22,078 results for Journal article

  • Audit of health data captured routinely in primary healthcare for the clinical decision support system PREDICT (PREDICT CVD-4)

    Riddell, T; Kenealy, T; Wells, S; Jackson, R; Broad, J (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Computerised clinical decision support systems require health data to be captured in an explicit, structured way. However, traditional patient medical records contain data that is recorded in multiple ways using coding systems, free text, medical jargon and idiosyncratic abbreviations. To be meaningful, data transferred either automatically or manually from medical records to a clinical decision support program must accurately reflect data held in the patient medical record. Aims To assess the accuracy of health data captured routinely in primary care practice by PREDICT-CVD, a clinical decision support program for supporting the assessment and management of cardiovascular disease risk. Methods Data saved in the PREDICT clinical decision support system were audited against the same patients’ data held within an electronic patient management system. The audit was conducted in three general practices in Auckland, New Zealand. Within each practice the sample included all Maori patient records and a random sample of non-Maori patient records that made the total up to 100 per practice (n=300). Results We found good agreement between the data stored within PREDICT and that held within the patient management system. For 12 of the 27 variables examined there was perfect agreement. The most common disagreements, in order of frequency, were for smoking, diabetes and ethnicity recordings. Overall, there were 70 observations where data were recorded in PREDICT (but not in the patient management system), compared to 21 occurrences where data were recorded in the patient management system (but not in PREDICT). Conclusions Health data captured routinely in general practice by the clinical decision support system PREDICT were found to be highly consistent with data held in electronic patient records. However, the use of PREDICT-CVD improved the completeness of cardiovascular risk factor documentation.

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  • New Zealand Consumers’ Health Information Needs: Results of an interpretive descriptive study

    Honey, Michelle; Roy, DE; Bycroft, J; Boyd, M-A (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    INTRODUCTION: Health literacy is linked to better health outcomes and underpins effective self-management, yet over one-and-a-half million New Zealanders are known to have poor health literacy skills. An ability to access and understand health information is an important component of health literacy. Little is known, however, about New Zealand consumers’ health information needs. This qualitative study sought to understand the perceptions of consumers related to their needs and use of health information. METHODS: Four focus group interviews provided data for this qualitative descriptive study. Data analysis used a thematic inductive approach. Participants were from the general population, accessed through community-based health organisations. These consumers were predominantly of New Zealand European ethnicity, female, older, and most were actively engaged in managing their health. FINDINGS: Four themes were identified: issues with current information provision; preferences for content; format; and sources of health information. These themes are described in the paper, using illustrative quotes from consumer participants. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that consumers have varied health information needs. Health professionals cannot assume that consumers all have the same health literacy skills. The ideal is to provide personalised, relevant information in a manner the consumer can understand, within the current time constraints in practice. Health professionals can support consumers in their use of different strategies to ensure their health information needs are expressed and met.

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  • Painting a new picture for practice nurses in a capitated environment: who holds the brush?

    Docherty, B; Sheridan, Nicolette; Kenealy, Timothy (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor gene polymorphisms and Crohn's disease.

    Leung, Yee Fun; Hong, Jiwon; Fraser, Alan; Merriman, Tony; Vishnu, Prakash; Krissansen, Geoffrey (2007-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The Medical Research Council and clinical trial methodologies before the 1940s: the failure to develop a 'scientific' approach

    Bryder, Linda (2011-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • A new infusion syringe label system designed to reduce task complexity during drug preparation

    Merry, Alan; Webster, Craig; Connell, H (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A new safety-orientated drug infusion label was studied and was compared with conventional methods by prospectively collecting incident reports from November 1998 to November 2003. Anaesthetists were asked to return an incident form for every anaesthetic (87% response rate), the vast majority indicating that no error had occurred. One error was reported with the use of the new label. However, this was due to an incorrect patient weight being recorded in the notes, and the dose was correct for the information available. Therefore, this data point was not included in the analysis. Seven errors were reported in the calculation of dosage using conventional infusion labels during 18 491 anaesthetics compared with no calculation errors in 10 655 anaesthetics with the new label (p = 0.045, Chi-squared test). Despite the difficulties of demonstrating significant benefit from safety initiatives in medicine, these data suggest that targeted system redesign can be effective inreducing error.

