113 results for Report, 2007

  • Social objective synthesis report: differentiation among participants farmers/orchardists in the ARGOS research programme

    Rosin, Chris; Hunt, Lesley; Fairweather, John; Campbell, Hugh (2007)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The main objectives of this report are to assess the extent to which it is possible to differentiate among the management system panels of ARGOS farms/orchards and to assess how such difference is manifest in the social dimensions of farm life. The report is framed by a brief outline of the social dynamics of agricultural sustainability and the emerging significance of market audit systems as a key structuring feature of contemporary attempts to achieve more sustainable production systems. The findings are presented separately for the kiwifruit and sheep/beef sector. The report concludes with recommendations for transdisciplinary engagement among the ARGOS objectives. Overall the current set of ARGOS social data for the kiwifruit sector suggests that, while there is great similarity among the panels, the Organic panel demonstrates the greatest number of distinctive characteristics. The assessment of difference among kiwifruit panels reflects survey results (six variables with statistically significant differences between the Organic and the other panels), qualitative data (more obviously distinctive characteristics attributed to the Organic panel) and causal map analysis (Organic orchardists listed a greater number of factors). The other surveyed data and the sketch maps do not show many panel differences. These kiwifruit results provided evidence of a number of key themes for which there was evidence of panel differences, including: breadth of view, good farming, environmental positioning, feedbacks, orchard management approaches, scope of control, and on- and off-farm relationships. While we have found that it is the Organic panel which is most distinctive, we also note that on some variables the Gold orchardists were closer to the Organic panel than the Kiwigreen panel (more double arrows and total connections in causal maps; a greater readiness to assume risk in the interviews). The sheep/beef results show that, once the many similarities among sheep/beef farmers are taken into account, the Organic panel again demonstrated several distinctive characteristics compared to the Conventional and Integrated panels. This assessment similarly reflects survey results (14 variables with statistically significant differences between the Organic and the other panels), qualitative data (distinctive response of Organic panel to several topics of enquiry) and causal map analysis (Organic farmers had a greater number of important factors). In addition, both the sketch map and the causal map data indicated that location explained some of the variation among farmers. The sheep/beef results provided evidence of a number of key themes for which there was evidence of panel differences, including: breadth of view, good farming, environmental positioning, feedbacks, on- and off-farm relationships, production system management and responses to innovation and risk. While we have found that it is the Organic panel which is most distinctive, we also note that on some variables the Integrated farmers were more similar to the Organic than the Conventional ones. Finally, the report interprets the findings in terms of their potential to differentiate the panels on the basis of social dimensions. While the literature shows at least 15 potential bases for social differentiation between panels, our results support 12 of these. Of these there is six (community; grower networks; craft orientation; sense of place; grower stress and wellbeing; identity) for which there evidence for subtle to moderate differentiation while the remaining six (commercial and economic orientation; learning and expertise; symbolic ‘look’ of the farmscape; indicators of on-farm processes; positioning towards nature/environment; farm management approaches) provide a stronger base for differentiation among panels. In its conclusion, the report identifies key indicated themes that have potential for transdisciplinary discussion, including: audit and market access, resilience, and intensification.

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  • Nutrient budget and water balance for Lake Ngaroto

    Beaton, Rowena; Hamilton, David P.; Brokbartold, Marcel; Brakel, Christoph; Özkundakci, Deniz (2007-06)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The objectives of the present study were to provide an indication of tributary nutrient and sediment levels, and the lake water quality for Lake Ngaroto over a period of summer sampling from December 2006 to February 2007. The measurements were designed to provide a foundation for a comprehensive water balance and nutrient load assessment for the lake in a future study, and to ultimately support informed decision making related to lake management.

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  • A sensitive genetic-based detection capability for Didymosphenia geminate (Lyngbye) M. Schmidt: Phases two and three

    Cary, S. Craig; Hicks, Brendan J.; Coyne, Kathryn J.; Rueckert, Andreas; Gemmill, Chrissen E.C.; Barnett, Catherine Margaret Eleanor (2007-10)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    This study sought to develop a sensitive DNA-based protocol capable of detecting D. germinate in environmental samples with extreme sensitivity. This report is a direct extension from our previous interim report and addresses the subsequent progress in the development and validation of two DNA detection methods for D. germinata.

