77 results for Report, Modify

  • The Agriculture Research Group on Sustainability Programme: The Design of A Longitudinal and Transdisciplinary Study of Agricultural Sustainability in New Zealand

    Campbell, Hugh; Fairweather, John; Manhire, Jon; Saunders, Caroline; Moller, Henrik; Reid, John; Benge, Jayson; Blackwell, Grant; Carey, Peter; Emanuelsson, Martin; Greer, Glen; Hunt, Lesley; Lucock, Dave; Rosin, Chris; Norton, David; McLeod, Catriona; Knight, Benjamin (2012)

    Report
    University of Otago

    This report provides an overview of the key design features of the Agriculture Research Group on Sustainability (ARGOS) programme. This ongoing long-term research project started in 2003, involving a group of around 20 social scientists, ecologists, economists, and farm management experts in New Zealand. The overarching mission of ARGOS is to understand the enablers and barriers to the sustainability and resilience of agriculture, so as to enhance New Zealand’s economic, social and environmental wellbeing. To achieve this mission, the ARGOS team has designed and implemented a well-replicated and long-term programme of longitudinal research on more than 100 whole working farms, across different agricultural sectors, comparing a wide range of variables between three different farming systems: conventional, integrated management (IM) and organic. The first funded phase of this research programme has taken a systems and transdisciplinary approach, with an emphasis on statistical rigour and standardisation of methods, structured around the basic null hypothesis that there are no differences between the three farming systems. The primary focus of this approach is to examine the efficacy of alternative quality assurance (QA) schemes in delivering sustainable outcomes. This working paper seeks to inform potential collaborators and other interested parties about the way the ARGOS research programme has been structured, and to describe the rationale for this design. To this end, the report first documents the formation of the ARGOS group and the development of the aims and basic features of the design of the first funded phase of the research programme. The process of selection of agricultural sectors and individual farms within those sectors is described, along with the rationale behind this selection process. We then describe the key objectives of the research programme, and the way these were approached by research teams from different disciplines. The importance of transdisciplinarity is then discussed, providing insight into the associated benefits and pitfalls, and the lessons that were learned in the process of designing and implementing a transdisciplinary research programme. Finally, we discuss a number of issues surrounding the key features of our study design, evaluating their respective benefits and costs, and describe the future research directions suggested by the findings of the first phase of the programme.

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  • New Zealand farmer and orchardist attitude and opinion survey 2008 : characteristics of organic, modified conventional (integrated) and organic management, and of the sheep/beef, horticulture and dairy sectors

    Fairweather, John; Hunt, Lesley; Benge, Jayson; Campbell, Hugh; Greer, Glen; Lucock, Dave; Manhire, John; Meadows, Sarah; Moller, Henrik; Saunders, Caroline; Fukuda, Yuki (2008)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The core of the ARGOS research design is a longitudinal panel study of New Zealand farms (including orchards in the case of the kiwifruit sector). Panels of 12 farms were selected to represent conventional, integrated and organic management for the sheep/beef sector, Kiwigreen, gold and organic green management for the kiwifruit sector, and conventional and organic management for the dairy sector. The research involves gathering data on these farms in order to assess the nature and effects of production from these different management systems from environmental, economic and social points of view. A survey in 2005 provided the means to examine general farmer attitudes and practices and to assess what differences may occur in the different sectors and for farms under different management systems. It also provided the means to show that the panels were reasonably representative of the sectors to which they belong. The ARGOS research design included a second survey in 2008 in order to test and elaborate on emerging research results. This report is the first presentation of the 2008 results.The questions asked of farmers were sourced from contributions from the team of ARGOS researchers drawing on results and issues in the literature, and from contemporary farming issues. These sources provided too many questions for one questionnaire. Accordingly, two questionnaires were used, one sent to a simple random sample of all New Zealand farmers and the other sent to separate random samples of each of the main farming sectors, namely sheep/beef, dairy and horticulture. The two surveys generated a large data set. In order to make the results easier to comprehend we have presented them in two separate outputs, as follows: 1. Analysis of the three main sectors (sheep/beef, dairy and horticulture) and the three main management systems (conventional, integrated and organic) (this report). 2. Analysis of agriculture generally (see companion report).

