in the investigation. Comparisons of changes in dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphorus ratios and concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients against changes in concentrations of the conservative cation Mg²⁺ indicated that phytoplankton biomass was potentially nitrogen limited along the entire pond salinity gradient. Nutrient addition bioassays indicated that in low salinity ponds, phytoplankton was nitrogen limited but in high salinity ponds, phosphorus limited. This may be due to isolation of phytoplankton in bioassay bottles from in situ conditions as well as to changes in phytoplankton species composition between ponds, and the variable availability of inorganic and organic nutrient sources. The differences in limiting nutrient between methods indicate that phytoplankton cells may be proximally limited by nutrients that are not theoretically limiting at the pond scale. Dissolved organic nutrients constituted a large proportion of total nutrients, with concentrations increasing through the pond sequence of increasing salinity. From the change in nutrient concentrations in bioassay bottles, sufficient dissolved organic nitrogen may be available for phytoplankton uptake in low salinity ponds, potentially alleviating the dissolved inorganic nitrogen limitation of phytoplankton biomass.

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  • The influence of water quality and sediment geochemistry on the horizontal and vertical distribution of phosphorus and nitrogen in sediments of a large, shallow lake

    Trolle, Dennis; Zhu, Guangwei; Hamilton, David P.; Luo, Liancong; McBride, Chris G.; Zhang, Lu (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Distinct horizontal water column concentration gradients of nutrients and chlorophyll a (Chl a) occur within large, shallow, eutrophic Lake Taihu, China. Concentrations are high in the north, where some of the major polluted tributaries enter the lake, and relatively low in the south, where macrophytes generally are abundant. It is not clear, however, whether these water column concentration gradients are similarly reflected in spatial heterogeneity of nutrient concentrations within the bottom sediments. The main objective of this study was therefore to test if horizontal and vertical variations in the phosphorus and nitrogen content in bottom sediments of Lake Taihu are significantly related to (1) horizontal variations in overlying water column nutrient concentrations and (2) other sediment geochemical constituents. We measured the concentration of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in surficial sediments (0–2 cm) and TP, TN and Chl a concentrations in water column samples, collected from 32 sites in 2005. In 2006 sediment, TP, TN, carbon, iron and manganese concentrations were measured vertically at 2 cm intervals, extending to a depth of approximately 20 cm, at an additional eight sites. Linear correlation analysis revealed that surficial sediment TP concentrations across the 32 stations were related significantly, though weakly, to annual mean water column concentrations of TP, TN as well as Chl a. Correlations of surficial sediment TN with water column variables were, however, not significant (P[0.05).Amongst the geochemical variables tested, the vertical variability of sediment TP concentrations was most strongly related to sediment manganese and carbon concentrations. A multiple stepwise linear regression revealed that the combination of sediment manganese and carbon concentrations explained 91% of the horizontal variability in sediment TP concentrations and 65% of the vertical variability.

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  • Management strategies to optimise sustainable clam (Tapes philippinarum) harvests in Barbamarco Lagoon, Italy

    Spillman, C.M.; Hamilton, David P.; Imberger, J. (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Barbamarco Lagoon is a small lagoon adjoining the Northern Adriatic Sea and is the site of a commercially valuable clam (Tapes philippinarum) fishery. A three-dimensional (3D) coupled hydrodynamic–ecological model was applied to the lagoon with the objective of assessing impacts on clam food supply, commercial harvests and water quality of different clam rearing strategies, lagoon morphologies and flow regimes. Harvest and net growth to seeding ratios, total harvest value, clearance efficiencies and clam satiety were used to quantify the commercial success of different management strategies, while bottom dissolved oxygen concentrations were used as an indicator of ecosystem health. Increasing exchange with the Northern Adriatic Sea or increasing freshwater inputs into the lagoon improved clam food supply and increased both harvest production and ecosystem health in model simulations of the system. Results indicated that the high spatial and temporal variability of clam production and water quality responses must be considered for a holistic assessment of the outcomes of strategies in the context of ecological and production carrying capacity.

