54 results for Report, Use commercially

  • The Dunedin Energy Baseline Study

    Gabriel, Cle-Anne; Stephenson, Janet; Carrington, Gerry (2015-09)

    Report
    University of Otago

    Copyright The Authors

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  • The Agriculture Research Group on Sustainability Programme: The Design of A Longitudinal and Transdisciplinary Study of Agricultural Sustainability in New Zealand

    Campbell, Hugh; Fairweather, John; Manhire, Jon; Saunders, Caroline; Moller, Henrik; Reid, John; Benge, Jayson; Blackwell, Grant; Carey, Peter; Emanuelsson, Martin; Greer, Glen; Hunt, Lesley; Lucock, Dave; Rosin, Chris; Norton, David; McLeod, Catriona; Knight, Benjamin (2012)

    Report
    University of Otago

    This report provides an overview of the key design features of the Agriculture Research Group on Sustainability (ARGOS) programme. This ongoing long-term research project started in 2003, involving a group of around 20 social scientists, ecologists, economists, and farm management experts in New Zealand. The overarching mission of ARGOS is to understand the enablers and barriers to the sustainability and resilience of agriculture, so as to enhance New Zealand’s economic, social and environmental wellbeing. To achieve this mission, the ARGOS team has designed and implemented a well-replicated and long-term programme of longitudinal research on more than 100 whole working farms, across different agricultural sectors, comparing a wide range of variables between three different farming systems: conventional, integrated management (IM) and organic. The first funded phase of this research programme has taken a systems and transdisciplinary approach, with an emphasis on statistical rigour and standardisation of methods, structured around the basic null hypothesis that there are no differences between the three farming systems. The primary focus of this approach is to examine the efficacy of alternative quality assurance (QA) schemes in delivering sustainable outcomes. This working paper seeks to inform potential collaborators and other interested parties about the way the ARGOS research programme has been structured, and to describe the rationale for this design. To this end, the report first documents the formation of the ARGOS group and the development of the aims and basic features of the design of the first funded phase of the research programme. The process of selection of agricultural sectors and individual farms within those sectors is described, along with the rationale behind this selection process. We then describe the key objectives of the research programme, and the way these were approached by research teams from different disciplines. The importance of transdisciplinarity is then discussed, providing insight into the associated benefits and pitfalls, and the lessons that were learned in the process of designing and implementing a transdisciplinary research programme. Finally, we discuss a number of issues surrounding the key features of our study design, evaluating their respective benefits and costs, and describe the future research directions suggested by the findings of the first phase of the programme.

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  • New Zealand farmer and orchardist attitude and opinion survey 2008 : characteristics of organic, modified conventional (integrated) and organic management, and of the sheep/beef, horticulture and dairy sectors

    Fairweather, John; Hunt, Lesley; Benge, Jayson; Campbell, Hugh; Greer, Glen; Lucock, Dave; Manhire, John; Meadows, Sarah; Moller, Henrik; Saunders, Caroline; Fukuda, Yuki (2008)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The core of the ARGOS research design is a longitudinal panel study of New Zealand farms (including orchards in the case of the kiwifruit sector). Panels of 12 farms were selected to represent conventional, integrated and organic management for the sheep/beef sector, Kiwigreen, gold and organic green management for the kiwifruit sector, and conventional and organic management for the dairy sector. The research involves gathering data on these farms in order to assess the nature and effects of production from these different management systems from environmental, economic and social points of view. A survey in 2005 provided the means to examine general farmer attitudes and practices and to assess what differences may occur in the different sectors and for farms under different management systems. It also provided the means to show that the panels were reasonably representative of the sectors to which they belong. The ARGOS research design included a second survey in 2008 in order to test and elaborate on emerging research results. This report is the first presentation of the 2008 results.The questions asked of farmers were sourced from contributions from the team of ARGOS researchers drawing on results and issues in the literature, and from contemporary farming issues. These sources provided too many questions for one questionnaire. Accordingly, two questionnaires were used, one sent to a simple random sample of all New Zealand farmers and the other sent to separate random samples of each of the main farming sectors, namely sheep/beef, dairy and horticulture. The two surveys generated a large data set. In order to make the results easier to comprehend we have presented them in two separate outputs, as follows: 1. Analysis of the three main sectors (sheep/beef, dairy and horticulture) and the three main management systems (conventional, integrated and organic) (this report). 2. Analysis of agriculture generally (see companion report).