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  • Social objective synthesis report: differentiation among participants farmers/orchardists in the ARGOS research programme

    Rosin, Chris; Hunt, Lesley; Fairweather, John; Campbell, Hugh (2007)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The main objectives of this report are to assess the extent to which it is possible to differentiate among the management system panels of ARGOS farms/orchards and to assess how such difference is manifest in the social dimensions of farm life. The report is framed by a brief outline of the social dynamics of agricultural sustainability and the emerging significance of market audit systems as a key structuring feature of contemporary attempts to achieve more sustainable production systems. The findings are presented separately for the kiwifruit and sheep/beef sector. The report concludes with recommendations for transdisciplinary engagement among the ARGOS objectives. Overall the current set of ARGOS social data for the kiwifruit sector suggests that, while there is great similarity among the panels, the Organic panel demonstrates the greatest number of distinctive characteristics. The assessment of difference among kiwifruit panels reflects survey results (six variables with statistically significant differences between the Organic and the other panels), qualitative data (more obviously distinctive characteristics attributed to the Organic panel) and causal map analysis (Organic orchardists listed a greater number of factors). The other surveyed data and the sketch maps do not show many panel differences. These kiwifruit results provided evidence of a number of key themes for which there was evidence of panel differences, including: breadth of view, good farming, environmental positioning, feedbacks, orchard management approaches, scope of control, and on- and off-farm relationships. While we have found that it is the Organic panel which is most distinctive, we also note that on some variables the Gold orchardists were closer to the Organic panel than the Kiwigreen panel (more double arrows and total connections in causal maps; a greater readiness to assume risk in the interviews). The sheep/beef results show that, once the many similarities among sheep/beef farmers are taken into account, the Organic panel again demonstrated several distinctive characteristics compared to the Conventional and Integrated panels. This assessment similarly reflects survey results (14 variables with statistically significant differences between the Organic and the other panels), qualitative data (distinctive response of Organic panel to several topics of enquiry) and causal map analysis (Organic farmers had a greater number of important factors). In addition, both the sketch map and the causal map data indicated that location explained some of the variation among farmers. The sheep/beef results provided evidence of a number of key themes for which there was evidence of panel differences, including: breadth of view, good farming, environmental positioning, feedbacks, on- and off-farm relationships, production system management and responses to innovation and risk. While we have found that it is the Organic panel which is most distinctive, we also note that on some variables the Integrated farmers were more similar to the Organic than the Conventional ones. Finally, the report interprets the findings in terms of their potential to differentiate the panels on the basis of social dimensions. While the literature shows at least 15 potential bases for social differentiation between panels, our results support 12 of these. Of these there is six (community; grower networks; craft orientation; sense of place; grower stress and wellbeing; identity) for which there evidence for subtle to moderate differentiation while the remaining six (commercial and economic orientation; learning and expertise; symbolic ‘look’ of the farmscape; indicators of on-farm processes; positioning towards nature/environment; farm management approaches) provide a stronger base for differentiation among panels. In its conclusion, the report identifies key indicated themes that have potential for transdisciplinary discussion, including: audit and market access, resilience, and intensification.

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  • Recent Developments in Organic Food Production in New Zealand: Part 4: The Expansion of Organic Food Production in Nelson and Golden Bay

    Coombs, Brad; Campbell, Hugh (1998)

    Report
    University of Otago

    This report presents the fourth and final case study in a program of research on the changes within organic production in key regional areas of New Zealand. The four reports are the results of a body of research funded by the Public Good Science Fund and titled ‘Optimum Development of Certified Organic Horticulture in New Zealand’. Specifically, the present report examines the evolution of organic production in the Nelson/Golden Bay1 area of the South Island. During the early 1980s, inhabitants of that area were some of the first in New Zealand to become involved in sales of organic produce, with an even longer history of non-commercial, self-sufficiency oriented organic production. In this historical respect, the area stands in contrast to some of the other regions examined in the current series of reports. Of the other three, it is most similar to the situation in Canterbury (Campbell 1996), where organics also started in the domestic and informal sectors of the economy. However, while the domestic component of organics has grown in Canterbury, it has also become secondary in terms of both volume and value to the organic goods exported from that region. It is the lack of a sizeable export organic industry in Nelson which has drawn the attention of the current authors. Organic wine/grapes (Vitus vinifera), hops (Humulus lupulus), kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa), nashi (Pyrus pyrifolia) and bee products are exported from the Nelson region but their volume is relatively small when placed alongside the volume of exports in other organic producing areas with a similar number of producers. The relative absence of organic exporting means that the structure of the organic industry in Nelson is radically different from that in the export oriented Bay of Plenty (Campbell et al. 1997) and Gisborne District (Coombes et al. 1998). In the latter case, there is almost no sign of a domestic industry, this highlighting the differing extremes of regionalisation in New Zealand’s organic industry. While these comparisons are interesting, and while they will be made at various points throughout this report, extensive comparisons have been set aside for a future publication devoted singularly to that task.