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  • Indigenous vegetation types of Hamilton Ecological District

    Clarkson, Bruce D.; Clarkson, Beverley R.; Downs, Theresa M. (2007)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The following descriptions of indigenous vegetation types and lists of the most characteristic species have been compiled for the major landform units of the Hamilton Ecological District, which lies within the Waikato Ecological Region (McEwen 1987). The boundaries of the Hamilton Ecological District correspond approximately to those of the Hamilton basin, with the addition of parts of hills and foothills at the margins of the basin. The vegetation descriptions and species lists are based on knowledge of the flora of vegetation remnants in the ecological district, historical records (e.g., Gudex 1954), and extrapolation of data from other North Island sites with similar environmental profiles.

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  • New Zealand farmer and grower attitude and opinion survey : analysis by sector and management system

    Fairweather, John; Hunt, Lesley; Cook, Andrew; Rosin, Chris; Campbell, Hugh (2007)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The core of the ARGOS research design is a longitudinal panel study. Panels of 12 farms were selected to represent conventional, integrated and organic management for the sheep/beef sector, Kiwigreen, gold and organic management for the kiwifruit sector, and conventional and organic management for the dairy sector. The research involves gathering data on these farms in order to assess the nature of production from environmental, economic and social points of view and the design rests on testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between management systems. Farms in the panels were generally typical of their sectors in terms of obvious characteristics such as size, level of production etc. Farms from a range of geographies and with different levels of intensity of production were chosen in order to achieve results that would be applicable to a broad range of farms.

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  • New Zealand farmer and grower attitude and opinion survey : kiwifruit sector

    Fairweather, John; Hunt, Lesley; Cook, Andrew; Rosin, Chris; Benge, Jayson; Campbell, Hugh (2007)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The specific research objective addressed in this report is to assess the kiwifruit sector on a number of topical dimensions. In addition, a related objective is to assess how these dimensions may vary by management system (gold, green and organic). The core of the ARGOS research design is a longitudinal panel study. Panels of 12 farms were selected to represent conventional, integrated and organic management for the sheep/beef sector, green, gold (both employing IPM practices according to ZESPRI’s plant protection programmes) and organic management for the kiwifruit sector, and conventional and organic management for the dairy sector. The research involves gathering data on these farms in order to assess the nature of production from environmental, economic and social points of view and the design rests on testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between management systems. Farms in the panels were generally typical of their sectors in terms of obvious characteristics such as size, level of production etc. Farms from a range of geographies and with different levels of intensity of production were chosen in order to achieve results that would be applicable to a broad range of farms.

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  • Understanding sheep/beef farm management using casual mapping: development and application of a two-stage approach

    Fairweather, John; Hunt, Lesley; Rosin, Chris; Campbell, Hugh; Lucock, David (2007)

    Report
    University of Otago

    Causal mapping was used to document how the participating sheep/beef farmers described and explained the factors involved in their farming systems, broadly defined to include economic, social and environmental factors. Participants identified which factors in the 41 provided were important to the management and performance of their farms and to link these on a map. The overall group map shows that at the core of the map are personal (farmer decision maker and satisfaction) and production factors surrounded by soil, environmental, climatic, family and cost factors. True to the family farm structure of much of New Zealand farming, the map shows the closely integrated role of family in the farming system. And the map is not insular since there are connections extending outwards including other people and related factors especially the marketing or processing organisation along with customers, advisors and sources of information. There is a strong production orientation in the map with some of the strongest connections from farmer decision maker to fertiliser and soil fertility health and to production. However, the environment is also important, reflected in farm environmental health and farm environment as a place to live. The sources of satisfaction (production, farmer decision maker, farm environment as a place to live and family needs) are quite varied and reflect the broad mix of factors at the core of the map.

