93 results for Report, 2004

  • Increasing capacity at Monarch Wildlife Cruises and Tours: a case study approach

    Keenan, Victoria (2004-02)

    Report
    University of Otago

    Monarch Wildlife Cruises and Tours is a small eco-tourism business providing tours of the Otago Peninsula and an unrivalled wildlife cruise around Taiaroa Head. This company has continued to grow since its inception in 1985, but faces serious capacity constraints in the land transport aspect of its business. The purpose of this research is to examine options available to the company to increase their land transport capacity; the aim is to evaluate each option and recommend the most appropriate forward focus for the business. The research was conducted using a single case study methodology and involved four stages. These stages included a review of the academic literature, semi-constructed interviews, the collection of data through company documentation and observation as well as various discussions with potential organisations that lease and sell buses. Seven options for increasing the transport capacity of the company were investigated in this research. These were: staying with the status quo, withdrawing the transport from the tours, buying an additional bus, selling their van and buying or leasing an additional bus, selling all the vehicles or leasing them on long - term contracts. The last option investigated in this research was contracting all transport facilities to another party. Each option was analysed on cost, practicality, and its overall effect on the business. The benefits and disadvantages of each option were also discussed and contributed to the final decision. It is recommended that the transport aspect of the business be contracted out to another party. Further investigation will be required to determine the most appropriate organisation to contract to. Further work will also be needed to define the terms of such an agreement. However, at this stage Malcolm Budd from the Otago Explorer seems to meet all requirements. The recommended option was chosen because of its propensity to be cost effective and provide benefits that would outweigh cost. The disadvantages of this option were found to be minimal in that they would not adversely affect service quality or the core operations of the business, which is wildlife cruises. Lastly, the recommendation effectively increased the company's transport capacity and proved to be advantageous over the long term. Secondary recommendations included decreasing prices in the winter months to encourage people that might not otherwise purchase the tours; that the number of free of charge passengers be reduced in order to make room for paying customers, and to further manipulate demand and supply by allowing employees to leave secondary tasks till quieter periods, when the business is busy. The company also has the potential to diversify into other areas and increase customer involvement in the service delivery process by allowing customers to book and pay their tours on-line.

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  • Nutrient Budget for Lakes Rotoiti and Rotorua. Part I: Internal Nutrient Loads

    Hamilton, David P.; Alexander, Will; Burger, David F. (2004)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    Time series data of temperature and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and nutrients (total nitrogen – TN, total phosphorus – TP, nitrate – NO³, ammonium – NH₄ and filterable reactive phosphorus - FRP) were examined for trends in Lake Rotoiti for 1981-82 and 1990-2003 and in Lake Rotorua for 2002-03. TP, NO₃, NH₄ in bottom waters (40-60m) of Lake Rotoiti, below the thermocline, were examined using regression equations to quantify seasonal transformations of TP, NO₃ and NH₄. There is a relatively linear build-up of phosphorus through time in the hypolimnion following the onset of stratification and initiation of deoxygenation until the time of winter mixing. When there were high frequency nutrient data for Lake Rotoiti (1981-82 at 60 m, 1991-94 at 60 m and 2001-02 at 40 m depth) the rate of seasonal phosphorus build-up could be quantified by regression to within a relatively narrow range of 111 mg TP m⁻³ yr⁻¹ (0.304 mg TP m⁻³ day⁻¹ ) in 1992-93 to 136 mg TP m⁻³ yr⁻¹(0.373 mg TP m⁻³ day⁻¹ )in 1981-82. Based on the first and last points of all the regression equations developed for TP increase, approximately 14.4 (1993-94) to 20.5 tonnes (2001-02) of phosphorus may be added to the hypolimnion of Lake Rotoiti during stratification. There is no evidence of a consistant interannual change in the seasonal build-up of phosphorus over the years considered and the reasons for interannual variations in the rates are not immediately apparent.

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  • Social Dimensions of Sustainable Agriculture: A rationale for Social Research in ARGOS

    Hunt, Lesley; Campbell, Hugh; Fairweather, John; McLeod, Carmen; Rosin, Chris (2004)

    Report
    University of Otago

    As the rationale for the social research objective within ARGOS, this document provides a preliminary discussion of the theoretical and methodological approach being taken by the social researchers in the project. As such, it articulates the ‘social corner’ of the research and details the approaches and issues that we consider central to a social scientific analysis of agricultural sustainability.