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  • Social objective synthesis report: differentiation among participants farmers/orchardists in the ARGOS research programme

    Rosin, Chris; Hunt, Lesley; Fairweather, John; Campbell, Hugh (2007)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The main objectives of this report are to assess the extent to which it is possible to differentiate among the management system panels of ARGOS farms/orchards and to assess how such difference is manifest in the social dimensions of farm life. The report is framed by a brief outline of the social dynamics of agricultural sustainability and the emerging significance of market audit systems as a key structuring feature of contemporary attempts to achieve more sustainable production systems. The findings are presented separately for the kiwifruit and sheep/beef sector. The report concludes with recommendations for transdisciplinary engagement among the ARGOS objectives. Overall the current set of ARGOS social data for the kiwifruit sector suggests that, while there is great similarity among the panels, the Organic panel demonstrates the greatest number of distinctive characteristics. The assessment of difference among kiwifruit panels reflects survey results (six variables with statistically significant differences between the Organic and the other panels), qualitative data (more obviously distinctive characteristics attributed to the Organic panel) and causal map analysis (Organic orchardists listed a greater number of factors). The other surveyed data and the sketch maps do not show many panel differences. These kiwifruit results provided evidence of a number of key themes for which there was evidence of panel differences, including: breadth of view, good farming, environmental positioning, feedbacks, orchard management approaches, scope of control, and on- and off-farm relationships. While we have found that it is the Organic panel which is most distinctive, we also note that on some variables the Gold orchardists were closer to the Organic panel than the Kiwigreen panel (more double arrows and total connections in causal maps; a greater readiness to assume risk in the interviews). The sheep/beef results show that, once the many similarities among sheep/beef farmers are taken into account, the Organic panel again demonstrated several distinctive characteristics compared to the Conventional and Integrated panels. This assessment similarly reflects survey results (14 variables with statistically significant differences between the Organic and the other panels), qualitative data (distinctive response of Organic panel to several topics of enquiry) and causal map analysis (Organic farmers had a greater number of important factors). In addition, both the sketch map and the causal map data indicated that location explained some of the variation among farmers. The sheep/beef results provided evidence of a number of key themes for which there was evidence of panel differences, including: breadth of view, good farming, environmental positioning, feedbacks, on- and off-farm relationships, production system management and responses to innovation and risk. While we have found that it is the Organic panel which is most distinctive, we also note that on some variables the Integrated farmers were more similar to the Organic than the Conventional ones. Finally, the report interprets the findings in terms of their potential to differentiate the panels on the basis of social dimensions. While the literature shows at least 15 potential bases for social differentiation between panels, our results support 12 of these. Of these there is six (community; grower networks; craft orientation; sense of place; grower stress and wellbeing; identity) for which there evidence for subtle to moderate differentiation while the remaining six (commercial and economic orientation; learning and expertise; symbolic ‘look’ of the farmscape; indicators of on-farm processes; positioning towards nature/environment; farm management approaches) provide a stronger base for differentiation among panels. In its conclusion, the report identifies key indicated themes that have potential for transdisciplinary discussion, including: audit and market access, resilience, and intensification.

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  • Recent Developments in Organic Food Production in New Zealand: Part 4: The Expansion of Organic Food Production in Nelson and Golden Bay

    Coombs, Brad; Campbell, Hugh (1998)