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  • Quantifying the Effects of Chip Seal Volumetrics on the Occurrence of Pavement Flushing

    Kodippily, Sachi; Henning, Theunis; Ingham, Jason; Holleran, G (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The reported study was undertaken to investigate the micromechanical interactions that occur between sprayed seal (chip seal) layer materials in order to examine their relationship to the initiation of flushing. In particular, the deformation patterns of chip seal pavement samples with respect to lateral cyclic loading as well as the changes that occur to the distribution of air voids within a chip seal layer during loading were investigated. The effect of binder volume and air void volume on the development of flushing of the chip seal samples was also investigated. The reported study was based on laboratory testing of chip seal pavement samples (cores) that were obtained from in-service, flushed pavements in New Zealand. The cores, of 200-mm diameter and thicknesses ranging from 32.4 to 55.5 mm, were subjected to varying levels of lateral cyclic loading using a wheel tracking machine and the deformation that had occurred on the surface of the cores was measured. The cores were then scanned using a computed tomography (CT) scanner to examine changes that had occurred to the air void volume of the cores during the wheel tracking test, and the reductions in air void volume were compared with the quantity of flushing that was displayed on the cores. The cores were tested to determine the binder volumes in order to investigate how flushing development was affected by the ratio of binder volume and air void volume. The results from the analyses demonstrated that a strong correlation existed between flushing and air void volume reduction, where a larger reduction in air void volume directly corresponded to a higher amount of flushing. The deformation pattern of the cores indicated the likely state of stability of the chip seal structure, and the state of stability in turn indicated the best method of maintenance that was required for a flushed surface. The study findings demonstrated that the combination of wheel tracking and CT scanning is an extremely effective analysis method that can be used to determine the state of stability of a chip seal and to select the best maintenance treatment for pavement flushing.

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  • Te Ara Hou—A new pathway for leading Māori success as Māori

    Santamaria, AP; Webber, Melinda; Santamaria, LJ; Dam, Ittichok; Jayavant, Sharona (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article aims to document and evaluate the effectiveness of Te Ara Hou—The Māori Achievement Collaboratives (MACS). MACS is a nationwide grassroots educational leadership professional development project comprising 63 primary and intermediate school principals. These educational leaders meet at hui and wānanga several times a year to collectively engage with recent research and professional development to support their leadership practice toward achieving Māori success as Māori. In this article, MACS’ progress is measured against educational and leadership frameworks including Ka Hikitia and applied critical leadership. Complementary methodological frameworks employed are kaupapa Māori and critical race theory. Outcomes of this evaluation indicate that MACS is a culturally situated, culturally appropriate, and Māori-centric group of Māori and non-Māori principals committed to shifting their own leadership practice and school culture from what is to what can be. Findings suggest movement in the leaders’ practice from responding to students’ culture to making deliberate choices that result in actions and practices that positively impact upon and change school culture. There is evidence of school shifts to reflect a Māori worldview as the norm, rather than the exception, even in mainstream schools where there are relatively low numbers of Māori. MACS shows promise in terms of promoting practice that benefits Māori, all learners, schools, and their communities (e.g., whānau, hapū, iwi). Exemplars and implications are provided.

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  • Trends in ethnic disparities in stroke incidence in Auckland, New Zealand, during 1981 to 2003.

    Carter, Kristie; Anderson, CS; Hackett, Maree; Feigin, Valery; Barber, Peter; Broad, Joanna; Bonita, R (2006)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    • Abstract Background and Purpose - Although geographical variations in stroke rates are well documented, limited data exist on temporal trends in ethnic-specific stroke incidence.Methods - We assessed trends in ethnic-specific stroke rates using standard diagnostic criteria and community-wide surveillance procedures in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) in 1981 to 1982, 1991 to 1992, and 2002 to 2003. Indirect and direct methods were used to adjust first-ever (incident) and total (attack) rates for changes in the structure of the population and reported with 95% CIs. Ethnicity was self-defined and categorized as "NZ/ European," "Maori," " Pacific peoples," and " Asian and other."Results - Stroke attack (19%; 95% CI, 11% to 26%) and incidence rates (19%; 95% CI, 12% to 24%) declined significantly in NZ/Europeans from 1981 to 1982 to 2002 to 2003. These rates remained high or increased in other ethnic groups, particularly for Pacific peoples in whom stroke attack rates increased by 66% (95% CI; 11% to 225%) over the periods. Some favorable downward trends in vascular risk factors, such as cigarette smoking, were counterbalanced by increasing age, body mass index, and diabetes in certain ethnic groups.Conclusions - Divergent trends in ethnic-specific stroke incidence and attack rates, and of associated risk factors, have occurred in Auckland over recent decades. The findings provide mixed views as to the future burden of stroke in populations undergoing similar lifestyle and structural changes.

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  • A comparison of solution strategies for biobjective shortest path problems

    Raith, Andrea; Ehrgott, Matthias (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We consider the biobjective shortest path (BSP) problem as the natural extension of the single-objective shortest path problem. BSP problems arise in various applications where networks usually consist of large numbers of nodes and arcs. Since obtaining the set of efficient solutions to a BSP problem is more difficult (i.e. NP-hard and intractable) than solving the corresponding single-objective problem there is a need for fast solution techniques. Our aim is to compare different strategies for solving the BSP problem. We consider a standard label correcting and label setting method, a purely enumerative near shortest path approach, and the two phase method, investigating different approaches to solving problems arising in phases 1 and 2. In particular, we investigate the two phase method with ranking in phase 2. In order to compare the different approaches, we investigate their performance on three different types of networks. We employ grid networks and random networks, as is generally done in the literature. Furthermore, road networks are utilized to compare performance on networks with a structure that is more likely to actually arise in applications.