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  • Information Package for Users of the New Zealand Estimated Food Costs 2016

    Dept. of Human Nutrition, University of Otago (2016-05)

    Report
    University of Otago

    Since the 1970s, the Department of Human Nutrition (previously Home Science Extension with the School of Home Science) at the University of Otago has conducted an annual Food Cost Survey. The Food Cost Survey is based on a basket of food designed to meet dietary needs of adult males and females (19 years and over), adolescents (11 to 18 years), school aged children (10 and 5 years) and preschool children and infants (4 and 1 years). In recent years food costs have been reported for five cities in New Zealand including Dunedin, Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch and Hamilton. However, from this year forward, Hamilton will no longer be included in the survey. Most healthy families or individuals will meet their nutritional needs when spending the amount of money specified as the basic costs. However, spending less than this amount increases the risk of not getting all the necessary nutrients. Many people will not lack energy or nutrients when spending less than this amount on food if they make careful management choices. However, the chances of consuming an inadequate diet increase as the amount spent to purchase food falls below the basic costs. Survey methods were revised prior to collecting 2014 data, so 2014-2016 food costs are not directly comparable to previous years. In 2016 estimated weekly food costs for an adult male basic diet were: Auckland $64, Wellington $64, Christchurch $63, and Dunedin $65.

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  • The Internet in New Zealand 2013

    Gibson, A; Miller, M; Smith, P; Bell, A; Crothers, C (2013-12-16)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    Executive Summary The fourth survey of the World Internet Project New Zealand (WIPNZ) was conducted between late July and early September 2013. For the first time, the sample in 2013 used both telephone and internet surveys. This report presents an analysis of the usage of and attitudes to the internet of the resulting sample of 2006 New Zealanders. As internet use approaches saturation in New Zealand, our focus turns from ‘how many people use the internet?’ to ‘how do people use the internet?’ and ‘why do some not use the internet at all?’ To answer these questions, the sample has been divided into five categories: never-users (5% of sample), ex-users (3%), low level users (14%), first generation users (40%) and next generation users (38%). Usage For a large number of people the internet is used daily. Four out of five spend an hour or more online at home every day. Almost everyone under 40 is online, so that only 1% of our under-40 sample are non-users. Accessing the internet ‘on the go’ is prevalent. Seven out of ten users access the internet from a hand-held mobile device such as a smartphone or an iPad. Almost half of the internet users surveyed (48%) said that they had accessed the internet through a tablet, while an even higher proportion (68%) connected through their mobile phone in the past year. Activities Most internet users say they surf or browse the web (96%) or visit social networking sites (81%). 34% of internet users report that they use the cloud, 41% purchase apps and almost two thirds (65%) download free apps. Most users check their email daily (89%). Just over 60% of men aged 30–44 said they have looked at sites with sexual content. Māori and Pasifika internet users, especially those in lower income households, take the lead in subscriptions to music streaming services like Spotify. More than one in five Māori (21%) and Pasifika (23%) users in households with annual incomes of less than $50,000 have paid for a subscription to a music streaming service in the past year. The internet is used as a tool for consumer decision making, with 94% of users looking for information about products online – more than half of users do this at least weekly. For 85% of users, this kind of online research includes comparing prices. Almost half of our users (47%) have logged in to secure areas on Government or Council websites, and 51% have paid taxes, fines or licences online in the past year. Comparing the importance of media Comparing the importance of various forms of media as information sources, 81% of all our respondents rated the internet (including online media such as streamed radio) as important or very important. This was very much higher than the proportion who rated offline media as important: television (47%), radio (37%) and newspapers (37%). One of the most dramatic differences according to age group is the importance of the internet as a source of entertainment and leisure. While watching (offline) television is an important leisure activity for people across all ages, using the internet as a form of entertainment is a young-person phenomenon: 80% of respondents aged 16–29 rate it as important or very important. This 2013 survey has a different sample structure than previous years in order to include New Zealanders without a landline. The questionnaire has also undergone substantial updating to keep pace with changing digital technologies. For these reasons, the present report focuses solely on the findings for 2013, and longitudinal analyses will be presented in a subsequent report next year.

