101 results for Report, 1997

  • Recent Developments in Organic Food Production in New Zealand: Part 2: Kiwifruit in the Bay of Plenty

    Campbell, Hugh; Fairweather, John; Steven, David (1997)

    Report
    University of Otago

    This report presents the findings of research into the development of organic kiwifruit production in the Bay of Plenty. These results form the second of four case studies which constitute the Public Good Science Fund programme ‘Optimum Development of Certified Organic Horticulture in New Zealand’. The other case study regions are Canterbury (Campbell 1996), Gisborne (to be completed during 1997) and Nelson (to be completed by 1998). The primary objective of this report is to document developments in the organic export industry in the Bay of Plenty. Comparisons between Canterbury and the Bay of Plenty have occasionally been included in this report in order to provide more clarity about the development of organic production in the Bay of Plenty itself. While there is some discussion of the differences between Canterbury and the Bay of Plenty in the Conclusion, these are only brief. Full comparison of the regional factors influencing the development of organic exporting will be set aside until all four case studies have been completed.

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  • Stratigraphy and reserves of pumiceous sand deposits in Perry's 'Asparagus Block' at Horotiu

    Nelson, Campbell S.; Lowe, David J.; Lootsma, A (1997)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The stratigraphic relationships between the deposits of the Hinuera Formation and the Taupo Pumice Alluvium are described over a 16 ha plot of land known as the 'Asparagus Block' at Horotiu. The Hinuera Formation is exposed at the surface at the southern end of this block, and is overlain by a wedge of Taupo Pumice Alluvium which increases in thickness from 0 to 8 m northwards across the block. Lithofacies in the Hinuera Formation are dominated by trough cross-bedded gravelly sands (lithofacies AI), with common cross-laminated sands (lithofacies B) and massive to horizontally laminated silts (lithofacies D). The pumice content of these deposits is mainly 70%. Lithofacies in the Taupo Pumice Alluvium are dominated by horizontally to inclined (tabular cross-) bedded slightly gravelly sands and sands (lithofacies G 1/2), with common occurrences of horizontally bedded to massive sandy silts (lithofacies D). The pumice content of these Taupo deposits is high, typically >80%. Cross-sections are presented showing an interpreted subsurface distribution of these lithofacies from south to north through the 'Asparagus Block'. The estimated reserve of extractable pumice sand from the block is of the order of about 400,000 to 450,000 m³.

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  • Soil-landscape modelling and soil property variability for forestry land evaluation in Longwood Forest, Southland. Phase 1: soil-landscape model development

    Jones, Hayden S.; Lowe, David J.; McLay, C.D.A. (1997)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    Large scale, quantitative information about the variability of target soil properties is required for forest management. This project is attempting to determine whether or not the New Zealand Soil Classification system (NZSC), when used in combination with a soillandscape model, adequately communicates this information. In the first phase of this project a soil-landscape model was developed and a pilot variability study conducted. The soils in the study area, located in the W oodlaw Block of the Longwood Range, are formed from either Permian andesite or greywacke on moderately steep to steep hill slopes under a moist cool climate and a vegetation cover of beech and podocarp forests. The soil-landscape model was developed using the land systems approach. The model consists of predictive relationships between topographic features and soil classes. There is a clear relationship between slope steepness, the abundance of surface boulders and the gravel content of the soil. A soil-landscape unit map showing the distribution of predicted soil classes has been produced. The results of the pilot variability study have showed that the soils sampled are acidic and have moderate to high P-retention values. An analysis of variance indicated that both of these properties are significantly variable between sites and between horizons. There appears to be a relationship between land component type and the magnitude and variability of these properties. The clay mineralogical analysis revealed that the dominant clay minerals present in all the soils sampled are chlorite-vermiculite, kaolinite, sepiolite, and allophane. The presence of allophane and kaolinite may be related to the moderate to high P-retention values.