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  • The Impacts of Bullying on Observers and Targets

    Cooper Thomas, Helena; Bentley, TA; Catley, BE; Gardner, DH; O'Driscoll, M; Trenberth, L (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Workplace bullying is known to be a psychosocial stressor for targets. Meanwhile, the effects of bullying on observers have received scant attention. This study investigated whether greater exposure to bullying, through observation as well as direct experience, was associated with a poorer work environment, and poorer individual wellbeing and work attitudes. Data were collected from 1733 employees, with 586 of these identified as suitable for further analyses. From the total, 13% (225) had neither experienced nor ever observed bullying, 3% (53) were categorized as observers, 13% (228) were identified as targets, and 5% (80) as both observers and targets. Planned statistical data contrasts across the four groups showed that non-bullied employees had the most positive perceptions of the work environment followed by observers, then targets, and finally those who had been both observers and targets. Broadly similar results were found for individual wellbeing and work attitudes. These results support the negative impact of observing bullying, with greatest impact for those who are both observers and targets.

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  • Juxtaposing Beliefs and Reality: Prevalence Rates of Intimate Partner Violence and Attitudes to Violence and Gender Roles Reported by New Zealand Women

    Fanslow, Janet; Robinson, Elizabeth; Crengle, S; Perese, L (2010-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study documents the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) for four ethnic groups and explores ethnic-specific differences and similarities in women's attitudes. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 2,674 ever-partnered women aged 18 to 64 years. High rates of IPV among all ethnic groups reinforce the need to retain and expand current prevention and intervention efforts. Violence was not regarded as normative for any ethnic group. All women, but Pacific and Asian women in particular, would benefit from interventions that reinforce women's acceptance of seeking and utilizing outside intervention in cases of partner maltreatment.

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  • The effects of the general anaesthetic isoflurane on the honey bee (Apis mellifera) circadian clock

    Ludin, Nicola; Cheeseman, James; Merry, Alan; Millar, Craig; Warman, Guy (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    General anaesthesia administered during the day has previously been shown to phase shift the honey bee clock. We describe a phase response curve for honey bees (n=105) to six hour isoflurane anaesthesia. The honey bee isoflurane PRC is "weak" with a delay portion (maximum shift of -1.88 hours, circadian time 0 - 3) but no advance zone. The isoflurane-induced shifts observed here are in direct opposition to those of light. Furthermore, concurrent administration of light and isoflurane abolishes the shifts that occur with isoflurane alone. Light may thus provide a means of reducing isoflurane-induced phase shifts.

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  • Intravenous thrombolysis is unsafe in stroke due to infective endocarditis

    Brownlee, WJ; Anderson, NE; Barber, Peter (2014-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Embolic stroke is the most common neurological complication of infective endocarditis and a major source of morbidity and mortality. Septic embolism is considered a contraindication to intravenous thrombolysis in patients with ischaemic stroke because of concerns over an increased risk of intracranial haemorrhage. We describe a patient with occult endocarditis who was treated with thrombolysis for acute stroke and review other cases reported in the literature.

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  • Te Matapunenga: A compendium of references to the concepts and institutions of Maori customary law

    Erueti, Andrew (2016-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Structure and Inhibition of the Human Cell Cycle Checkpoint Kinase, Wee1A Kinase: An AtypicalTyrosine Kinase with a Key Role in CDK1 Regulation

    Squire, Christopher; Dickson, James; Ivanovic, Ivan; Baker, Edward (2005-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Phosphorylation is critical to regulation of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Entry to mitosis is triggered by the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1 (Cdc2), which is inactivated during the preceding S and G2 phases by phosphorylation of T14 and Y15. Two homologous kinases, Wee1, which phosphorylates Y15, and Myt1, which phosphorylates both T14 and Y15, mediate this inactivation. We have determined the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human somatic Wee1 (Wee1A) complexed with an active-site inhibitor at 1.8 Å resolution. Although Wee1A is functionally a tyrosine kinase, in sequence and structure it most closely resembles serine/threonine kinases such as Chk1 and cAMP kinases. The crystal structure shows that although the catalytic site closely resembles that of other protein kinases, the activation segment contains Wee1-specific features that maintain it in an active conformation and, together with a key substitution in its glycine-rich loop, help determine its substrate specificity.