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  • Wijsman hyperspaces: subspaces and embeddings

    Cao, J; Junnila, H; Moors, W (2012-03-29)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    In this paper, topological properties of Wijsman hyperspaces are investigated. We study the existence of isolated points in Wijsman hyperspaces. We show that every Tychonoff space can be embedded as a closed subspace in the Wijsman hyperspace of a complete metric space which is locally R.

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  • The distribution of Mixing Times in Markov Chains

    Hunter, JJ (2012-01-20)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    The distribution of the “mixing time” or the “time to stationarity” in a discrete time irreducible Markov chain, starting in state i, can be defined as the number of trials to reach a state sampled from the stationary distribution of the Markov chain. Expressions for the probability generating function, and hence the probability distribution of the mixing time starting in state i are derived and special cases explored. This extends the results of the author regarding the expected time to mixing [J.J. Hunter, Mixing times with applications to perturbed Markov chains, Linear Algebra Appl. 417 (2006) 108–123], and the variance of the times to mixing, [J.J. Hunter, Variances of first passage times in a Markov chain with applications to mixing times, Linear Algebra Appl. 429 (2008) 1135–1162]. Some new results for the distribution of recurrence and first passage times in three-state Markov chain are also presented.

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  • Social Objective Synthesis Report 2: Social Differentiation and Choice of Management System among ARGOS Farmers/Orchardists

    Rosin, Chris; Hunt, Lesley; Fairweather, John; Campbell, Hugh (2009)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The ARGOS (Agriculture Research Group on Sustainability) project was designed to enable the interrogation of the condition of sustainability in the New Zealand agriculture sector. To account for the country’s reliance on a neoliberal (or market driven) policy orientation, the research programme compares groups of producers organised into panels whose members comply with similar audit schemes that regulate entrance into high value export markets. Because these audit schemes often include criteria or standards associated with improved environmental or social practice, comparison of the panels on the basis of economic, environmental and social measures and indicators provides insight to the potential for such schemes to promote a more sustainable agriculture sector in New Zealand. To the extent that such schemes do influence practice, we would expect to differentiate among the panels in reference to such criteria. As part of the overall ARGOS analysis, this report provides a synthesis of the social research conducted within the project and contributes to the examination of the ARGOS null hypothesis, namely that there is no significant difference in the economic, environmental and social dimensions and characteristics of the participating farms and orchards. The report’s main objectives are to assess both the extent to which it is possible to differentiate among the management system panels of ARGOS farms/orchards and how such difference is manifest in the social dimensions of farm life. To the extent that this analysis provides evidence to reject the null hypothesis, it is possible to inform understandings of agricultural sustainability as well as provide insight to the potential pathways to improving this condition.

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  • The Cookbook: A discussion on the process, pitfalls and successes of hacking an open textbook

    Pearson, Erika (2014-05-16)

    Report
    University of Otago

    This document represents the process and reflections on the creation and curation of an open source 'texthack' for a media studies textbook for students in Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific. This document is provided as a resource for anyone contemplating a similar texthack project. Suggestions on processes and issues for consideration are presented along with information about success and difficulties of this specific project. The final curated 'text' this document refers to can be found at http://mediatexthack.wordpress.com.

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  • Information Package for Users of the New Zealand Estimated Food Costs 2015

    Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago (2015)

    Report
    University of Otago

    Cite this item: University of Otago, D. of H. N. (2015). Information Package for Users of the New Zealand Estimated Food Costs 2015 (Food Cost Survey 2015). (L. A. Mainvil, C. Smith, W. R. Parnell, Eds.). Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago.