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  • Social Research Compendium: Key Questions on Social Dimensions of Agricultural Sustainability

    Campbell, Hugh; Fairweather, John; Hunt, Lesley; Mcleod, Carmen (2004)

    Report
    University of Otago

    Following on from the Social Research Rationale, this document takes the rationale an important step further by developing a list of key research topics (and specific issues) that form a comprehensive list of research items that the Social Objective consider to be of interest. Three general instructions are useful before going further into this document. 1) A comprehensive list of research topics is necessarily big. Like Objective 4, the general research process for Objective 5 is to start broad and use the first two years of data gathering to refine the topics down to a more focused set of issues and foci. 2) The topics are positioned to answer five very broad questions about our ARGOS farms: • Who are they? Describe the sociological characteristics of the participating farmers, households and enterprises. • What do they think? What is the positioning (or key ideas) of our participants in terms of a list of core concepts in the project? • What is their capacity to act? Even if people think a particular way, or want to do some things, individuals are nonetheless constrained in many ways. Social scientists consider this key issue to be central to any analysis: their capacity to act. • What changes over the period of the project (and in retrospect)? Both looking back in time, and through the period of the project, what are the key dimensions of change in the farms? • What are the key influences on these changes? What the key processes and ‘sites of action’ that influence farm activity, and which can assist us in understanding how more pro-active intervention to achieve change might be undertaken? 3) What gaps are left? This document contributes to getting all the different researchers around the Social Objective clearly aligned and coordinated in framing up and delivering the next phase of research. It also helps to very clearly define the interests and foci of the social research for the other participants in ARGOS. However, maybe its most important task is to provide an opportunity for discussion around those points of interest that Objective 5 shares with the other Objectives, as well as where there are significant gaps as yet unaddressed by the project.

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  • Environmental education in New Zealand schools

    Bolstad, Rachel; Cowie, Bronwen; Eames, Chris W.; Baker, Miles; Keown, Paul Ashley; Edwards, Richard; Coll, Richard K.; Rogers, Neil (2004)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    This research, presented in four volumes, looked at current practice in environmental education in New Zealand schools using a range of methods.

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  • Optimising child accident research outcomes: An action research project on maximising the dissemination and implementation of the Summer Research Scholarship Project reports and recommendations of the Child Accident Prevention Foundation of New Zealand

    Smith, Nicola Kiri; Cowley, Natalie Anne; Horgan, Brett; Swain, David (2004)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    A key objective of the Child Accident Prevention Foundation of New Zealand (hereafter referred to as "CAPFNZ" or "the Foundation") is to reduce the incidence and severity of child accidents. The reports and recommendations that arise from the Foundation's Summer Research Scholarship (SRS) projects have the potential to be a major means to achieving this end. The purpose of this research was to investigate the extent to which the SRS projects were achieving that objective, by assessing the degree to which CAPFNZ SRS reports and especially their recommendations are currently in the public domain. The research also identified the current barriers or obstacles to dissemination, and determined cost-effective ways in which dissemination and implementation of these reports and their findings could be enhanced. Our proposal foreshadowed the prospect of this project yielding a demonstration website as one approach to achieving a more effective distribution of CAPFNZ SRS reports and related material.

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  • Evaluation of the whanau carers training programme delivered by LIFE Unlimited

    Ashwell, Allanah; Ridley, Sally Fenwick; Thompson, Keri (2004-02)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    In response to the needs of Maori informal carers, a training programme was developed for whanau carers in the Waikato region. It was delivered by LIFE Unlimited. It is a unique training programme in that it is community driven and focuses on informal caregivers who are Maori. The overarching aim of the whanau carers training programme is to provide increased training and support of informal carers. This report aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the whanau carers training programme, including: the unique nature of the programme, the critical success factors, the barriers to success if any, and suggested improvements. The report concludes the programme has had a positive and definite impact upon the whanau carers. The evaluation team observed that the overall programme works very well and fulfils its stated obligations to the Ministry of Health. The programmes are delivered well, and are well received by the client group.

