228 results for Report, Lincoln University Research Archive

  • Evolving community perceptions of tourism in Westland

    Moran, D.; Simmons, D.; Fairweather, J.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The main objective of this report is to examine the impacts of tourism on Westland communities and Westland residents' attitudes towards tourism. The particular objectives are: to provide an historical account of the history and development of tourism in the Westland District; to provide an account of community issues, such as local involvement in planning and the provision of infrastructure, that affect local attitudes towards tourism development in the District; to outline the perceptions held by residents towards tourism in Westland and to show how these perceptions have evolved over time; to describe how the Westland community has coped with the various types of tourism development that have occurred in the area; to identify which factors influence residents' perceptions of tourism and the ways in which they have adapted to tourism; to test and refine existing theoretical models of tourism development in the context of tourism in Westland.

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  • Enhancing financial and economic yield in tourism: business interviews report

    Wason, K.; Sleeman, R.; Moriarty, J.; Simmons, D.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This report is part of the Research Programme ‘Enhancing Financial and Economic Yield in Tourism’. The Research Programme is a collaborative venture with funding from the Ministry of Tourism and the Tourism Industry Association of New Zealand (TIANZ), with the research being undertaken by The Tourism Recreation Research and Education Centre (TRREC) at Lincoln University. The Report presents the findings of in-depth interviews with small and medium tourism businesses carried out in Rotorua and Christchurch during mid 2006. For the purposes of this project, businesses with up to 50 staff were targeted. The objectives of this project were: 1. To better understand the business practices of small and medium tourism enterprises (SMTEs) in New Zealand, 2. To explore whether linkages can be made between business practices and financial yield, 3. To identify the business support needs and wants of SMTEs. The findings from this research now need to be integrated with all other private sector projects in this research programme, and considered alongside other recent business, government and academic literature, to ensure the scope of business practices is sufficiently focused, and to take account of any new knowledge from recent research. Industry and stakeholder input into the tool development process is paramount. These processes will determine and prioritise the business areas where business support tools are developed. Importantly, decisions that will be made post this research programme about who develops the tools, who implements and manages their delivery, how the tools will be monitored and reviewed to ensure effectiveness in the long term also need to be considered in the next phase.

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  • Deer carcass breakdown monitoring

    Ross, J. G.; McCoskery, H.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This research project monitored 1080 residue breakdown in muscle, skin, bone and stomach samples for two sika deer (Cervus nippon) carcasses during the period October 2010 to May 2011. These deer were located immediately following a possum control operation undertaken on the 23/10/2010 using aerially-delivered 1080 bait.

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  • Becoming the audited : response of New Zealand sheep/beef farmers to the introduction of supermarket initiated audit schemes

    Rosin, C.; Hunt, L.; Campbell, H.; Fairweather, J.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The primary objective of the ARGOS project is the transdisciplinary examination of the condition of sustainable agriculture in New Zealand (including environmental, economic and social aspects). In pursuit of this objective to date, considerable effort has been dedicated to assessing the comparative sustainability or resilience of designated management panels in three branches of the New Zealand agricultural sector (dairy, kiwifruit and sheep/beef). For this purpose, farms of comparable size and similar location were assigned panel membership as determined by an individual farmer’s compliance (or lack thereof) with existing market audit schemes which – to varying degrees – regulate farm management practice. By sector, the panels are comprised of conventional and organic methods of dairy farming, integrated pest management (Hayward, green, and Hort 16a, gold) and organic (Hayward) methods of kiwifruit production, and conventional, integrated and organic methods of sheep and beef farming. Due to the distinct nature of practices associated with each panel, differences in the assessed ecological, economic and social features of the participating farms and farm households offer the potential to distinguish the relative sustainability of systems based on these practices.

