2,304 results for Report

  • Aquatic ecology of Lake Rotokare, Taranaki, and options for restoration

    Hicks, Brendan J.; Bell, Dudley G.; Duggan, Ian C.; Wood, Susanna A.; Tempero, Grant Wayne (2013)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    Lake Rotokare is a 17.8-ha natural lake in eastern Taranaki, located 12 km east of Eltham in the 230-ha Rotokare Scenic Reserve. In 2008, the Rotokare Scenic Reserve Trust completed construction of an 8.2-km predator proof fence around the reserve. Frequent algal blooms in summer have led to long periods of lake closure to boating and contact recreation. As there are few lakes in the Taranaki region, these closures are a nuisance to the local community. The objectives of this study were to quantitatively survey the fish community of the lake and to evaluate the lake water quality for the Rotokare Scenic Reserve Trust for the purpose of advising on options for lake restoration. Water quality has not deteriorated since 1976-1980, and, if anything, has improved. Secchi disc depth in 2013 (1.95 m) was very similar to measurements in summer 1980 (mean 1.93 m on 30 January 1980). Mean dissolved reactive phosphorus (± 95% confidence interval) was greater in 1976 (190±50 mg/m³) than mean phosphate concentration in 2013 (93±31 mg/m³, p < 0.05, Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test). The thermocline was deeper in 2013 at 6-7 m compared to 3-4 m in 1977. This indicates that a much greater volume of the lake was oxygenated in February 2013 than in February 1977. Also, the intensity of stratification was less in 2013, as the dissolved oxygen concentration below the thermocline was 21027% compared to just 3% in 1977. This suggests that an improvement in water quality has occurred, probably as a result of stock exclusion. To sample the fish community, boat electrofishing was used at the total of six sites. The total length fished was 1,656 m, which was 6,624 m² in area. Eighty minutes of boat electrofishing caught 234 fish (217 perch, 16 shortfin eels, and 1 longfin eel). Fishing at night showed a 16-fold increase in the catch rate of perch (125 fish/10 min of fishing) compared to fishing during the day (8 fish/10 min of fishing). Perch dominate the fish community in Lake Rotokare and the biomass and density of eels are low, which is unusual for Taranaki water bodies. The mean density of perch was 4.49 fish/100 m², and the mean density for eels was 0.29 fish/100 m². The lower eel density may be a result of impaired access for eels or may be the result of predation by perch on migrant juvenile eels. There have been changes in the zooplankton community since 1980. The North American invader Daphnia galeata was not found in 1980, and appears to have now replaced the cladoceran Bosmina meridionalis and copepod Boeckella sp. We also found a diverse rotifer community.

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  • Strengthening engagements between schools and the science community

    Gilbert, J; Bolstad, R; Bull, A; Carson, S; MacIntyre, W; Spiller, L (2013-12-05)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research aimed to generate evidence-based recommendations for strengthening partnerships between schools and the science community to support students’ science learning and engagement. It was underpinned by a future-oriented perspective, framed by larger questions about the purpose of science education in the context of a rapidly changing 21st-century world. The report digs beneath assumptions about why learners’ and teachers’ engagement with the science community is considered important, and examines what kinds of approaches and supports might sustain future-oriented science education for New Zealand learners.

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  • Super City? State of Auckland report

    Neill, CM; Crothers, C; McGregor, J; Hanna, K; Fletcher, M; Wilson, D (2013-12-12)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    Auckland is New Zealand’s bold experiment in local government. Is the Super City a success, a disappointment or something in between? The local government elections in 2013 provide an opportunity to assess the state of Auckland. How is New Zealand’s largest city measuring up three years on from the unique governance reforms that created it? This report examines various areas of living in Auckland; its people and communities, democratic participation, the economy, the state of the built and natural environment, transport and other infrastructure, public services, confidence in Auckland’s regional and local governance and value for money. It aims to help citizens make informed decisions when they vote in the 2013 local government elections. It also allows them to be involved in a continuing research project that assesses the city they live in.

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  • Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks of New Zealand: A reference volume of lithology, age and paleoenvironments with maps (PMAPs) and database.

    Kamp, Peter J.J.; Vincent, Kirsty A.; Tayler, Michael J.S. (2015)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    This volume presents descriptive geological data and text about each Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic geological unit to formation and member level (in some cases) exposed on land in New Zealand, including their lithology, stratigraphic age and inferred environment of deposition or emplacement. These data are illustrated as two types of PMAPS: a present-day paleoenvironment map of New Zealand; and as restored paleoenvironment maps, one for each million years from 65 Ma to the present. These information and data underpin the development of a new Cenozoic paleogeographical model of New Zealand.