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  • Maori & Psychology Research Unit annual report 2004

    Rua, Mohi; Nikora, Linda Waimarie (2004)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    Annual report of the Maori and Psychology Research Unit (MPRU) 2004. The unit was established in August of 1997. The unit is designed to provide a catalyst and support network for enhancing research concerning the psychological needs, aspirations, and priorities of Maori people. The MPRU is well situated to draw together skilled and experienced interdisciplinary research groups by networking and establishing working relationships with staff and students within the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, the University, and the wider community.

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  • Boat electrofishing survey of Te Weta Bay, Lake Rotoiti

    Hicks, Brendan J.; Ring, C. Alex (2004)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    We used New Zealand’s first successful electrofishing boat to survey fish in Lake Rotoiti, North Island, New Zealand, principally in Te Weta Bay. The primary objective of the fishing was to see if undesirable fish species such as koi carp (Cyprinus carpio haemaotopterus; Zhou et al. 2003), brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus), and rudd (Scardinius erythophthalmus) have become established. Circular excavations were seen in the lake by a NIWA SCUBA diver in late 2003, and these were similar to nest excavations associated with catfish in other locations. The native fish common smelt (Retropinna retropinna) and bullies (Gobiomorphus sp) were caught, with a few goldfish(Carassius auratus). Poor water visibility made observations difficult in some parts of the lake, especially on the southern shore and in the outer part of Te Weta Bay closest to the main lake. Fish densities ranged from 2.3 to 11.7 fish 100 m⁻². These should be regarded as minimal densities because the electroshoked fish were counter from the boat but mostly not retrieved; also, only a single pass was conducted. No recognised pest fish species were caught, but we cannot exclude the possibility that pest fish might occur at sites that were not fished. No trout were caught, possible because of the high water temperature (22°C).

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  • Boat electrofishing survey of Apata Pond and Lake McLaren

    Hicks, Brendan J.; Bell, Dudley G.; Ring, C. Alex; Tempero, Grant Wayne (2004)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    We used New Zealand’s first successful electrofishing boat to catch koi carp (Cyprinus carpio haemaotopterus; Zhou et al. 2003) and rudd (Scardinius erythophthalmus) at two sites in the Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand. Five large koi carp were caught in a pond near Apata; shortfinned eels and adult inanga were also caught. In Lake McLaren, a small hydro-electric impoundment on the Wairoa River, two rudd were caught; longfinned eels (Anguilla dieffenbachii), common bullies (Gobiomorphus cotidianus), and brown and rainbow trout (Salmo trutta and Oncorhynchus mykiss) were also caught. Low ambient conductivities (43-90 µS cm⁻¹) is likely to have restricted the electrofishing field and power transfer to the fish, but fish capture was still successful. Clear water compensated somewhat for the reduced effectiveness of the field. Fish densities were low at both locations. The minimum fish density was 0.31 fish 100 m⁻² in the pond at Apata, and 0.61 fish 100 m⁻² in Lake McLaren. These should be regarded as minimal densities because only a single pass was conducted. All the koi carp caught in the pond at Apata were 521 to 564 mm fork length and all were 8 years old; there were two males and three females. One female was about to spawn; however, no other koi carp were found, so breeding appears to have been unsuccessful in this habitat. The two rudd from Lake McLaren were 203 and 240 mm fork length 6 and 7 years old respectively. Thought no younger age classes were caught, we cannot exclude the possibility that rudd could reproduce successfully in Lake McLaren.

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  • Disabled Māori and disability support options

    Nikora, Linda Waimarie; Karapu, Rolinda; Hickey, Huhana; Te Awekotuku, Ngahuia (2004-01-01)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The goal of this research project was to provide information to enhance the development and implementation of an effective model of disability support service provision to Maori with disabilities. This was done by identifying and documenting the needs expressed by disabled Maori and their carers living in the Midland area, and by considering the experiences and observations of a key informant group. From our reading of the literature and the feedback we received from participants, a proposed model of disability support service provision has been proposed. In five sections, this report begins by defining disability, and also by defining the act of caring for the disabled. Focussing on the Maori experience, obstacles, access to existing support services, cultural barriers, and health policies are discussed. In the second chapter, the research methodology is described, along with how the information was gathered. Following this is the third section which presents the opinions and reflections of Maori with disabilities. It concludes strategically with a view of the ideal community, suggesting possible resolutions, by exposing current flaws and inadequacies. Chapter four records the views and perspectives of key informant/whanau carers who participated in the project. They offer an insightful account of the often unrecognised side of the disability experience. Considering the preceding discussions, the final section develops a model of service provision for Maori with disabilities, and proposes this for effective service delivery.