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  • There are audits, and there are audits : response of New Zealand kiwifruit orchardists to the implementation of supermarket initiated audit schemes

    Rosin, Chris; Hunt, Lesley; Campbell, Hugh; Fairweather, John (2007)

    Report
    University of Otago

    New Zealand’s kiwifruit industry is strongly focused on its commitments to producing a high quality product that meets the increasing demands of its main export markets. This report examines the recent introduction of two programmes designed to meet this goal – a retailer driven audit scheme (EurepGAP) and a fruit quality incentive plan (Taste ZESPRI) – from the perspective of the ARGOS research framework that seeks to assess and enhance the social, economic and environmental sustainability of the sector. The report draws insight from the response of the 36 orcharding households (with equal representation of Hayward, organic Hayward, and Hort 16A management systems) participating in the ARGOS project. Each of the households was involved in a semi-structured, qualitative interview designed to elicit their understandings of and response to constraints on orcharding practice. This report focuses specifically on those constraints associated with participation in the kiwifruit industry, of which EurepGAP and Taste Zespri were most frequently identified. Comparison of the orchardists’ responses to each programme provides insight to the use of such tools in order to promote both fruit qualities as well as socially and environmentally responsible orchard management.

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  • Becoming the audited : response of New Zealand sheep/beef farmers to the introduction of supermarket initiated audit schemes

    Rosin, Chris; Hunt, Lesley; Campbell, Hugh; Fairweather, John (2007)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The primary objective of the ARGOS project is the transdisciplinary examination of the condition of sustainable agriculture in New Zealand (including environmental, economic and social aspects). In pursuit of this objective to date, considerable effort has been dedicated to assessing the comparative sustainability or resilience of designated management panels in three branches of the New Zealand agricultural sector (dairy, kiwifruit and sheep/beef). For this purpose, farms of comparable size and similar location were assigned panel membership as determined by an individual farmer’s compliance (or lack thereof) with existing market audit schemes which – to varying degrees – regulate farm management practice. By sector, the panels are comprised of conventional and organic methods of dairy farming, integrated pest management (Hayward, green, and Hort 16a, gold) and organic (Hayward) methods of kiwifruit production, and conventional, integrated and organic methods of sheep and beef farming. Due to the distinct nature of practices associated with each panel, differences in the assessed ecological, economic and social features of the participating farms and farm households offer the potential to distinguish the relative sustainability of systems based on these practices.

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  • The representativeness of ARGOS panels and between panel comparisons

    Fairweather, John; Hunt, Lesley; Cook, Andrew; Rosin, Chris; Campbell, Hugh (2007)

    Report
    University of Otago

    The core of the ARGOS research design is a longitudinal panel study. Panels of 12 farms were selected to represent conventional, integrated and organic management for the sheep/beef sector, Kiwigreen, gold and organic management for the kiwifruit sector, and conventional and organic management for the dairy sector. The research involves gathering data on these farms in order to assess the nature of production from environmental, economic and social points of view and the design rests on testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between management systems. Farms in the panels were generally typical of their sectors in terms of obvious characteristics such as size, level of production etc. Farms from a range of geographies and with different levels of intensity of production were chosen in order to achieve results that would be applicable to a broad range of farms. Behind this design is the assumption that the panels are reasonably representative of the sectors to which they belong. The analysis presented in this report tests this assumption. Survey data from both the panels and the sectors are used in order to make comparisons on a number of dimensions of farming.

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  • Codfish Island/Whenua Hou Archaeological Project: Preliminary Report

    Smith, Ian; Anderson, Atholl (2007-08)

    Report
    University of Otago

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  • Maori Business Networks in Dunedin: Waiho i te toipoto, kaua i te toiroa: Let us keep close together, not far apart

    Amoamo, Maria; Mirosa, Miranda; Tutakangahau, Hiria (2007-06)