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  • Hawke's Bay Region: Demographic Profile 1986 - 2031

    Jackson, Natalie (2012-02)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    This report outlines the demographic changes that have occurred in Hawke's Bay Region, as well as what trends are expected in the future.

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  • Indigenous vegetation types of Hamilton Ecological District

    Clarkson, Bruce D.; Clarkson, Beverley R.; Downs, Theresa M. (2007)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The following descriptions of indigenous vegetation types and lists of the most characteristic species have been compiled for the major landform units of the Hamilton Ecological District, which lies within the Waikato Ecological Region (McEwen 1987). The boundaries of the Hamilton Ecological District correspond approximately to those of the Hamilton basin, with the addition of parts of hills and foothills at the margins of the basin. The vegetation descriptions and species lists are based on knowledge of the flora of vegetation remnants in the ecological district, historical records (e.g., Gudex 1954), and extrapolation of data from other North Island sites with similar environmental profiles.

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  • Water flow between Ohau Channel and Lake Rotoiti following implementation of a diversion wall.

    Hamilton, David P.; Paul, Wendy J.; McBride, Chris G.; Immenga, Dirk (2009)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    The water quality in Lake Rotoiti has become increasingly degraded since the 1950s. Water from Lake Rotorua, with elevated phytoplankton and nutrient concentrations, has entered Lake Rotoiti via the Ohau Channel. To help improve water quality in Lake Rotoiti, a constructed wall was completed in July 2008, to divert water from the Ohau Channel towards Okere Arm in Lake Rotoiti, with the objective to transport this water into the Kaituna Rivr instead of entering the main basin of Lake Rotoiti. This report has been produced in response to a request from the Rotorua Lake Technical Advisory Group to determine water velocities in the region of the constructed wall, in order to consider the effectiveness of the diversion.

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  • Boat electrofishing survey of common smelt and common bullies in the Ohau Channel

    Brijs, Jeroen; Hicks, Brendan J.; Bell, Dudley G. (2008)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    We conducted a boat electrofishing survey of the Ohau Channel, which flows from Lake Rotorua to Lake Rotoiti, on 13 December 2007. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the longitudinal pattern in densities of common smelt (Retropinna retropinna) and common bullies (Gobiomorphus cotidianus) along the Ohau Channel. We caught 1,267 fish comprising three native fish species and two introduced fish species in 1.58 km of fished distance at a total of 10 sites. Native species caught were the common smelt, common bully and longfinned eel (Anguilla dieffenbachii) and introduced species were rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Assuming that the bow-mounted anodes effectively fished a 4 m swath then the total area fished was 6,328 m2 (0.632 ha). Common smelt densities varied among the 10 different sites in the Ohau Channel ranging from 0 to 10.6 fish 100 m-2. Smelt density was higher at the upstream end of the channel near the weir at the Lake Rotorua outlet, decreasing with increasing distance from the weir. Smelt were found in the littoral zones but were not caught in mid-channel habitats. In the upstream reaches of the Ohau Channel, directly below the weir, a high number of juveniles (4.4 fish 100 m-2) were captured compared to the amount of juveniles captured at the other sites (0 – 1.2 fish 100 m-2). Common bully densities varied among the 10 different sites in the Ohau Channel ranging from 0.2 to 58.3 fish 100 m-2. No longitudinal pattern in the distribution of common bullies was evident along the channel. The highest densities were found halfway along the Ohau Channel where there was an abundance of dense macrophyte beds. Common bully densities were found to be much higher in the edge habitats with macrophyte beds compared to the mid-channel habitats and the willow edge habitat where there were relatively low densities. Size frequency data shows that there is generally a higher proportion of small bullies than larger ones suggesting that recruitment is occurring. Both adult and juvenile rainbow trout were observed in the Ohau Channel. Most of these individuals were found in the upstream section of the channel below the weir and ranged from a 75 mm juvenile to a fully grown adult about 500 mm long. Large longfinned eels were also captured and were only found in the downstream section of the Ohau Channel in willow-dominated edges. In the bottom third section of the channel, near the possible artificial embayment, goldfish were present.