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  • There are audits, and there are audits : response of New Zealand kiwifruit orchardists to the implementation of supermarket initiated audit schemes

    Rosin, C.; Hunt, L.; Campbell, H.; Fairweather, J.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    New Zealand’s kiwifruit industry is strongly focused on its commitments to producing a high quality product that meets the increasing demands of its main export markets. This report examines the recent introduction of two programmes designed to meet this goal – a retailer driven audit scheme (EurepGAP) and a fruit quality incentive plan (Taste ZESPRI) – from the perspective of the ARGOS research framework that seeks to assess and enhance the social, economic and environmental sustainability of the sector. The report draws insight from the response of the 36 orcharding households (with equal representation of Hayward, organic Hayward, and Hort 16A management systems) participating in the ARGOS project. Each of the households was involved in a semi-structured, qualitative interview designed to elicit their understandings of and response to constraints on orcharding practice. This report focuses specifically on those constraints associated with participation in the kiwifruit industry, of which EurepGAP and Taste Zespri were most frequently identified. Comparison of the orchardists’ responses to each programme provides insight to the use of such tools in order to promote both fruit qualities as well as socially and environmentally responsible orchard management.

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  • Employment trends in dairy farming in New Zealand, 1991 - 2006

    Wilson, J.; Tipples, R.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    Today agriculture overall is New Zealand’s largest export earner. In the year to June 2007 dairy exports alone were 25% of total merchandise export value. These were produced by 3.8 million cows in 11,883 herds (Livestock Improvement, 2006). Dairy export value in 2007 was $NZ 8.41 billion, which is projected to increase to $NZ 11.68 billion in 2011 as a result of higher volumes and prices (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, 2007a). Most milk is consumed in the country of production. Only 5 percent of New Zealand milk is consumed in New Zealand, with the remainder exported as various milk products. Some 97 percent of New Zealand milk is processed by Fonterra, the farmers’ dairy cooperative company. Fonterra is also New Zealand’s largest company employing some 17,400 staff worldwide and it is the sixth largest international dairy company. However, it only handles some 3 percent of world dairy production, which is sourced from New Zealand (Fonterra, 2007). The prospects for dairy production are good at present as world prices are at all time high levels. The European Union has been able to export dairy products without the need for export subsidies for the very first time since its creation fifty years ago. However, future prospects, while looking good, are still quite uncertain if the production potential of a number of large countries (e.g. China, USA, Russia and those of Eastern Europe) is focused on milk production (Woodford, 2007). Sustaining New Zealand milk production and productivity therefore has vital importance for the overall state of the economy.

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  • The human face of once-a-day milking

    Tipples, R.; Verwoerd, N.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This report concerns exactly what the title The Human Face of Once-a-Day Milking suggests: the impact of Once-a-day milking on farmers, their families and staff. It is a document about people: their needs, values, and the creative ways in which they try to deal with the fiercely stressful and competitive environment that dairy farming in New Zealand has become. It is about the ways they protect their sanity while still working hard and getting the job done; it is about trying to be successful dairy farmers and good parents and caring children and contributing members of society and salvaging a little bit of “me” time. It is about hopes and dreams and reclaiming the joys and challenges and satisfactions of being a farmer by working hard but refusing to accept drudgery. This report is not a “how-to” manual, nor is it a prescriptive report. There is some reference to farmers’ experience of production and income, but this is qualitative rather than quantitative - it is simply a record of what farmers who have switched from the traditional system of milking twice a day to milking once a day have experienced.

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  • Emerging tourism planning processes and practices in New Zealand : a local and regional perspective

    Jones, T.; Shone, M.; Memon, P.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The research reported in this study was undertaken in the context of the New Zealand Tourism Strategy 2010 (released in 2001) and the anticipated amendments to the Local Government Act 1974 (amended in December 2002). The key objective of this study was to document existing and emerging tourism policies and practices within the local government sector in New Zealand. Within the core themes of tourism enablement and management, the issues of inter, and intra, organisational relationships were addressed by this research. The findings from this study provide an assessment of current practices and review future options for more integrated regional planning and management of New Zealand tourism.

