101 results for Report, 1997

  • Recent Developments in Organic Food Production in New Zealand: Part 2: Kiwifruit in the Bay of Plenty

    Campbell, Hugh; Fairweather, John; Steven, David (1997)

    Report
    University of Otago

    This report presents the findings of research into the development of organic kiwifruit production in the Bay of Plenty. These results form the second of four case studies which constitute the Public Good Science Fund programme ‘Optimum Development of Certified Organic Horticulture in New Zealand’. The other case study regions are Canterbury (Campbell 1996), Gisborne (to be completed during 1997) and Nelson (to be completed by 1998). The primary objective of this report is to document developments in the organic export industry in the Bay of Plenty. Comparisons between Canterbury and the Bay of Plenty have occasionally been included in this report in order to provide more clarity about the development of organic production in the Bay of Plenty itself. While there is some discussion of the differences between Canterbury and the Bay of Plenty in the Conclusion, these are only brief. Full comparison of the regional factors influencing the development of organic exporting will be set aside until all four case studies have been completed.

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  • Stratigraphy and reserves of pumiceous sand deposits in Perry's 'Asparagus Block' at Horotiu

    Nelson, Campbell S.; Lowe, David J.; Lootsma, A (1997)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The stratigraphic relationships between the deposits of the Hinuera Formation and the Taupo Pumice Alluvium are described over a 16 ha plot of land known as the 'Asparagus Block' at Horotiu. The Hinuera Formation is exposed at the surface at the southern end of this block, and is overlain by a wedge of Taupo Pumice Alluvium which increases in thickness from 0 to 8 m northwards across the block. Lithofacies in the Hinuera Formation are dominated by trough cross-bedded gravelly sands (lithofacies AI), with common cross-laminated sands (lithofacies B) and massive to horizontally laminated silts (lithofacies D). The pumice content of these deposits is mainly 70%. Lithofacies in the Taupo Pumice Alluvium are dominated by horizontally to inclined (tabular cross-) bedded slightly gravelly sands and sands (lithofacies G 1/2), with common occurrences of horizontally bedded to massive sandy silts (lithofacies D). The pumice content of these Taupo deposits is high, typically >80%. Cross-sections are presented showing an interpreted subsurface distribution of these lithofacies from south to north through the 'Asparagus Block'. The estimated reserve of extractable pumice sand from the block is of the order of about 400,000 to 450,000 m³.

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  • Soil-landscape modelling and soil property variability for forestry land evaluation in Longwood Forest, Southland. Phase 1: soil-landscape model development

    Jones, Hayden S.; Lowe, David J.; McLay, C.D.A. (1997)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    Large scale, quantitative information about the variability of target soil properties is required for forest management. This project is attempting to determine whether or not the New Zealand Soil Classification system (NZSC), when used in combination with a soillandscape model, adequately communicates this information. In the first phase of this project a soil-landscape model was developed and a pilot variability study conducted. The soils in the study area, located in the W oodlaw Block of the Longwood Range, are formed from either Permian andesite or greywacke on moderately steep to steep hill slopes under a moist cool climate and a vegetation cover of beech and podocarp forests. The soil-landscape model was developed using the land systems approach. The model consists of predictive relationships between topographic features and soil classes. There is a clear relationship between slope steepness, the abundance of surface boulders and the gravel content of the soil. A soil-landscape unit map showing the distribution of predicted soil classes has been produced. The results of the pilot variability study have showed that the soils sampled are acidic and have moderate to high P-retention values. An analysis of variance indicated that both of these properties are significantly variable between sites and between horizons. There appears to be a relationship between land component type and the magnitude and variability of these properties. The clay mineralogical analysis revealed that the dominant clay minerals present in all the soils sampled are chlorite-vermiculite, kaolinite, sepiolite, and allophane. The presence of allophane and kaolinite may be related to the moderate to high P-retention values.

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  • Geoscientific reconnaisance of Perry Aggregates quarry, River Road, Horotiu

    Nelson, Campbell S.; Lowe, David J. (1997)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    At the request of David Jennings, Opus International Consul tan ts Ltd, Hamil ton, we visited the Perry Aggregates quarry on River Road, Horotiu, on the morning of Wednesday 23 April 1997 to comment on the geoscientific context of the quarry. Our specific remarks relate only to observations made at the pit face at the present northwestern extremity of the quarry, which nevertheless are probably appropriate for the quarry as a whole. The quarry area inspected lies on a low terrace about 8 m above present-day river level (about 15 m a.s.l.) immediately adjacent to the Waikato River and covers an area of about 180 x 250 m centred on approximate grid reference S14 029885 (1:50 000 topographic map series NZMS 260).

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  • The Constructive Implicit Function Theorem and Applications in Mechanics

    Bridges, D.S; Calude, C; Pavlov, B; Stefanescu, D (1997-11)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    We examine some ways of proving the Implicit Function Theorem and the Inverse Function Theorem within Bishop's constructive mathematics. Section 2 contains a new, entirely constructive proof of the Implicit Function Theorem. The paper ends with some comments on the application of the Implicit Function Theorem in classical mechanics

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  • Finite Nondeterministic Automata: Simulation and Minimality

    Calude, C.S; Calude, E; Khoussainov, B (1997 -09)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Motivated by recent applications of finite automata to theoretical physics, we study the minimization problem for nondeterministic automata (with outputs, but no initial states). We use Ehrenfeucht-Fraïsse-like games to model automata responses and simulations. The minimal automaton is constructed and, in contrast with the classical case, proved to be unique up to an isomorphism. Finally, we investigate the partial ordering induced by automata simulations. For example, we prove that, with respect to this ordering, the class of deterministic automata forms an ideal in the class of all automata.