    Report
    University of Otago

    This report is the result of a partnership and consequent research brief established between the University of Otago School of Business, Te Kupeka Umaka Maori Ki Araiteuru Inc. (KUMA), the Dunedin City Council, Te Runanga o Ngai Tahu and Te Tapuae o Rehua. The brief is principally concerned with the collection and analysis of information involving the KUMA (Southern Maori) business network, its current issues and needs and its contribution to the Dunedin economy. This information is presented in the context of published work about Maori enterprise activities in general; including the 2006 Hui Taumata initiative, Accelerating Maori Economic Development. Information was collected from nineteen Dunedin-based businesses in the KUMA network, using Kaupapa Maori principles that included face-to-face interviews. The interviews were tape recorded and then transcribed in ordinary English spelling for ease of reference. Over 20 hours of data was collected in this way. Apart from providing details about the businesses themselves, project findings focus on core issues and themes that are pertinent to successful business growth and development for network members. Key findings include: - The Hui Taumata call to develop people and enterprise for Maori business growth is emerging under the KUMA umbrella. Considerable social capital is evident in the network, but the connection between this capital and the development of Maori assets is an issue that requires significant attention. - KUMA is a young and forward-looking network that has potential to offer regional and national leadership in assisting with the development of Maori business activities. - Time, staffing and compliance issues were identified as the major barriers to current business development - Areas of business weakness that could benefit from professional development activities in the network include research development, marketing, management practices and administration. - The realisation that Maori must accept responsibility for their own actions is a key driving force behind the outcomes of Hui Taumata 2005. The project findings indicate that collective aspiration and the concept of ‘rangatiratanga’ (self-determination) are key motivating elements for launching Maori business start-ups. - Maori network membership is desirable because of the long term commitment to ‘whanaungatanga’ (kinship), rather than for reasons of financial gain. - The ability to network and to create successful businesses is not only about business success but also about the growing esteem and mana of a group of people who are clearly taking charge of their lives. In order to ensure that the KUMA network can be strengthened and developed for both local and national benefit, the following actions are recommended: - Mechanisms are explored to develop and strengthen the KUMA network, including financial support. - The KUMA network reviews its activities in line with members’ suggestions. - Appropriate encouragement and support is provided for senior Maori students to undertake further research in this field. - Executive education opportunities are explored through ongoing dialogue between the School of Business and project partners. - Funding for regional and national studies of other Maori networks is pursued in order to provide a more comprehensive profile of business values, needs and support mechanisms. - Long-term planning for the future global development of Maori businesses is explored between project partners. - The processes developed to generate this project are continued.

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  • The Waikato Region: Major tourism issues and opportunities to facilitate tourism development: Public summary

    Zahra, Anne Louise; Walter, Naomi Jane (2007-11-19)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    A regional tourism project was commissioned by Katolyst, the Waikato Economic Development Agency, to assess the following: What is meant by regional tourism; the current views of industry stakeholders within the tourism and hospitality sectors; major issues, drivers, and obstacles facing tourism and pathways to address them, including industry capabilities and new opportunities for industry growth. The purpose of this research was to record the voice of tourism operators and stakeholders at the grass roots, to identify the specific issues facing the Waikato. Visitors do not focus on geographical or political boundaries, but rather are seeking an experience that transcends these boundaries. The region is generally ignorant of the significant economic impacts of the tourism sector, and education and advocacy is urgently needed. Tourism should not be seen in isolation to other key economic generators for the region, and there is potential for cross sector regional initiatives between tourism and other major sectors within the Waikato that could lead to cross sector strategic growth. The Waikato is a significant player in international visitor expenditure (7th out of 30 tourism regions), although the forecasted growth to 2012 for the Waikato is less than the national average. Although the Australian visitor market is significant for Hamilton International Airport, it comprises just 2% of all Australian visitors to New Zealand. Domestic visitors are the major driver of visitor expenditure in the region, with domestic visitor expenditure in the Waikato the third highest among the 30 tourism regions in New Zealand. Events are a driver, yet there is a perception that there is a lack of coordination and regional linkages. i-SITEs are inadequately funded and can rely on non-visitor revenue streams. There is a need to improve tourism expertise and knowledge to facilitate product development, especially getting current and potential tourism product export ready and to understand the distribution channels for domestic and international marketing. Most operators in the region are small owner operated firms with a few medium sized firms. A number are lacking tourism sector knowledge and business capabilities.