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  • Tourism, water, wastewater and waste services in small towns

    Cullen, R.; Dakers, A.; Meyer Hubbert, G.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This is a two-part report on research completed during 2003/2004 in Hanmer Springs and Kaikoura. The research was conducted by the Tourism Recreation Research and Education Centre (TRREC) at Lincoln University. Hanmer Springs and Kaikoura are small towns and cater for steadily increasing numbers of tourists each year - now in excess of one million visits per year to Kaikoura. The research, funded by the Ministry of Economic Development and Canterbury Development Corporation, included four seven-day snapshot studies (in July 2003, October 2003 and December/January 2004) of water, wastewater and waste services in the townships. Tourists directly and indirectly use the water, wastewater and solid waste services provided by the District Councils in those townships. The research also examines the funding of the water, wastewater and solid waste systems in the township. A particular focus is tourism demand for these services.Part One of the report studies the rates and charges used at present in each of the townships to fund these services. Part Two of the report provides a Toolkit to aid Territorial Local Authorities (TLAs) in the management of water, wastewater and solid wastes in small townships. The Toolkit developed is the culmination of four intensive seven-day snapshot studies completed in Hanmer Springs and Kaikoura during 2003-2004.

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  • Results from a survey of organic kiwifruit growers: problems and practices that affect production

    Cook, A.; Hunt, L.; Fairweather, J.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This is a report of an investigation of the practices and problems of organic kiwifruit production. These are examined to better understand factors related to productivity with the general aim of improving productivity levels. The investigation is based on the analysis of a survey of organic kiwifruit growers. The research utilised data that was gathered by survey using a self-completed questionnaire. Relevant data was also sourced from a comprehensive database maintained by Zespri. The survey gained 80 respondents from a possible 220 growers. The questionnaire contained a range of questions investigating the topic areas of crop protection, orchard management, advice and decision-making and strategies for the future. The data was subjected to statistical analysis to explore relationships between items and measures of productivity. The research has given direction to areas of further work so as to generate cogent findings and has identified factors involved in organic kiwifruit production that either positively or negatively impact upon production.

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  • Final report: Review of New Zealand Specific FracGASM and FracGASF Emissions Factors

    Sherlock, R.; Jewell, P.; Clough, T.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    FracGASM and FracGASF are important factors within national nitrous oxide (N₂O) emissions inventories. These factors represent the proportions of manure-N and fertiliser-N respectively that are released into the atmosphere, principally as ammonia, NH₃, to become indirect sources of N₂O when re-deposited on land surfaces elsewhere. Currently the NZ N₂O inventory uses the IPCC defaults of 0.2 and 0.1 for FracGASM and FracGASF respectively. The use of 0.2 for FracGASM in New Zealand’s N₂O inventory recently came under the scrutiny of the ‘Expert Review Team’ (ERT) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) secretariat. Amongst other things, the ERT encouraged NZ to: “investigate a country-specific FracGASM or document why the IPCC default value is considered appropriate for New Zealand conditions”. This current review forms part of that investigation. In this review we have attempted to locate and scrutinise all (mostly field-based) studies of relevance to the magnitudes of FracGASM and FracGASF as used in NZ’s current N₂O inventory. Following a brief introduction (section 1) sections 2 and 3 focus on the factors influencing the production and emission of NH₃(g) and NOx(g) from soils and also provide an overview of the techniques employed for their measurement. Sections 4 and 5 then focus respectively on international and local (NZ) studies of relevance to FracGASM. In section 6 we review international and NZ data on NH₃(g) emissions from mainly urea and diammonium phosphate fertilisers and then follow that in section 7 with a review of NOx emissions from animal excreta and fertiliser applied to pasture. Section 8 summarises all major findings and recommendations.

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  • The economic value of sport and recreation to the Taranaki region

    Dalziel, P.; O'Neill, P.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    Sport and recreation are highly valued in New Zealand. Individuals and communities invest considerable amounts of time and money in sport and recreation. A number of government agencies invest in sport and recreation and local councils invest billions of dollars in sport and recreation facilities. Community clubs and private businesses complement these public facilities by providing their own goods and services to New Zealanders engaged in sport and recreation. Given this high level of public and private investment, it is important to understand the benefits (minus any costs) resulting from participation in sport and recreation. Consequently, SPARC commissioned Professor Paul Dalziel to prepare a comprehensive framework to value the benefits of sport and recreation for New Zealand as a whole and for thirteen regions. This report presents the results for the Taranaki region. It begins by summarising what is known about participation and volunteering in sport and recreation in the region. The rest of this section explains in more detail the reasons for valuing sport and recreation, how the sport and recreation sector is defined for this work, how the contribution to regional gross domestic product (GDP) is estimated, and the content of the report.