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  • Geoscientific reconnaisance of Perry Aggregates quarry, River Road, Horotiu

    Nelson, Campbell S.; Lowe, David J. (1997)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    At the request of David Jennings, Opus International Consul tan ts Ltd, Hamil ton, we visited the Perry Aggregates quarry on River Road, Horotiu, on the morning of Wednesday 23 April 1997 to comment on the geoscientific context of the quarry. Our specific remarks relate only to observations made at the pit face at the present northwestern extremity of the quarry, which nevertheless are probably appropriate for the quarry as a whole. The quarry area inspected lies on a low terrace about 8 m above present-day river level (about 15 m a.s.l.) immediately adjacent to the Waikato River and covers an area of about 180 x 250 m centred on approximate grid reference S14 029885 (1:50 000 topographic map series NZMS 260).

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  • Sharp error estimates for multivariate positive linear operators which reproduce the linear polynomials

    Waldron, Shayne (1997-04)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    A sharp pointwise error estimate is given for multivariate positive linear operators which reproduce the linear polynomials. This quantitative Korovkin--type theorem generalises a known univariate result. It is applied to a number of operators including the multivariate Bernstein operators, and the recently introduced Bernstein--Schoenberg type operators of Dahmen, Micchelli and Seidel.

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  • Numerical integration of systems arising from the method of lines

    Mageroy, Einar (1997-04)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This report surveys the method of lines as a method for solving partial differential equations. This method involves discretising of all independent variables except one, and integration of the resulting system of ordinary differential equations in the remaining variable. An introduction to space discretisation is given, and different Runge--Kutta methods and linear multi step methods are considered with emphasis on their linear stability properties.

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  • Some conditions which imply quasi-developability

    Mohamad, A.M. (1997-04)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this paper quasi-developable spaces, quasi-WDelta-spaces, quasi-semi-stratifiable spaces and spaces with quasi-${G}^{*}_delta$-diagonal are studied. It is shown that every quasi-WDelta, quasi-semi-stratifiable space is a quasi-developable space. A regular space is quasi-semi-stratifiable if and only if it is a quasi-$beta$-space with quasi-${G}^{*}_delta$-diagonal. A regular space is quasi-semi-stratifiable if and only if it is a quasi-$alpha$ quasi-$beta$-space. A regular quasi-$beta$-space is a quasi-Moore space if and only if it is a quasi-$gamma$-space. A quasi-first-countable quasi-semi-stratifiable space is quasi-developable. A regular quasi-$q$-space is a quasi-Moore space if and only if it is a quasi-semi-stratifiable space.

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  • Generalization of $G^{*}_delta$-diagonals and wDelta-spaces

    Mohamad, A.M. (1997-04)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this paper we introduce the concepts of a quasi-$G^{*}_delta$-diagonal and quasi-wDelta-space as generalizations of the concepts of $G^{*}_delta$-diagonal and wDelta-space respectively. It is shown that a quasi-Moore space may be characterised in terms of these concepts. As a consequence we obtain the following metrization theorems: every paracompact wDelta-space with quasi-$G_delta$-diagonal is metrizable and every collectionwise normal $sigma$ quasi-wDelta-space is metrizable.

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  • Numerical Methods for Differential Equations and Applications

    Butcher, J.C. (1997-03)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper surveys a number of aspects of numerical methods for ordinary differential equations. The discussion includes the method of Euler and introduces Runge-Kutta methods and linear multistep methods as generalizations of Euler. Stability considerations arising from stiffness lead to a discussion of implicit methods and implementation issues. To the extent possible within this short survey, numerical methods are looked at in the context of problems arising in practical applications.

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  • Some extended explicit Bel'tyukov pairs for Volterra integral equations of the second kind

    Sharp, P.W. (1997-04)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    We derive and investigate a family of extended explicit Bel'tyukov (EBVRK) pairs for Volterra integral equations of the second kind. The pairs use six stages, and consist of an order 3 formula completely embedded in an order 4 formula. As part of the derivation, we show that at least 6 stages are needed to form such pairs. We also examine some aspects of the structure of EBVRK pairs.

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  • Geometry of Pseudospheres II.

    Marshall, T.H. (1997-03)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    We investigate finite sequences of hyperplanes in a pseudosphere. To each such sequence we associate a square symmetric matrix, the Gram matrix, which gives information about angle and incidence properties of the hyperplanes. We find when a given matrix is the Gram matrix of some sequence of hyperplanes, and when a sequence is determined up to isometry by its Gram matrix. We also consider subspaces of pseudospheres and projections onto them. This leads to an n-dimensional cosine rule for spherical and hyperbolic simplices.