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  • The feasibility of using otolith microchemistry to trace movements of rainbow trout and common smelt in lakes Rotoiti and Rotorua

    Riceman, Matthew Sean; Hicks, Brendan J. (2007-05)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    Otolith microchemistry can be used to determine the natal origins of fish. Our feasibility study using single water samples has determined that the water chemistry around Lakes Rotorua and Rotoiti, have different elemental compositions warranting further investigation. We have shown that juvenile trout populations from spawning tributaries around lakes Rotorua and Rotoitit, Rotoua lakes district, New Zealand, could be grouped by using the ¹³⁷Ba:⁴³Ca isotopic ratio obtained from otolith laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis. The ⁸⁸Sr:⁴³Ca isotopic ration further distinguished between different sample locations when combined with the the ¹³⁷Ba:⁴³Ca isotopic ratio. Laser ablation analysis across common smelt otoliths provided information related to the movements between different chemical habitats across the fishes life and some distinct resident and migratory pattern are presented although further investigation into migration is required. Our preliminary results indicate that we will be able to distinguish natal steam for juvenile rainbow trout and probably lake of origin for common smelt.

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  • Remote sensing of water quality in the Rotorua lakes

    Allan, Mathew Grant; Hicks, Brendan J.; Brabyn, Lars (2007)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The aim of this study was to determine empirical models between Landsat imagery and lake water quality variables (chlorophy11(ch1) a and Secchi depth) to enable water quality variables to be synoptically quantified. These models were then applied to past satellite images to determine temporal patterns in the spatial variation of water quality. Monitoring of lakes to determine temporal patterns in the spatial variation of water quality. Monitoring of lakes using traditional methods is expensive and lakes the ability to effectively monitor the spatial variability of water quality within and between lakes. Remote sensing can provide truly synoptic assessments of water quality, in particular the spatial distribution of phytoplankton. Recent studies monitoring lake water quality using Landsat series platforms have been successful in predicting water quality with a high accuracy. Analysis was carried out on two Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) satellite images of the Rotorua lakes and Lake Taupo, for which most in situ observations were taken within two days of image capture. Regression equations were developed between the Band 1/Band 3 rations (B1/B3) from Landsat images from summer (25 Jan 2002) and spring (24 Oct 2002) and water quality variables measured in the lakes by Environment Bay of Plenty. For summer, the regression of in situ ch1 a concentration in µg/1 from ground data against the Band 1/Band 3 ratio (B1/B3) was Ln ch1 a = 14.141 – 5.0568 (B!/B3) (r² = 0.91, N=16, P<0.001). Ch1 a water quality maps were than produced using these models which were also applied to other images without in situ observations near the time of image capture.

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  • Boat electrofishing survey of five Waitakere City ponds