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  • Policy Approaches to Environmental Practice in Agriculture: a review of international literature and recommendations for application in New Zealand

    Rosin, Chris; Dwiartama, Angga; Hunt, Lesley (2012)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The New Zealand agriculture sector is facing ever growing demands that it produce verifiable environmental benefits. These demands raise the pressures on farmers to adopt and follow sound practices and technologies. This report provides a review of diverse approaches—documented in the international literature—to promoting or encouraging agri-environmental practice in the agriculture sector. The intent of the review is not to identify a single, optimal policy to address all environmental issues. Rather, it develops the argument that the reported success of given approaches is highly contingent on the context in which they were applied. Furthermore, there is fairly consistent evidence that the achievement of widespread adoption of agri-environmental practice (where it involves more than the fine tuning existing management systems) is dependent on the emergence of a shared (or social) sense of responsibility and willingness to value the outcomes of the practice.

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  • New Zealand farmer and grower attitude and opinion survey : analysis by sector and management system

    Fairweather, John; Hunt, Lesley; Cook, Andrew; Rosin, Chris; Campbell, Hugh (2007)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The core of the ARGOS research design is a longitudinal panel study. Panels of 12 farms were selected to represent conventional, integrated and organic management for the sheep/beef sector, Kiwigreen, gold and organic management for the kiwifruit sector, and conventional and organic management for the dairy sector. The research involves gathering data on these farms in order to assess the nature of production from environmental, economic and social points of view and the design rests on testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between management systems. Farms in the panels were generally typical of their sectors in terms of obvious characteristics such as size, level of production etc. Farms from a range of geographies and with different levels of intensity of production were chosen in order to achieve results that would be applicable to a broad range of farms.

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  • Recent Developments in Organic Food Production in New Zealand: Part 3: Exporting Organic Produce from Gisborne District

    Coombs, Brad; Campbell, Hugh; Fairweather, John (1998-05)

    Report
    University of Otago

    This report is the third in a series of four case studies on the evolution of organic production in key regional areas of New Zealand. The other three case studies are Canterbury (Campbell 1996), Bay of Plenty (Campbell et al.1997) and Nelson (to be completed in mid 1998). The four reports are the main outputs for the research program ‘Optimum Development of Certified Organic Horticulture in New Zealand’, funded by the Public Good Science Fund. The current report presents the findings of research into the development of organic production in Gisborne District1 (see Figure 1.1). Although these findings are significant and stand in their own right as suitable for individual publication, some comparisons are made in the text between the evolution of organics in Gisborne and the development of organics in Canterbury and Bay of Plenty. This mainly involves comparisons between Gisborne and Canterbury, because organic crops and an individual company – Heinz-Wattie Ltd.2 – have been prominent in both areas. This enables the Gisborne case study to be more fully understood. Nevertheless, extensive comparisons are not made in this report: they have been set aside for a future publication to be completed after the Nelson report.

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  • The Organic Food Market in New Zealand: 2002

    Campbell, Hugh; Ritchie, Margaret (2002)

    Report
    University of Otago

    While the general area of organic agriculture and food consumption has become a major point of interest for industry, policy bodies and the general public, it is not an area that has traditionally been well served with economic data. Commenting in 1997, Saunders et al. (1997) noted that the volume and comparability of organic economic data was of very poor quality. Since that time, however, a number of data sources have emerged. The Foreign Agricultural Service of the USDA has commenced a compilation of organic market data on over 20 key markets for US agricultural exports. Yussefi and Willer (2002) also commenced a global analysis of the organic food market. This has considerably strengthened knowledge of growth trends in the global organic market. In New Zealand there are two key bodies of data collection that have emerged since 1997. First, the Organic Products Exporters of New Zealand (OPENZ – formerly OPEG) has commissioned an annual survey of certified organic food exports among its members. This provides some data on the volume and growth rate of organic food exports in New Zealand. A second body of data is reported here and represents the ongoing findings of a repeated survey of organic food retailing in Dunedin (and by extrapolation New Zealand) conducted by csafe at the University of Otago. This survey was first conducted in March 1997 (see Campbell 1999), and then repeated in December 1999/January 2000 (see Ritchie et al 2000), and again in January/February 2002. This report will discuss these new survey results, and briefly revue how the changes that are occurring in Dunedin relate to the national organic market and to trends in the international organic food market.