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  • Digital Geometry: Introduction and Bibliography

    Rosenfeld, Azriel (1997)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    You are granted permission for the non-commercial reproduction, distribution, display, and performance of this technical report in any format, BUT this permission is only for a period of 45 (forty-five) days from the most recent time that you verified that this technical report is still available from the original CITR web site; http://citr.auckland.ac.nz/techreports/1997/CITR-TR-1.pdf under terms that include this permission. All other rights are reserved by the author(s). Digital geometry deals with geometrical properties of "digital objects", which are usually taken to be sets of lattice points in the discrete space Zⁿ. Such objects are often the result of applying a "digitization" process to objects in the Euclidean space Rⁿ. A central theme in digital geometry is how to characterize digital objects that could be the digitizations of "real" objects that have given geometric properties. The literature on digital geometry dates back to the late 1960's. The report includes a bibliography of more then 900 papers on the subject, organized by topic. It outlines the main lines of development of the field, and indicates areas in which interesting problems remain open.

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  • A Modular 10-DOF Vision System for High-Resolution Active Stereo

    Schlüns, Karsten; Fellenz, Winfried; Koschan, Andreas; Teschner, Matthias (1997)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    We present a low-cost active vision system with ten degrees of freedom which has been built from off-the-shelf parts. To obtain high resolution depth information of fixated objects in the scene a general purpose calibration procedure is proposed which estimates intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters including the vergence axes of both cameras. To produce enhanced dense depth maps a hierarchical block matching procedure is presented which employs color information. To simplify the development of controlling strategies for the head a modular hierarchy is proposed that distributes various tasks among different levels employing basic capabilities of the components of the head.

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  • Evaluation of MPEG Motion Compensation Algorithms

    Stegner, Axel; Klette, Reinhard (1997)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    You are granted permission for the non-commercial reproduction, distribution, display, and performance of this technical report in any format, BUT this permission is only for a period of 45 (forty-five) days from the most recent time that you verified that this technical report is still available from the original CITR web site; http://citr.auckland.ac.nz/techreports/ under terms that include this permission. All other rights are reserved by the author(s). This paper describes on-going research about the development of an evaluation scheme which allows an objective comparison of different motion detection algorithms used while compressing image sequences: "real world" sequences as well as generated sequences containing special textures or objects. Its focus is on block motion detection algorithms used by MPEG video encoding and the goal is to develop an objective motion compensation quality.

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  • An Image Stitcher and Its Application in Panoramic Movie Making

    Chen, Chia-Yen; Klette, Reinhard (1997)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    You are granted permission for the non-commercial reproduction, distribution, display, and performance of this technical report in any format, BUT this permission is only for a period of 45 (forty-five) days from the most recent time that you verified that this technical report is still available from the original CITR web site; http://citr.auckland.ac.nz/techreports/ under terms that include this permission. All other rights are reserved by the author(s). This paper describes the design and implementation of an image stitcher which can be used to join colour images. The images are joined in two steps. The first step involves registering two adjacent images using a minimum absolute difference method. The second step adjusts the contrast of the joined images using a linear interpolation of the intensity difference between the two images. The images joined by the stitcher can be used in many applications, such as panoramic viewing, architectural walk through and other teaching or researching purposes.

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  • Image Analysis and Object Surfaces

    Klette, Reinhard (1997)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    You are granted permission for the non-commercial reproduction, distribution, display, and performance of this technical report in any format, BUT this permission is only for a period of 45 (forty-five) days from the most recent time that you verified that this technical report is still available from the original CITR web site; http://citr.auckland.ac.nz/techreports/ under terms that include this permission. All other rights are reserved by the author(s). Advanced information technology deals with the computer technology appropriate to the capture, encoding, storage, communication, manipulation, and use of information in digital form. A special topic in this field is information capture; in particular, the capture of visual information. The acquisition of surface data for three-dimensional objects is a major problem in this field, approached by utilizing computer vision techniques. Surface data acquisition and related 3D object analysis is of importance in medicine and biology, in CAD modeling of industrial sites, for topographic models of the earth surface, for documenting museum objects, in architecture, in the movie industry, and in many other applications. This paper illustrates a few recently achieved practical results in computer vision (some obtained at CITR Tamaki) and briefly discusses directions in research.