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  • Denitrification potential in lake sediment increases across a gradient of catchment agriculture

    Bruesewitz, Denise A.; Hamilton, David P.; Schipper, Louis A. (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Intensification of catchment agriculture has increased nutrient loads and accelerated eutrophication in some lakes, often resulting in episodic harmful algal blooms or prolonged periods of anoxia. The influence of catchment agriculture on lake sediment denitrification capacity as a nitrogen (N) removal mechanism in lakes is largely unknown, particularly in contrast to research on denitrification in agricultural streams and rivers. We measured denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) to assess sediment denitrification potential in seven monomictic and three polymictic lakes that range in the proportion of agriculture in the catchment from 3 to 96% to determine if there is a link between agricultural land use in the lake catchment and sediment denitrification potential. We collected sediment cores for DEA measurements over 3 weeks in austral spring 2008 (October– November). Lake Okaro, with 96% catchment agriculture, had approximately 15 times higher DEA than Lake Tikitapu, with 3% catchment agriculture (232.2 ± 55.9 vs. 15.9 ± 4.5 lg N gAFDM -1 h-1, respectively). Additionally, sediment denitrification potential increased with the proportion of catchment in agriculture (R2 = 0.85, P < 0.001). Our data suggest that lakes retain a high capacity to remove excessNvia denitrification under increasing N loads from higher proportions of catchment agriculture. However, evidence from the literature suggests that despite a high capacity for denitrification and longer water residence times, lakes with high N loads will still remove a smaller proportion of their N load. Lakes have a denitrification potential that reflects the condition of the lake catchment, but more measurements of in situ denitrification rates across lake catchments is necessary to determine if this capacity translates to high N removal rates.

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  • Relationships between land use and nitrogen and phosphorus in New Zealand lakes

    Abell, Jonathan Michael; Özkundakci, Deniz; Hamilton, David P.; Miller, Steven D. (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Developing policies to address lake eutrophication requires an understanding of the relative contribution of different nutrient sources and of how lake and catchment characteristics interact to mediate the source–receptor pathway. We analysed total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) data for 101 New Zealand lakes and related these to land use and edaphic sources of phosphorus (P). We then analysed a sub-sample of lakes in agricultural catchments to investigate how lake and catchment variables influence the relationship between land use and in-lake nutrients. Following correction for the effect of co-variation amongst predictor variables, high producing grassland (intensive pasture) was the best predictor of TN and TP, accounting for 38.6% and 41.0% of variation, respectively. Exotic forestry and urban area accounted for a further 18.8% and 3.6% of variation in TP and TN, respectively. Soil P (representing naturally-occurring edaphic P) was negatively correlated with TP, owing to the confounding effect of pastoral land use. Lake and catchment morphology (zmax and lake : catchment area) and catchment connectivity (lake order) mediated the relationship between intensive pasture and in-lake nutrients. Mitigating eutrophication in New Zealand lakes requires action to reduce nutrient export from intensive pasture and quantifying P export from plantation forestry requires further consideration.

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  • Effect of intensive catchment and in-lake restoration procedures on phosphorus concentrations in a eutrophic lake

    Özkundakci, Deniz; Hamilton, David P.; Scholes, Paul (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Lake Okaro is a small, warm monomictic lake in central North Island, New Zealand, which progressed from oligotrophic to eutrophic through the 1960s. Trends in phosphorus (P) concentrations in the lake are linked to multiple restoration efforts over a 5-year period (2003–2008). The restoration procedures include a 2.3 ha constructed wetland established in February 2006 and riparian margin protection to reduce external loading, as well as an Alum application in December 2003 and sediment capping using modified zeolite in September 2008 to reduce internal loading. The annual average total phosphorus (TP) concentration in the lake decreased by 41% from 2004–2005 to 2007–2008. Two predictive models based on external P loading data generally underestimated the measured TP concentrations in the water column due to internal P loading. The relatively rapid response of TP concentrations after reduction of the internal loading using modified zeolite suggests that this technique can effect a rapid decrease in lake water TP concentrations though the trophic state of Lake Okaro showed high resilience to the reduced P loading. It is concluded that the combined effect of all restoration procedures resulted in a relatively rapid decrease in TP concentrations in Lake Okaro, which may be prolonged by continued external load reduction.

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  • Variations in nutrient concentrations at different time scales in two shallow tidally dominated estuaries

    Tay, Hui W.; Bryan, Karin R.; Pilditch, Conrad A.; Park, Stephen; Hamilton, David P. (2012)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Water-quality observations in estuaries can be highly variable in time and space, making it difficult to quantify nutrient fluxes and to discriminate patterns. We measured nitrate, phosphate and ammonium concentrations in two shallow tidally dominated estuaries in Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand, during four periods (winter, start of spring, end of spring and summer) within 1 year, to determine the source of variability observed in a 19-year monitoring program. These measurements consisted of high-frequency monitoring during one 24-h period (covering a daytime flood-ebb tide and a night-time flood-ebb tide) at each estuary. Concentrations of nitrate and ammonium had distinctive tidal patterns, with rising values during ebb flows. This tidal asymmetry caused a net seaward flux of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (nitrate and ammonium), with higher exports at night. Net fluxes were 34358kgN per tidal cycle for nitrate and 2293kgN per tidal cycle for ammonium. Fluxes were large relative to previously published model-based predictions for the region, particularly during winter. Our results showed that estuarine sampling strategies need to account for tidal variability and the role of episodic runoff events, and highlighted the importance of correctly validated mass fluxes from field measurements for comparisons with nutrient-loading models.