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  • Kiwifruit casual mapping in 2008 : comparisons to 2005 and to other sectors

    Fairweather, John; Hunt, Lesley; Rosin, Chris; Benge, Jayson; Campbell, Hugh (2009)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The Agriculture Research Group On Sustainability (ARGOS) is investigating the social, environmental and economic consequences of different management systems in different farming sectors in New Zealand (for more information visit www.argos.org.nz). The sectors being studied include kiwifruit, sheep/beef and dairy, and the systems being studied include conventional, integrated and organic management. Twelve farms under each system are being studied. In addition, there are eight high country farms included in the study. As part of the ARGOS social objective, causal mapping was used to document how the participating kiwifruit orchardists described and explained the factors involved in their orchard systems, broadly defined to include economic, social and environmental factors. Participants identified which factors among those provided were important to the management and performance of their orchards and were asked to link these on a map. This method was first used in 2005 and then repeated with some modifications in 2008 in order to examine possible changes in orchardist’s mapping over time. In the latter three studies the method was applied in a slightly different way compared to the first kiwifruit study. In this report the revised method was applied to kiwifruit orchardists in 2008 so that a set of results using the same method is available for all the sectors studied.

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  • Does the 'silent majority' support windfarms?Comparing opinions and motivations of wind farm submitters and non-submitters.

    Stephenson, Janet; Lawson, Rob; Hoffman, Matthew (2009)

    Report
    University of Otago

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  • New Zealand Pastoral Farmers and the Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases in the Agricultural Sector

    Rosin, Chris; Cooper, Mark; MacKenzie, Angela; Maegli, Tanja (2008)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The implementation of an emissions trading scheme (ETS) as a policy instrument is intended to contribute to the efficient reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in New Zealand within the limits agreed to in the Kyoto Protocol. The ETS provides the mechanism through which ‘emissions units’ equal to the committed level of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) can be allocated among the sectors of the New Zealand economy. By establishing emission units as tradable items, the ETS would create what is essentially a new commodity that demands inclusion in the financial planning strategies of producers of goods and services. In this manner, the ETS is expected to incentivise the incorporation of GHGs within production strategies. The transition to a carbon economy may, however, prove more difficult than the mere extension of accounting procedures to expenditures of GHG emissions and sequestration of carbon. The conceptual process of envisioning carbon equivalents (both emitted and sequestered forms) has been hampered by at least two factors. First, because the New Zealand economy has experienced an intensification of emissions-generating economic production since agreeing to the Kyoto Protocol, compliance with limits on GHG emissions has largely been represented as an additional cost as producers struggle to compensate for liabilities. In addition, commonly recognised alternatives to the purchase of emissions units (including tree planting) often involve a reduction in production intensity that does not conform to existing understandings of good business practice. Such complicating factors operate with similar impact on industrial and agricultural production.

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  • Recent Developments in Organic Food Production in New Zealand: Part 2: Kiwifruit in the Bay of Plenty

    Campbell, Hugh; Fairweather, John; Steven, David (1997)

    Report
    University of Otago

    This report presents the findings of research into the development of organic kiwifruit production in the Bay of Plenty. These results form the second of four case studies which constitute the Public Good Science Fund programme ‘Optimum Development of Certified Organic Horticulture in New Zealand’. The other case study regions are Canterbury (Campbell 1996), Gisborne (to be completed during 1997) and Nelson (to be completed by 1998). The primary objective of this report is to document developments in the organic export industry in the Bay of Plenty. Comparisons between Canterbury and the Bay of Plenty have occasionally been included in this report in order to provide more clarity about the development of organic production in the Bay of Plenty itself. While there is some discussion of the differences between Canterbury and the Bay of Plenty in the Conclusion, these are only brief. Full comparison of the regional factors influencing the development of organic exporting will be set aside until all four case studies have been completed.

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  • The Development of Organic Horticultural Exports in New Zealand

    Campbell, Hugh; Fairweather, John (1998)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The following report presents a summary of findings from a series of publications arising from the FRST Public Good Science Fund programme ‘Optimum Development of Certified Organic Horticulture in New Zealand’. This research programme started in 1995, and in mid 1998 had completed three years of research into four regional case studies of organic export development. To date, there have been a number of reports and other publications which have sought to outline various aspects of organic agriculture in New Zealand1, contribute to reviews of the organic industry2, or attempt to situate organic developments in New Zealand within wider trends in world agriculture, politics and trade3. Given the wide content of these publications, the many different arenas in which they have been published, and the encouraging level of interest from members of the organic agriculture industry, it is timely that an attempt be made to provide a basic summary of the findings. The present report attempts to do this in a way that is accessible to participants in the industry, and which will attempt to answer key questions about the industry. The most important issue is identifying key factors involved in successful exporting of organic products.

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