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  • An Explicit Construction of a Universal Extended H System

    Alford, G (1997-08)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Lately there has been much interest concerning H systems, a generative mechanism based on the splicing operation, itself a language-theoretic equivalent of DNA recombination. Păun et al. have shown that regular extended H systems are theoretically universal but one has not yet been explicitly constructed. In this paper we explicitly construct a universal extended H system containing 182 axioms and 270 groups of rules.

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  • Explicit Definition of the Binary Reflected Gray Codes

    Conder, M (1997-06)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    It is shown that for 1≤ j ≤n and 1 ≤ k≤2n; the jth letter of the kth word of the binary reflected Gray code of length n is equal to the parity of the binomial coeffcient 2n-2n-j-1C[2n-2n-j-1-k/2] modulo 2. Also it is shown how this observation and the usual iterative definition of the binary reflected Gray codes are revealed in a modified version of Sierpinski's gasket (Pascal's triangle modulo 2).

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  • Small Trivalent Graphs of Large Girth

    Conder, M (1997-06)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Definitions are given for seven trivalent Cayley graphs, of girths 17; 18; 20; 21; 22; 23 and 24. At the time of writing (June 1997) each of these is the smallest known trivalent graph of the corresponding girth.

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  • Feedback for Relations

    Cazanescu, V.E (1997-11)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    In our previous papers [3,2] we have proved that there are nine types of finite relations which are closed under a natural definition of feedback. In this note we prove that this natural definition is the unique feedback which satisfies the axioms of a biflow over there usual composition and sum.

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  • Do the Zeros of the Riemann's Zeta-Function Form a Random Sequence?

    Calude, C.S; Hertling, P.H; Khoussainov, B (1997-04)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    The aim of this note is to introduce the notion of random sequences of reals and to prove that the answer to the question in the title is negative, as anticipated by the informal discussion of Longpré and Kreinovich [15].

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  • Solomonoff Induction

    Legg, S (1997-03)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    [no abstract available]

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  • On a Conjecture of M. Van Lambalgen

    Arslanov, A (1997-05)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    [no abstract available]

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  • Decidable Kripke Models of Intuitionistic Theories

    Ishihara, H; Khoussainov, B; Nerode, A (1997-01)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    [no abstract available]

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  • Practical Enumeration Methods for Graphs of Bounded Pathwidth and Treewidth

    Dinneen, Michael (1997-09)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Using an algebraic representation for graphs of bounded pathwidth or treewidth we provide simple methods for generating these families in increasing order of the number of vertices and edges. We also study canonic representions of fixed- and free- boundaried graphs of bounded width.

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  • Chaitin Omega Numbers and Strong Reducibilities

    Calude, C.S; Nies, A (1997-10)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    We prove that any Chaitin Ω number (i.e., the halting probability of a universal self-delimiting Turing machine) is wtt-complete, but not tt-complete. In this way we obtain a whole class of natural examples of wtt-complete but not tt-complete r.e. sets. The proof is direct and elementary.

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  • Embedding Cellular Automata into Reversible Ones

    Hertling, P (1997-10)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Toffoli showed that every cellular automaton of an arbitrary dimension d can be embedded into a reversible cellular automaton of dimension d+1. He asked “whether an arbitrary cellular automaton can be embedded in a reversible one having the same number of dimensions” and conjectured that this is not possible. We show that his conjecture is true. Even if one imposes only a weak, natural condition on embeddings, no cellular automaton which possesses a Garden of Eden configuration can be embedded into a reversible cellular automaton of the same dimension.

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  • Uniform Generalized Steinhaus Graphs

    Brand, N; Morton, M (1997-02)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    In [1] it is shown that the first order theory of almost all generalized Steinhaus graphs is identical to the first order theory of almost all graphs where each generalized Steinhaus graph is given the same probability. A natural probability measure on generalized Steinhaus graphs is obtained by independently assigning a probability of p for each entry in the generating string of the graph. With this probability measure it is shown that the first order theory of almost all uniform generalized Steinhaus graphs is identical to the first order theory of almost all graphs.

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  • Compound Constructions of Minimal Broadcast Networks

    Dinneen, Michael; Ventura, Jose; Wilson, Mark; Zakeri, G (1997-01)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Compound methods have been shown to be very effective in the construction of minimal broadcast networks (mbns). Compound methods generate a large mbn by combining multiple copies of an mbn G using the structure of another mbn H. Node deletion is also allowed in some of these methods. The subset of connecting nodes of G has been desined as solid h-cover by Bermond, Fraigniaud and Peters, and center node set by Weng and Ventura. This article shows that the two concepts are equivalent. We also provide new properties for center node sets, including bounds on the minimum size of a center node set, show how to reduce the number of center nodes of an mbn generated by a compound method, and propose an iterative compounding algorithm that generates the sparsest known mbns in many cases.

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  • Invariance Properties of Random Sequences

    Hertling, P; Wang, Y (1997-10)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    We present invariance characterizations of different types of random sequences. We correct Schnorr's original, incorrect characterization of Martin-Löf random sequences, compare it with Schnorr's corresponding characterization of his own randomness concept, and give a similar, new chararacterization of Kurtz random sequences. That is, we show that an infinite sequence ξ is Kurtz random if and only if for every partial, computable, measure-invariant function φ: ∑ ω→∑ ω the sequence φ (ξ) is not recursive.

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