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  • The economic value of sport and recreation to the Waikato region

    Dalziel, P.; O'Neill, P.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    Sport and recreation are highly valued in New Zealand. Individuals and communities invest considerable amounts of time and money in sport and recreation. A number of government agencies invest in sport and recreation and local councils invest billions of dollars in sport and recreation facilities. Community clubs and private businesses complement these public facilities by providing their own goods and services to New Zealanders engaged in sport and recreation. Given this high level of public and private investment, it is important to understand the benefits (minus any costs) resulting from participation in sport and recreation. Consequently, SPARC commissioned Professor Paul Dalziel to prepare a comprehensive framework to value the benefits of sport and recreation for New Zealand as a whole and for thirteen regions. This report presents the results for the Waikato region. It begins by summarising what is known about participation and volunteering in sport and recreation in the region. The rest of this section explains in more detail the reasons for valuing sport and recreation, how the sport and recreation sector is defined for this work, how the contribution to regional gross domestic product (GDP) is estimated, and the content of the report.

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  • Wairarapa Water Use Project: Preliminary Social Impact Assessment

    Taylor, N.; McClintock, W.; Mackay, M. D.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The Wairarapa Water Use Project is an initiative of the Greater Wellington Regional Council to establish a multi-purpose water scheme or schemes based on harvesting, storage and distribution of water in the Ruamahanga Valley. At this early feasibility stage the project is considering five possible water storage options from an initial list of 14. Likely outcomes of the project include an increase in the area of irrigable land, greater security in the supply of irrigation water and subsequent intensification of land uses. The project has the potential to increase irrigation in the Wairarapa by 10-30,000 hectares from 12,000 hectares at present. This social impact assessment is a preliminary assessment as part of the pre-feasibility phase of the Project. It is at a broad level and not specific to a particular scheme or schemes. The analysis considers the current social context (without scheme) and the likely effects of the proposed additional irrigation at a broad level in a desk-based study. The assessment area comprised the three combined districts of South Wairarapa, Carterton and Masterton -the Combined Districts. Separate recreation and economic assessments were conducted.

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  • The eradication of mammalian predators from Quail Island, Banks Peninsula, Canterbury, New Zealand

    Kavermann, M.; Bowie, M.; Paterson, A.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    In the period from January 2000 to January 2003 an attempt was made to eradicate mammalian pests (rodents, mustelids and hedgehogs) from Quail Island (Otamahua) to allow re-introductions of native species that were once present. Eradication techniques involved live trapping, kill trapping using Fenn traps and night searches that removed a total of 353 individuals. A ground-based poison operation was also undertaken. During 2 - 9 August 2002, 555 bait stations (yellow and black) were placed at 40m intervals covering Quail Island. Stations were baited with Pestoff 20R rodent bait pellets (0.002% brodifacoum) and, at later stages of the operation, Talon 50 WB briquette (0.005% brodifacoum). An analysis of predominant vegetation surrounding stations was also undertaken. Exotic grassland was the dominant habitat where hedgehogs were trapped and found during night searches. Hedgehogs were caught more readily on or near tracks, which they presumably use to feed and travel around the island. Male rats made up 70% of the rat catch. Bait-take by rodents was highest from black bait stations and from scrubland habitats surrounding bait stations on Quail Island. Eradication could not be confirmed, as a few bait stations were still active but most, if not all damage, appears to be by ground (Hemiandrus sp.) and cave weta (Pleioplectron simplex Hutton). Furthermore, a few hedgehog scats have been found since the poison operation began and no hedgehogs have been observed or trapped for 18 months indicating they have become vary scarce or have been eradicated. This information will be important for future management of Quail Island due to the proximity of the mainland, via mudflats, will need ongoing vigilance to protect against pest reinvasion.

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  • Representation and legitimacy in collaborative freshwater planning: stakeholder perspectives on a Canterbury Zone Committee

    Sinner, J.; Newton, M. J.; Duncan, R.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The long-term success of collaborative approaches to freshwater planning depends on their democratic legitimacy. With collaborative planning being promoted by the New Zealand government and trialled by several regional councils, this study is one of the first in New Zealand to gauge the wider community’s views of the legitimacy of this new approach. This report focuses on the issue of representation—how affected interests are involved in collaborative deliberations—and specifically the perceptions of the legitimacy of the collaborative process by those not directly involved in the deliberations themselves. These people were categorised broadly as people who attended workshops to provide input to the process, those who made formal submissions at a later stage in the process, and the general public. We asked the question, how does an individual’s or group’s level of involvement with a collaborative planning process affect their perceptions of the legitimacy of the process?