    Report
    University of Otago

    This report presents the fourth and final case study in a program of research on the changes within organic production in key regional areas of New Zealand. The four reports are the results of a body of research funded by the Public Good Science Fund and titled ‘Optimum Development of Certified Organic Horticulture in New Zealand’. Specifically, the present report examines the evolution of organic production in the Nelson/Golden Bay1 area of the South Island. During the early 1980s, inhabitants of that area were some of the first in New Zealand to become involved in sales of organic produce, with an even longer history of non-commercial, self-sufficiency oriented organic production. In this historical respect, the area stands in contrast to some of the other regions examined in the current series of reports. Of the other three, it is most similar to the situation in Canterbury (Campbell 1996), where organics also started in the domestic and informal sectors of the economy. However, while the domestic component of organics has grown in Canterbury, it has also become secondary in terms of both volume and value to the organic goods exported from that region. It is the lack of a sizeable export organic industry in Nelson which has drawn the attention of the current authors. Organic wine/grapes (Vitus vinifera), hops (Humulus lupulus), kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa), nashi (Pyrus pyrifolia) and bee products are exported from the Nelson region but their volume is relatively small when placed alongside the volume of exports in other organic producing areas with a similar number of producers. The relative absence of organic exporting means that the structure of the organic industry in Nelson is radically different from that in the export oriented Bay of Plenty (Campbell et al. 1997) and Gisborne District (Coombes et al. 1998). In the latter case, there is almost no sign of a domestic industry, this highlighting the differing extremes of regionalisation in New Zealand’s organic industry. While these comparisons are interesting, and while they will be made at various points throughout this report, extensive comparisons have been set aside for a future publication devoted singularly to that task.

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  • Social Objective Synthesis Report 2: Social Differentiation and Choice of Management System among ARGOS Farmers/Orchardists

    Rosin, Chris; Hunt, Lesley; Fairweather, John; Campbell, Hugh (2009)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The ARGOS (Agriculture Research Group on Sustainability) project was designed to enable the interrogation of the condition of sustainability in the New Zealand agriculture sector. To account for the country’s reliance on a neoliberal (or market driven) policy orientation, the research programme compares groups of producers organised into panels whose members comply with similar audit schemes that regulate entrance into high value export markets. Because these audit schemes often include criteria or standards associated with improved environmental or social practice, comparison of the panels on the basis of economic, environmental and social measures and indicators provides insight to the potential for such schemes to promote a more sustainable agriculture sector in New Zealand. To the extent that such schemes do influence practice, we would expect to differentiate among the panels in reference to such criteria. As part of the overall ARGOS analysis, this report provides a synthesis of the social research conducted within the project and contributes to the examination of the ARGOS null hypothesis, namely that there is no significant difference in the economic, environmental and social dimensions and characteristics of the participating farms and orchards. The report’s main objectives are to assess both the extent to which it is possible to differentiate among the management system panels of ARGOS farms/orchards and how such difference is manifest in the social dimensions of farm life. To the extent that this analysis provides evidence to reject the null hypothesis, it is possible to inform understandings of agricultural sustainability as well as provide insight to the potential pathways to improving this condition.

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  • Photovoltaic (PV) Uptake in NZ: The story so far

    Ford, Rebecca; Stephenson, Janet; Scott, Michelle; Williams, John; Wooliscroft, Ben; King, Geoff; Miller, Allan (2014-09)

    Report
    University of Otago

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  • The Cookbook: A discussion on the process, pitfalls and successes of hacking an open textbook

    Pearson, Erika (2014-05-16)

    Report
    University of Otago

    This document represents the process and reflections on the creation and curation of an open source 'texthack' for a media studies textbook for students in Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific. This document is provided as a resource for anyone contemplating a similar texthack project. Suggestions on processes and issues for consideration are presented along with information about success and difficulties of this specific project. The final curated 'text' this document refers to can be found at http://mediatexthack.wordpress.com.

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  • Social Acceptance of Renewable Electricity Developments in New Zealand

    Stephenson, Janet; Loannou, Maria (2010-11)

    Report
    University of Otago

    A report for the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority

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  • Prosumer collectives: a review

    Ford, Rebecca; Whitaker, Juliet; Stephenson, Janet (2016-05)

    Report
    University of Otago

    he authors would like to acknowledge the Smart Grid Forum for funding this research. They also acknowledge the aligned GREEN Grid research project, funded by the Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment (MBIE), with co-funding from Transpower and the Electricity Engineers’ Association. We also acknowledge our reviewers, John Hancock and Gerry Carrington.