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  • Sound Analysis of 3D Objects Based on Digitized Data

    Klette, Reinhard (1997)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    You are granted permission for the non-commercial reproduction, distribution, display, and performance of this technical report in any format, BUT this permission is only for a period of 45 (forty-five) days from the most recent time that you verified that this technical report is still available from the original CITR web site; http://citr.auckland.ac.nz/techreports/ under terms that include this permission. All other rights are reserved by the author(s). The report reviews selected results in the field of geometrical measurements and reconstructions of 3D objects (i.e. simply-connected compact sets of points) based on gridding techniques. Two soundness properties of approaches are discussed with respect to the selected grid resolution: convergence and convergence towards the "true" value. The existence of sound multigrid approaches is discussed for problems as (1) volume and surface area measurement for Jordan sets (i.e. 3D objects bounded by Jordan surfaces), (2) approximations of planes based on sampled data, (3) surface reconstructions based on gradient information, and (4) surface recovery by solving a (special) linear differential equation system. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of arising digital or computational geometry problems relevant to the discussed subjects.

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  • Dimension functions for T0 digital spaces (CITR)

    Wiederhold, Petra; Wilson, Richard (1997)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    You are granted permission for the non-commercial reproduction, distribution, display, and performance of this technical report in any format, BUT this permission is only for a period of 45 (forty-five) days from the most recent time that you verified that this technical report is still available from the original CITR web site; http://citr.auckland.ac.nz/techreports/ under terms that include this permission. All other rights are reserved by the author(s). Alexandroff T0-spaces have been studied as topological models of the supports of digital images and as discrete models of continuous spaces in theoretical physics. In this paper we discuss three different dimension functions for this class of spaces, namely the Alexandroff dimension, the Order dimensionand the Krull dimension and we outline a proof of the equality of these dimension functions in this class. The first of these is essentially the small inductive dimension well-known in topology, the second has been studied in the theory of posets while the third has been studied extensively as a dimension function for lattices and rings and was first applied to topological spaces by Vinokurov in 1966. Since the category of Alexandroff T0-spaces is known to be isomorphic to the category of posets, these results could be formulated in this latter category as well.

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  • Evaluation of Algorithms for Linear Shape from Shading

    Kozera, Ryszard; Klette, Reinhard (1997)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    You are granted permission for the non-commercial reproduction, distribution, display, and performance of this technical report in any format, BUT this permission is only for a period of 45 (forty-five) days from the most recent time that you verified that this technical report is still available from the original CITR web site; http://citr.auckland.ac.nz/techreports/ under terms that include this permission. All other rights are reserved by the author(s). We analyse different sequential algorithms for the recovery of object shape from a single shading pattern generated under the assumption of a linear reflectance map. The algorithms are based on the finite difference approximation of the derivatives. They operate on a rectangular discrete image (or part of it) and use the height of the sought-after surface along a curve in the image (image boundary) as initial data. The evaluation of different numerical schemes is achieved by comparing stability, convergence, and domains of influence of each scheme in question. The relative difficulty of handling a linear case indicates that the case of non-linear reflectance maps is far from being trivial.

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  • Shading Based 3D Shape Recovery in the Presence of Shadows

    Schlüns, Karsten (1997)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    You are granted permission for the non-commercial reproduction, distribution, display, and performance of this technical report in any format, BUT this permission is only for a period of 45 (forty-five) days from the most recent time that you verified that this technical report is still available from the original CITR web site; http://citr.auckland.ac.nz/techreports/ under terms that include this permission. All other rights are reserved by the author(s). Shadows usually cause various problems in three-dimensional shape recovery and measurement methods. In particular shading based approaches such as shape-from-shading or the photometric stereo method produce no or wrong results if the shadows are not treated appropriately. We show how information extracted from shadows can be employed to reduce the problems caused by them. This is done for multiple light-source photometric stereo. Unlike other published work, we formulate sufficient conditions to recover locally unique surface normals from two image irradiances (intensities) and a zero-irradiance caused by a shadow. We also distinguish between self-shadows and cast-shadows. Moreover we show how much information is obtainable by using the shadow analysis.

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