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  • Nutrient Budget for Lakes Rotoiti and Rotorua. Part I: Internal Nutrient Loads

    Hamilton, David P.; Alexander, Will; Burger, David F. (2004)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    Time series data of temperature and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and nutrients (total nitrogen – TN, total phosphorus – TP, nitrate – NO³, ammonium – NH₄ and filterable reactive phosphorus - FRP) were examined for trends in Lake Rotoiti for 1981-82 and 1990-2003 and in Lake Rotorua for 2002-03. TP, NO₃, NH₄ in bottom waters (40-60m) of Lake Rotoiti, below the thermocline, were examined using regression equations to quantify seasonal transformations of TP, NO₃ and NH₄. There is a relatively linear build-up of phosphorus through time in the hypolimnion following the onset of stratification and initiation of deoxygenation until the time of winter mixing. When there were high frequency nutrient data for Lake Rotoiti (1981-82 at 60 m, 1991-94 at 60 m and 2001-02 at 40 m depth) the rate of seasonal phosphorus build-up could be quantified by regression to within a relatively narrow range of 111 mg TP m⁻³ yr⁻¹ (0.304 mg TP m⁻³ day⁻¹ ) in 1992-93 to 136 mg TP m⁻³ yr⁻¹(0.373 mg TP m⁻³ day⁻¹ )in 1981-82. Based on the first and last points of all the regression equations developed for TP increase, approximately 14.4 (1993-94) to 20.5 tonnes (2001-02) of phosphorus may be added to the hypolimnion of Lake Rotoiti during stratification. There is no evidence of a consistant interannual change in the seasonal build-up of phosphorus over the years considered and the reasons for interannual variations in the rates are not immediately apparent.

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  • The impacts of liquor outlets in Manukau City: Summary report

    Cameron, Michael Patrick; Cochrane, William; McNeill, Kellie; Melbourne, Pania; Morrison, Sandra L.; Robertson, Neville (2010-03)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    There has been significant recent debate over the impact of liquor outlets on communities in New Zealand. This report summarises the key results from a research project undertaken between 2008 and 2010. Media analysis and research with community stakeholders confirm that the issue is a focus of concern among communities in New Zealand. In Manukau City, off-licence liquor outlets tend to be located in areas of high social deprivation and high population density, while on-licence liquor outlets tend to be located in main centres and areas of high amenity value. Higher off-licence density is associated with lower alcohol prices and longer opening hours. The density of both off-licence and onlicence liquor outlets is associated with a range of social harms, including various police events and motor vehicle accidents. However, these results are context specific and care should be taken in applying them to other locations.

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  • Formative investigation into the effectiveness of gambling venue exclusion processes in New Zealand

    Bellringer, M; Coombes, R; Pulford, J; Abbott, M (2011-09-07)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    Exclusion of patrons from gambling venues is potentially an effective early intervention for minimising harm from excessive gambling since it may contribute to the treatment and/or recovery of people with developing and established gambling problems. Internationally, some jurisdictional regulations mandate „imposed exclusion‟ programmes, where gamblers with problems are identified by venue staff (usually casinos) and barred from gambling at those venues. In other jurisdictions, „self-exclusion‟ programmes are in place, where gamblers may request that they be banned from the venue, removed from its mailing list and potentially face legal consequences if they re-enter the premises. Traditionally, such self-exclusion programmes have been operated by casinos but increasingly are being required for clubs and pubs where electronic gaming machines are located. In New Zealand, The Gambling Act 2003 stipulates that both imposed- and self- exclusion measures should be operated. The Act refers to these exclusion measures as an "order‟ but colloquial use of the term "contract‟ has been used throughout this report due to the word usage amongst participants in this research and in the literature. However, there is a paucity of research regarding the effectiveness of gambling venue exclusion processes per se and even less information outside the casino environment. In addition, the effectiveness of the particular processes in force in New Zealand has not been evaluated. Currently, different processes are operated by different venues, for example with variations in minimum and maximum exclusion periods, and different requirements for re-entering the gambling venue when an exclusion contract comes to an end. Given that exclusion programmes consume private and public resources and are a legislated requirement, it is important that their effectiveness be ascertained. This will have substantial implications in terms of the potential to improve existing processes to ensure maximum minimisation of harms from gambling. In August 2008, the Gambling and Addictions Research Centre at Auckland University of Technology was commissioned by the Ministry of Health to conduct the research project Formative investigation into the effectiveness of gambling venue exclusion processes in New Zealand. The purpose of this project was two-fold: a) to ascertain the most suitable methodology and processes for researching venue excluders in order to robustly evaluate the effectiveness of current venue exclusion processes, and b) to gain some initial insight into the effectiveness of gambling (particularly electronic gaming machine and casino) venue exclusion processes in New Zealand.