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  • Networks of support for Māori mental health: The response and recovery of Tangata Whaiora through the Ōtautahi earthquakes

    Lambert, S. J.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This report presents the experiences of Tangata Whaiora (Mental health clients) through the disastrous earthquakes that struck Otautahi/Christchurch in 2010-11. It further analysis these experience to how show the social networks these individuals, their whānau, supporting staff respond and recover to a significant urban disaster. The disaster challenged the mental health of those individuals who are impacted and the operations of organisations and networks that support and care for the mentally ill. How individuals and their families navigate a post-disaster landscape provides an unfortunate but unique opportunity to analyse how these support networks respond to severe disruption. Tangata Whaiora possess experiences of micro-scale personal and family disasters and were not necessarily shocked by the loss of normality in Ōtautahi as a result of the earthquakes. The organic provision of clear leadership, outstanding commitment by staff, and ongoing personal and institutional dedication in the very trying circumstances of working in a post-disaster landscape all contributed to Te Awa o te Ora’s notable response to the disaster.

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  • The carbon footprint of domestic tourism

    Becken,, S.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This report provides an analysis of domestic tourism in New Zealand, its carbon footprint and the potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions. The analysis is based on the DTS (Domestic Tourism Study) data provided by the Ministry of Tourism. The footprinting exercise will focus on transport and accommodation behaviour, as these two components are associated with the highest carbon dioxide emissions. A high-level comparison will be provided between the carbon footprint of domestic tourism and the on-shore carbon dioxide emissions produced by international tourists. This is considered useful as currently much of the attention is on international tourism (partially because it involves the earning of foreign exchange) and most of the strategies (e.g. the Framework developed by the Ministry of Tourism) that deal with climate change and tourism focus on New Zealand’s 100% Pure image and ways for maintaining its integrity amongst international visitors.

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  • Effects of ivermectin in dairy discharges on terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates

    Tremblay, L. A.; Wratten, S. D.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    Ivermectin (22,23-dihydroavermectin B₁) is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug that was introduced for the control of parasitic worms and lice in sheep and cattle. This review summarises what is known about the impact of ivermectin in pastures and catchments and also on freshwater systems. Differing results have been obtained for the effects on decomposition of dung from ivermectin-treated cattle, although other experiments have shown adverse effects on growth of earthworms. There were likely to be risks to sediment-dwelling invertebrates where farmed salmon had been treated with ivermectin to control sea lice. In laboratory tests, freshwater fish appeared to have low sensitivity to ivermectin. In view of the lack of published information about environmental effects of use of avermectins and about endocrine-disrupting chemicals in detergents used in dairy operations, it is recommended that monitoring of dairy discharges for residues of such chemicals should be undertaken.

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  • Analysis of kiwifruit orchard financial performance, including covariates

    Kaye Blake, W.; Campbell, R.; Greer, G.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The ARGOS project has collected financial data from panels of kiwifruit orchards over several years. The Economics team of the project has conducted analysis of the data to investigate differences amongst the orchards arising from their management systems. The results suggested that organic and conventional orchards had differences in some revenue and expense categories, but these differences netted out when the financial aggregates were calculated. As a result, bottom-line numbers like Effective Orchard Surplus were statistically similar for organic and conventional orchards (Greer et al, 2008 and Saunders et al, 2009). Following inter-disciplinary discussion of these results and consultation with end-users, the authors undertook the analysis reported here. The focus was on three issues: (1) How robust was the overall finding to different model specifications? (2)What factors were affecting financial aggregates, if management system was not? (3) How confident could stakeholders be in the results, given the design of the project? The present research built on the earlier work by incorporating a number of factors identified by the ARGOS team that could affect financial performance. These factors were then included in statistical analyses to determine their contribution to financial performance. The analysis thereby produced answers to the three questions above.

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