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  • Here, and Not Yet Here: A Dialogue at the Intersection of Queer, Trans, and Culture

    Aiello, Giorgia; Bakshi, Sandeep; Bilge, Sirma; Hall, Lisa Kahaleole; Johnston, Lynda; Pérez, Kimberlee; Chávez, Karma (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    To start this dialogue, guest editor Karma R. Chávez posed a series of general and unbinding questions to participants about the meanings of queer theory and its relationship with questions of culture. The dialogue unfolded over the course of three weeks in an online forum and covered several important themes. First, participants engaged questions surrounding the meaning of queer, and its relationship to different cultural and linguistic contexts, especially with regard to diaspora, settler colonialism, and postcoloniality. Second, participants considered the interplay between queer and trans theories, which led to considerations of the body, memory, and homonormativity. Third, after the “coming out” of the U.S. actress Jodie Foster, participants had a lively discussion about the politics of visibility, responsibility, and accountability for different LGBTQ subjects. The dialogue concluded with final meditations.

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  • Recent occurrence of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, in Waikato lakes of New Zealand.

    Ryan, E.F.; Hamilton, David P.; Barnes, Grant E. (2003-10-01)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a toxin-producing species of cyanobacteria that in autumn 2003 was recorded for the first time in three shallow (max. depth ≤5 m) Waikato lakes and a hydro-electric dam on the Waikato River, New Zealand. It formed water blooms at densities >100 000 cells/ml in Lakes Waahi and Whangape. Net rates of population growth >0.2 day-1 were recorded for C. raciborskii in Lakes Ngaroto, Waahi, and Karapiro, based on comparisons of low numbers (detection of cells/ml) from initial samples and its presence at bloom densities (>15 000 cells/ml) in the subsequent sample "x"-"y" days later. C. raciborskii may be well adapted to rapid proliferation in the Waikato lakes, which are eutrophic to hypertrophic, with high light attenuation, and where nitrogen (N) fixation may provide it with a competitive advantage over non-nitrogen fixing algae under N-limited conditions.

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  • The Topp Twins: Untouchable girls: The movie

    Johnston, Lynda (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The recently released documentary The Topp Twins: Untouchable Girls: The Movie (2009) has quickly become an important cultural text in Aotearoa New Zealand. It opened on April 9, 2009 and immediately broke records for best opening day and weekend in New Zealand’s movie history. For readers to get some sense of this documentary, it is worth watching the trailer (http://topptwins.com/tv-and-film/untouchable-girls) which provides a tantalising peak into the life story, so far, of the Topp Twins – much loved New Zealand entertainers. But the documentary does more than chart life stories, it highlights major social and political movements that helped shape national discourses of what it feels like to be a ‘Kiwi’ (the term ‘Kiwi’ is used by people – of all ethnicities and social classes - who feel they have a New Zealand national identity). I have chosen this documentary for this scholar’s choice essay because it links with a number of discourses that inspire my work on how emotions such as ‘pride’ shape people and place. Untouchable Girls illustrates the fluidity and partiality of subjectivities (both individually and collectively) and the ways in which subjectivities can be challenged and contested without humiliation.

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  • Low-dose alum application trialled as a management tool for internal nutrient loads in Lake Okaro, New Zealand

    Paul, Wendy J.; Hamilton, David P.; Gibbs, Max M. (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Aluminium sulfate (alum) was applied to Lake Okaro, a eutrophic New Zealand lake with recurrent cyanobacterial blooms, to evaluate its suitability for reducing trophic status and bloom frequency. The dose yielded 0.6 g aluminium m–3 in the epilimnion. Before dosing, pH exceeded 8 in epilimnetic waters but was optimal for flocculation (6–8) below 4 m depth. After dosing, there was no significant change in water clarity, hypolimnetic pH decreased to 5.5, and soluble aluminium exceeded recommended guidelines for protection of freshwater organisms. Epilimnetic phosphate concentrations decreased from 40 to 5 mg m–3 and total nitrogen (TN):total phosphorus (TP) mass ratios increased from 7:1 to 37:1. The dominant phytoplankton species changed from Anabaena spp. before dosing, to Ceratium hirudinella , then Staurastrum sp. after dosing. Detection of effectiveness of dosing may have been limited by sampling duration and design, as well as the low alum dose. The decrease in hypolimnetic pH and epilimnetic TP, and increase in Al3+ and chlorophyll a, are attributed to the low alkalinity lake water and coincidence of alum dosing with a cyanobacterial bloom and high pH.

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