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  • Planning and governance under the LGA: Lessons from the RMA experience.

    Borrie, Nancy; Memon, Ali; Ericksen, Neil; Crawford, Janet (2004-06-01)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The purpose of this report is to identify ways in which experiences gained from the RMA as a devolved and co-operative planning mandate can enable local and central government and other stakeholders to more effectively implement the LGA. The report is based on findings from the FRST-funded research programme on Planning under Co-operative Mandates (PUCM). We argue in this report that the experiences gained from the RMA can inform effective implementation of the LGA in three important respects: Preparation and implementation of LTCCPs; The community consultation process for formulating community outcomes; and Māori participation in planning and governance.

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  • Bilingual/Immersion education: Indicators of good practice

    May, Stephen; Hill, Richard Kenneth; Tiakiwai, Sarah (2004)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    Based on a review of national and international research on bilingualism and bilingual/immersion education, this report explores effective approaches for bilingual education. While the focus was on Māori-medium education, the indicators of good practice can also be applied to other bilingual contexts in Aotearoa/New Zealand, such as Pasifika bilingual education.

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  • MESIF: A Two-Hop Cache Coherency Protocol for Point-to-Point Interconnects (2004)

    Goodman, James; Hum, HHJ (2004)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    We describe MESIF, a new cache coherence protocol. Based on point-to-point communication links, the protocol maintains no directory, and mimics the broadcast behavior of a snooping cache protocol. MESIF supplies data cached in other nodes in a single round-trip delay (2-hop latency) for all common operations. Because of the speed of the links, the protocol can outperform a bus-based protocol for a small number of nodes, but scales through hierarchical extension to a large-scale multiprocessor system. Salient features of the industrial-quality protocol are described. The introduction of a novel forwarding state is used to assure a single response to shared data and to simplify conflict resolution. In the hierarchical extension, auxiliary hardware data structures can be included to provide 2-hop latency for most operations.

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  • Family doctors: methodology and description of the activity of private GPs: The National Primary Medical Care Survey (NatMedCa) 2001/02. Report 1.

    Raymont, A; Lay Yee, Roy; Davis, Peter; Scott, Alastair (2004)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Executive Summary Aims. The National Primary Medical Care Survey was undertaken to describe primary health care in New Zealand, including the characteristics of providers and their practices, the patients they see, the problems presented and the management offered. The study covered private general practices (i.e. family doctors), community-governed organisations, and Accident and Medical (A&M) clinics and Emergency Departments. It was intended to compare data across practice types as well as over time. Subsidiary aims included gathering information on the activities of nurses in primary health care, trialling an electronic data collection tool and developing coding software. It is intended to compare data across practice these types and between the present study and the Waikato Primary Medical Care Survey (WaiMedCa) carried out in 1991/92. This paper provides a descriptive report on the week-day, day-time content of the work of private general practitioners (GPs). No statistical tests are applied. Other papers will report on after-hours activities and on other types of practice, and will analyse differences in practice content that have occurred over time or that exist between practice settings.

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  • A comparison of primary health care provided by rural and non-rural general practices: the National Primary Medical Care Survey (NatMedCa) 2001/02. Report 4.

    Hider, P; Lay-Yee, R; Davis, Peter (2004)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Executive Summary Aims. The National Primary Medical Care Survey was undertaken to describe primary health care in New Zealand, including the characteristics of providers and their practices, the patients they see, the problems presented and the management offered. The study covered private general practices (i.e. family doctors), community-governed organisations, and Accident and Medical (A&M) clinics and Emergency Departments. It was intended to compare data across practice types as well as over time. Subsidiary aims included gathering information on the activities of nurses in primary health care, trialling an electronic data collection tool and developing coding software. This report describes the characteristics of practitioners, patients and patient visits for general practices located in rural areas – defined as those practices with a rural ranking score equal to or greater than 35. This is the criterion for eligibility for Ministry of Health rural health benefits. The characteristics of these practices are compared to those of all others, called “non-rural” in this report. Other reports in the series describe private family doctors, Māori doctors, and after-hours activities and other types of practice, and will analyse differences in practice content that have occurred over time or that exist between practice settings.