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  • Smart Grid Edge Technologies Case Studies of Early Adopters

    Ford, Rebecca (2016-05)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The author would like to acknowledge the Smart Grid Forum for funding this research. We also acknowledge our reviewers, John Hancock and Gerry Carrington.

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  • Smart Homes: What New Zealanders think, have, and want.

    Ford, Rebecca; Peniamina, Rana (2016-05)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The authors would like to acknowledge the Smart Grid Forum for funding this research. They thank Merdian, Powershop, Mercury, Genesis Energy, and solarcity for supporting the survey used in this analysis. They also acknowledge the aligned GREEN Grid research project, funded by the Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment (MBIE), with co-funding from Transpower and the Electricity Engineers’ Association. The authors are grateful to the SEE Change Institute and Pacific Gas and Electric for sharing their survey instrument, which was adapted for use in New Zealand. By asking identical questions of participants in the US and New Zealand, a cross-country comparison of smart home development (forthcoming) can be made.

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  • Policy Approaches to Environmental Practice in Agriculture: a review of international literature and recommendations for application in New Zealand

    Rosin, Chris; Dwiartama, Angga; Hunt, Lesley (2012)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The New Zealand agriculture sector is facing ever growing demands that it produce verifiable environmental benefits. These demands raise the pressures on farmers to adopt and follow sound practices and technologies. This report provides a review of diverse approaches—documented in the international literature—to promoting or encouraging agri-environmental practice in the agriculture sector. The intent of the review is not to identify a single, optimal policy to address all environmental issues. Rather, it develops the argument that the reported success of given approaches is highly contingent on the context in which they were applied. Furthermore, there is fairly consistent evidence that the achievement of widespread adoption of agri-environmental practice (where it involves more than the fine tuning existing management systems) is dependent on the emergence of a shared (or social) sense of responsibility and willingness to value the outcomes of the practice.

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  • New Zealand farmer and grower attitude and opinion survey : analysis by sector and management system

    Fairweather, John; Hunt, Lesley; Cook, Andrew; Rosin, Chris; Campbell, Hugh (2007)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The core of the ARGOS research design is a longitudinal panel study. Panels of 12 farms were selected to represent conventional, integrated and organic management for the sheep/beef sector, Kiwigreen, gold and organic management for the kiwifruit sector, and conventional and organic management for the dairy sector. The research involves gathering data on these farms in order to assess the nature of production from environmental, economic and social points of view and the design rests on testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between management systems. Farms in the panels were generally typical of their sectors in terms of obvious characteristics such as size, level of production etc. Farms from a range of geographies and with different levels of intensity of production were chosen in order to achieve results that would be applicable to a broad range of farms.

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  • Recent Developments in Organic Food Production in New Zealand: Part 3: Exporting Organic Produce from Gisborne District

    Coombs, Brad; Campbell, Hugh; Fairweather, John (1998-05)

    Report
    University of Otago

    This report is the third in a series of four case studies on the evolution of organic production in key regional areas of New Zealand. The other three case studies are Canterbury (Campbell 1996), Bay of Plenty (Campbell et al.1997) and Nelson (to be completed in mid 1998). The four reports are the main outputs for the research program ‘Optimum Development of Certified Organic Horticulture in New Zealand’, funded by the Public Good Science Fund. The current report presents the findings of research into the development of organic production in Gisborne District1 (see Figure 1.1). Although these findings are significant and stand in their own right as suitable for individual publication, some comparisons are made in the text between the evolution of organics in Gisborne and the development of organics in Canterbury and Bay of Plenty. This mainly involves comparisons between Gisborne and Canterbury, because organic crops and an individual company – Heinz-Wattie Ltd.2 – have been prominent in both areas. This enables the Gisborne case study to be more fully understood. Nevertheless, extensive comparisons are not made in this report: they have been set aside for a future publication to be completed after the Nelson report.