    Hicks, Brendan J.; Brijs, Jeroen; Bell, Dudley G.; Powrie, Warrick (2007)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    We conducted a fish survey of five ponds (Lake Panorama, Paremuka Pond 1 & 2, Danica Esplanade and Longbush Pond) in the Waitakere District by single-pass boat electrofishing on 18 and 19 of July 2007. We caught 337 fish comprising four introduced and two native fish species in 2.89 km of fished distance from all 5 ponds. Assuming that each of the two bow-mounted anodes caught fish within a 1 m radius, the width fished was 4 m, and the total area fished was 11,537 m² or 1.154 ha. The water temperature for the 5 different ponds ranged between 10.8°C and 14.9°C. In Lake Panorama, shortfinned eel (Anguilla australis) were the most numerous species caught (130 fish ha⁻¹ ), followed by perch (Perca fluviatilis) (100 fish ha⁻¹) and tench (Tinca tinca) (40 fish ha⁻¹). In Paremuka Pond 1, koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) were the most numerous species caught (120 fish ha⁻¹), followed by shortfinned eels (50 fish ha⁻¹). In Paremuka Pond 2, koi carp were again the most numerous species caught (340 fish ha⁻¹), followed by tench (250 fish ha⁻¹) and shortfinned eels (70 fish ha⁻¹). In Danica Esplanade and Longbush Pond, shortfinned eels were the most numerous species caught (140 and 550 fish ha⁻¹respectively), followed by mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). There was more macrophyte cover around the edges of Danica Esplanade compared to Longbush Pond and this decreased the catch rate as a large number of eels in Danica Esplanade were sighted but were unable to be captured. Koi carp were only caught in the Paremuka ponds. The majority of koi carp were caught on the edges of the lake in macrophytes and rushes. Koi carp biomasses were highest in Paremuka Pond 2 at 261 kg ha⁻¹ compared to 106 kg ha⁻¹ in Paremuka Pond 1. Biomass is a more accurate reflection of the potential ecological impact of koi carp than their density. Previous results suggest that 21-73% of the total population is caught on the first removal, depending on water visibility. As we fished the area at each site only once, the estimates in this survey represent a minimum abundance, and true population sizes are likely to be 1.4-4.8 times greater. The density of eels in both the Paremuka ponds is also likely to be higher as a large proportion of eels were able to escape into the macrophytes before they could be captured in the nets. Mosquitofish were also observed to be living in both the Paremuka ponds. Of ecological concern for the Paremuka ponds is the dominance of the fish biomass by introduced koi carp, which have a deleterious impact on aquatic habitats. Another concern for these ponds is the presence of small koi carp (<200 mm), which suggests that natural spawning is most likely occurring, although recent releases of carp into the ponds in another possibility. The fate of the introduced fish varied depending on what species they were. Perch and tench were released back into the ponds after captures as they are classified as sports fish. Koi carp and mosquitofish are classified as unwanted organisms and were humanely destroyed with an anaesthetic overdose (benzocaine), and retained for further analysis.

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  • Top down or bottom up? Feasibility of water clarity restoration in the lower Karori Reservoir by fish removal

    Hicks, Brendan J.; Hamilton, David P.; Ling, Nicholas; Wood, Susanna A. (2007)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    As part of an overall ecosystem assessment of lower Karori Reservoir Sabctuary, Wellington, a number of variables are being monitored routinely, including temperature, nutrients, and phytoplankton and zooplankton populations. Ammonium (NH₄) tends to be the dominant species of inorganic nitrogen most of the time except in late winter when nitrate (NO₃) becomes dominant. Total nitrogen concentrations place Karori Sancturay in a mesotrophic to eutrophic category.

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  • An external evaluation of Phat Pak process and structure: Volume 2: Appendices

    Masters-Awatere, Bridgette; Scanlen, Anna; Corry, Jenny; Ngata, Ronald; Ellis, Kenneth Desmond; Mueller, Sally; Little, Gaylene Robina; Philp, Roger; Soper, Brent (2007-12)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    An evaluation was conducted by the 510 Evaluation Research Group 2007 after receiving a request from the Phat Pak Governance Group (PPGG). The evaluation focused on four areas identified in the Phat Pak service specification plan attached to it’s Ministry of Health contract (Youth participation, Communication Strategies, Decision making Processes and Skills Development).

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  • Assessment of the water quality of ten Waikato lakes based on zooplankton community composition. CBER Contract Report No. 60

    Duggan, Ian C. (2007-05)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    Zooplankton communities were documented from ten Waikato lakes from net haul samples collected in late 2006 and from species hatched from diapausing eggs in sediments collected in early 2007. Lake trophic state was inferred based on the rotifer assemblages observed, and these inferred values were compared with predetermined water quality gradients assessed based on a limited dataset by Environment Waikato.

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  • Remote sensing of freshwater habitats for large rivers and lakes of the Waikato region using sub-pixel classification

    Ashraf, Muhammad Salman; Brabyn, Lars; Hicks, Brendan J. (2007-09)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The overall goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of multi-sensor and multi-spectral remote sensing data for mapping different freshwater habitat zones of large rivers and lakes of the Waikato region. The review of satellite sensors available in NZ for aquatic mapping has identified three data options, which have been purchased for a case study area (Tongariro river delta). These data options are Landsat-5 (30m resolution), ALOS (10m and 2.5m) and QuickBird-2 (2.4m and 0.6m). There is no perfect option available as each option is a compromise between spatial and spectral resolution and cost.

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