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  • Development and Uses of Gum Leaf Skeletoniser Sex Pheromone in Long Time Pest Management.

    Suckling, DM; Gibb, AR; Dentener, PR; Seldon, David; Clare, GK; Kriticos, DJ; El-Sayed, A; Baird, D (2004)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Protecting telecommunications networks : toward a minimum-cost solution

    O'Sullivan, Michael; Walker, C; O'Sullivan, M. L.; Thompson, T. D. (2004)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    The problem of designing fibre-optic networks for telecommunications can be decomposed into (at least) three non-trivial subproblems. In the first of these subproblems one must determine how many fibre-optic cables (fibres) are required at either end of a street. In the next subproblem a minimum- cost network must be designed to support the fibres. The network must also provide distinct paths from either end of the street to the central exchange(s). Finally, the fibre-optic cables must be placed in protective covers. These covers are available in a number of different sizes, allowing some flexibility when covering each section of the network. However, fibres placed within a single cover must always be covered together for maintenance reasons. In this paper we describe two formulations for finding a minimum-cost (protective) covering for the network (the third of these subproblems). This problem is a generalised set covering problem with side constraints and is further complicated by the introduction of fixed and variable welding costs. The first formulation uses dynamic programming (DP) to select covers along each arc (in the network). However, this formulation cannot accurately model the fixed costs and does not guarantee optimality. The second formulation, based on the DP formulation, uses integer programming (IP) to solve the problem and guarantees optimality, but is only tractable for smaller problems. The cost of the networks constructed by the IP model is less than those designed using the DP model, but the saving is not significant for the problems examined (less than 0.1%). This indicates that the DP model will generally give very good solutions despite its limitation. Furthermore, as the problem dimensions grow, DP gives significantly better solution times than IP.

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  • Prostate cancer screening in New Zealand

    Logan, R; Fougere, G; Hague, K; Holloway, L; Kiro, Cynthia; Moore, A; Page-Curruth, A; Pearce, N; Sullivan, L; Stewart, L; Talemaitoga, A; Tepania-Palmer, G (2004)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Advice to the Minister of Health on the issues and latest evidence concerning prostate cancer screening. The National Health Committee (NHC) first reviewed the possibility of population screening for prostate cancer using the Prostate Specific Antigen or PSA test, in 1996. At that time, it recommended against population screening. Due to high public interest in prostate cancer screening and increasing use of the test, the NHC reviewed its earlier advice and published its findings in 2004. The NHC undertook its second review because it felt health care practitioners, men and the wider public needed up-to-date information based on the best available evidence to help them make decisions. It used the screening assessment criteria it had developed in 2003 (Screening to Improve Health in New Zealand) to assess prostate cancer screening in New Zealand. Consultation with organisations and individuals with an interest in prostate screening was undertaken to inform the report – see Summary of submissions in response to National Health Committee consultation paper on prostate cancer screening in New Zealand, January 2004. The NHC’s 2004 report notes there continues to be no conclusive evidence that undergoing the PSA test or digital rectal examination (DRE) for prostate cancer reduces mortality or morbidity associated with prostate cancer. The report further notes the PSA test is not completely reliable and can miss some cancers or alternatively, may set in train a cascade of interventions offering little benefit and potentially, significant harm. But, the NHC believes, concern over potential harms of screening is not sufficient reason to deny a man the test if he is fully informed and requests it. Men considering the PSA test are entitled to detailed information about its limitations, the possible diagnostic and treatment choices and outcomes and the fact that PSA screening is not recommended in New Zealand. The NHC recommends the benefits and potential for harm from prostate screening should continue to be reviewed as new evidence emerges. It recommends the Ministry of Health monitor the advances in diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.

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  • Review of the efficacy of baits used for ant control and eradication

    Stanley, MC (2004)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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