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  • The Organic Food Market in New Zealand: 2002

    Campbell, Hugh; Ritchie, Margaret (2002)

    Report
    University of Otago

    While the general area of organic agriculture and food consumption has become a major point of interest for industry, policy bodies and the general public, it is not an area that has traditionally been well served with economic data. Commenting in 1997, Saunders et al. (1997) noted that the volume and comparability of organic economic data was of very poor quality. Since that time, however, a number of data sources have emerged. The Foreign Agricultural Service of the USDA has commenced a compilation of organic market data on over 20 key markets for US agricultural exports. Yussefi and Willer (2002) also commenced a global analysis of the organic food market. This has considerably strengthened knowledge of growth trends in the global organic market. In New Zealand there are two key bodies of data collection that have emerged since 1997. First, the Organic Products Exporters of New Zealand (OPENZ – formerly OPEG) has commissioned an annual survey of certified organic food exports among its members. This provides some data on the volume and growth rate of organic food exports in New Zealand. A second body of data is reported here and represents the ongoing findings of a repeated survey of organic food retailing in Dunedin (and by extrapolation New Zealand) conducted by csafe at the University of Otago. This survey was first conducted in March 1997 (see Campbell 1999), and then repeated in December 1999/January 2000 (see Ritchie et al 2000), and again in January/February 2002. This report will discuss these new survey results, and briefly revue how the changes that are occurring in Dunedin relate to the national organic market and to trends in the international organic food market.

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  • Kiwifruit casual mapping in 2008 : comparisons to 2005 and to other sectors

    Fairweather, John; Hunt, Lesley; Rosin, Chris; Benge, Jayson; Campbell, Hugh (2009)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The Agriculture Research Group On Sustainability (ARGOS) is investigating the social, environmental and economic consequences of different management systems in different farming sectors in New Zealand (for more information visit www.argos.org.nz). The sectors being studied include kiwifruit, sheep/beef and dairy, and the systems being studied include conventional, integrated and organic management. Twelve farms under each system are being studied. In addition, there are eight high country farms included in the study. As part of the ARGOS social objective, causal mapping was used to document how the participating kiwifruit orchardists described and explained the factors involved in their orchard systems, broadly defined to include economic, social and environmental factors. Participants identified which factors among those provided were important to the management and performance of their orchards and were asked to link these on a map. This method was first used in 2005 and then repeated with some modifications in 2008 in order to examine possible changes in orchardist’s mapping over time. In the latter three studies the method was applied in a slightly different way compared to the first kiwifruit study. In this report the revised method was applied to kiwifruit orchardists in 2008 so that a set of results using the same method is available for all the sectors studied.

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  • Does the 'silent majority' support windfarms?Comparing opinions and motivations of wind farm submitters and non-submitters.

    Stephenson, Janet; Lawson, Rob; Hoffman, Matthew (2009)

    Report
    University of Otago

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  • Modelling Transport Transitions In New Zealand, Reference Guide for Model Version 1.0

    Rees, David (2015)

    Report
    University of Otago

    This is a project report for the Energy Cultures 2 Project.

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  • New Zealand Pastoral Farmers and the Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases in the Agricultural Sector

    Rosin, Chris; Cooper, Mark; MacKenzie, Angela; Maegli, Tanja (2008)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The implementation of an emissions trading scheme (ETS) as a policy instrument is intended to contribute to the efficient reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in New Zealand within the limits agreed to in the Kyoto Protocol. The ETS provides the mechanism through which ‘emissions units’ equal to the committed level of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) can be allocated among the sectors of the New Zealand economy. By establishing emission units as tradable items, the ETS would create what is essentially a new commodity that demands inclusion in the financial planning strategies of producers of goods and services. In this manner, the ETS is expected to incentivise the incorporation of GHGs within production strategies. The transition to a carbon economy may, however, prove more difficult than the mere extension of accounting procedures to expenditures of GHG emissions and sequestration of carbon. The conceptual process of envisioning carbon equivalents (both emitted and sequestered forms) has been hampered by at least two factors. First, because the New Zealand economy has experienced an intensification of emissions-generating economic production since agreeing to the Kyoto Protocol, compliance with limits on GHG emissions has largely been represented as an additional cost as producers struggle to compensate for liabilities. In addition, commonly recognised alternatives to the purchase of emissions units (including tree planting) often involve a reduction in production intensity that does not conform to existing understandings of good business practice. Such complicating factors operate with similar impact on industrial and agricultural production.

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