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  • Numerical simulation of flow past a curved cylinder in uniform and logarithmic flow

    Xu, T; Cater, John (2017)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This research presents a computational fluid dynamics study for simulating a curved cylinder in ocean currents. A rigid curved cylindrical geometry with two bending directions was modelled in uniform and logarithmic flow profiles at a maximum Reynolds number of 1.5 × 105; the Realizable k–epsilon formulation is used as the turbulence closure model. An analysis of force coefficients and vortex structure are presented. The results show that a curved cylindrical structure will have different hydrodynamic behaviour depending on the oncoming flow direction. Bending the cylinder in a direction which is opposite to the predominant flow direction is recommended, as the maximum forcing amplitude is reduced in this case.

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  • Recognising English accents in the community: Omani students’ accent preferences and perceptions of nativeness

    Buckingham, Louisa (2015)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Previous research has revealed that although EFL students may claim to prefer British/US accents they often have difficulty identifying them, especially when such accents may differ from ‘standard’ accents presented in ELT materials. In the Gulf, English is widely used as a lingua franca or as a second language by the large expatriate workforce. Particular accents in English characteristic for L1 speakers of Arabic or South Asian languages are commonly heard in the education and service sectors. This study investigates whether Omani university students are able to distinguish between native English speaker (NES) and non-native English speaker NNES EFL teachers' accents commonly heard in their educational context and their evaluations of these accents as pedagogical models. Specifically, the study seeks to ascertain whether a relationship exists between students' assumptions regarding the NES status of an EFL teacher and their evaluations of the teacher's accent as a suitable model for pronunciation. Results show that, in most cases, a moderate to strong correlation exists between these two variables, particularly among students who claim that having a NES teacher is desirable for the purpose of improving pronunciation.

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  • How do speech language therapists in New Zealand perceive the psychological impact of communication difficulties?

    Gibson, R; Purdy, Suzanne (2014-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A growing body of research demonstrates the links between communication impairment and psychological difficulties including depression, anxiety, other affective disorders, anger, and aggression. Research has demonstrated high levels of psychological disorders in conditions such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, autism, and specific language impairment, and communication impairment among individuals with psychiatric conditions. There are also demonstrated links between communication impairments and psychosocial functioning. However, there has been less research into how speech language therapists (SLTs) perceive the psychological and psychosocial difficulties of patients with communication disorders, and how they address these difficulties within the course of SLT interventions. This survey-based research study investigated the perceptions of SLTs working in New Zealand as to the impact of psychological and psychosocial difficulties on their clients, and whether this varied depending on the SLTs’ training, their experience and their access to psychology within their team. Respondents commented on the impact of psychological and psychosocial difficulties on their clients and family/whanau, and on their perceptions of what could benefit SLTs in addressing these difficulties within the context of SLT scope of practice. Of the respondents 29.3% reported that roughly 50% or more of their clients had significant psychological difficulties, and 51.2% reported that roughly 50% or more of their clients had significant psychosocial difficulties. No correlation was found between the years of experience of SLTs, or their access to psychology for their clients, and their perceptions of the psychological and psychosocial needs of their clients. Overall 76.5% of respondents reported that they did not feel prepared by their initial SLT training to address the psychological needs of their clients, and 77.5% reported that they felt SLTs needed more training to be able to adequately manage these needs within the context of SLT sessions.

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  • A avaliação sob o ponto de vista dos estudantes: o uso de desenhos para a análise de concepções de avaliação [Assessment from the students’ point of view: the use of drawings to analyze conceptions of assessment]

    Landim, MV; Matos, DAS; Brown, Gavin (2015)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The objective of this study was to analyze university students' conceptions of assessment, by analysis of their drawings of assessment. The international literature suggests that students have, at least, four conceptions of assessment: 1) improvement; 2) positive emotional impact; 3) irrelevance; and 4) accountability. Students of 16 undergraduate courses (N = 102; 47 men and 55 women; age M = 28.9 years; 50=7.99) from one Bra zilian public university (N= 26) and one private university (N= 76) participated in the study. Image content analysis resulted in classification of the drawings into nine categories: negative emotions, monitored, competitive, formative character, positive emotions, marks, inaccuracy, burden, and assessment definition. Cohen's kappa coefficient of consistency between two independent raters was excellent in all categories. Most students made relatively simple drawings, with one or two prevailing categories, revealing poor mental representations about assessment. The most frequent categories were negative emotions (47) and Inaccuracy {28), which indicate a conception of assessment predominantly as an imprecise practice that generates negative emotions. The third and fourth most frequent categories were: positive emotions (13) and formative character (12). Thus, secondarily, students conceived assessment more positively, related to the formative function to improved learning. A more frequent use of drawings in the educational area is recommended, both for researchers and teachers and school leaders who wish to know their students better.

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