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  • Evaluation of problem gambling intervention services: stage three final report

    Bellringer, M; Coombes, R; Pulford, J; Garrett, N; Abbott, M (2011-09-07)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    The Ministry of Health is responsible for the funding and coordination of problem gambling services and activities in New Zealand. This includes the funding of a national telephone helpline, two national face-to-face counselling services and several regional treatment providers which include Maori and Pacific specific services (Asian specific services are provided as a division of one of the national face-to-face treatment providers) (Ministry of Health, 2008a). From 2008, the Ministry of Health funded face-to-face problem gambling treatment providers have received specific training around the Ministry of Health expectations for service practice requirements (e.g. the types of intervention that will be funded and the processes expected within those interventions as well as for referrals for co-existing issues), and expectations around data collection, management and information submission to the Ministry of Health. The Ministry of Health has also identified specific sets of screening instruments to be used with clients, which vary depending on whether the client is receiving a Brief or Full-length intervention, or is a problem gambler or family/whanau member („significant other‟) of a gambler. These screening instruments came into use in 2008, with different sets of instruments having been used previously. At the present time, the effectiveness of the current problem gambling treatment services is largely unknown, as is the optimal intervention process for different types of client. Whilst this sort of information can ultimately only be ascertained through rigorously conducted effectiveness studies (randomised controlled trials) (Westphal & Abbott, 2006), an evaluation (process, impact and outcome) of services could provide indications as to optimal treatment pathways and approaches for problem gamblers and affected others, as well as identifying successful strategies currently in existence nationally and internationally and areas for improvement in current service provision. In September 2008, the Gambling and Addictions Research Centre at Auckland University of Technology was commissioned by the Ministry of Health to conduct the research project Evaluation of problem gambling intervention services. This project was to focus on four priority areas: 1.) Review and analysis of national service statistics and client data to inform workforce development, evaluation of the Ministry of Health systems and processes, and other related aspects 2.) Process and outcome1 evaluation of the effect of different pathways to problem gambling services on client outcomes and delivery 3.) Process and outcome1 evaluation of distinct intervention services 4.) Process and outcome1 evaluation of the roll-out and implementation of Facilitation Services2

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  • Kaipatiki project environment centre: project analysis

    Douglas, C; Ryoo, Y; Davis, M (2011-10-13)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    Kaipatiki Project

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  • Wijsman hyperspaces: subspaces and embeddings

    Cao, J; Junnila, H; Moors, W (2012-03-29)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    In this paper, topological properties of Wijsman hyperspaces are investigated. We study the existence of isolated points in Wijsman hyperspaces. We show that every Tychonoff space can be embedded as a closed subspace in the Wijsman hyperspace of a complete metric space which is locally R.

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  • The role of academic literacy in post-graduate hospitality education

    Strauss, P; Goodsir, W (2011-10-31)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    Staff and students in the School of Hospitality and Tourism at AUT, and practitioners working in a number of hotels in Auckland, participated in a project investigating the role of academic literacy in postgraduate hospitality study. The project investigated stakeholders‟ perceptions as to what they regarded as appropriate standards of literacy and how challenges in this area could be addressed. First language speakers of English (L1) were overrepresented in the student cohort, yet even among this group it was apparent that academic writing was problematic. As well as linguistic and structuring difficulties, it appeared that the educational practices many had experienced in their undergraduate studies had not equipped them to communicate effectively in writing at this level. Lecturers were concerned about the lowly status accorded to Hospitality in the academic world. It was a matter of concern that hospitality students, particularly at postgraduate level, be judged as the equal of their peers in other fields. While they shared a concern about students‟ ability to write effectively they were divided as to how the competing discourses of the academy and the industry should be managed. The practitioners were concerned that hospitality education at university level was not sufficiently practical. They did not feel that students‟ ability to write effectively was a major concern although they did want graduates to produce clear, succinct texts. In this research suggestions have been made as to how these tensions might be addressed by the academic community. These include acknowledging the changing face of tertiary education and considering a more flexible approach to student writing; providing embedded discipline-specific academic literacy support utilising a team teaching approach with an EAP (English for academic purposes) practitioner; pursuing various feedback options on draft writing and acknowledging that writing skills are a „work in progress‟

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  • The effects of adult involvement on children participating in organised team sports

    Walters, SR; Schluter, P; Thomson, R; Payne, D (2011-10-21)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    There are clearly identified social, physical, and mental health benefits of physical activity in primary aged children. With an unequivocal link between sport and physical activity, it would appear to be fundamentally important that children are encouraged to participate in sporting activities. Parents and coaches have been acknowledged as key influences in their children‟s uptake, enjoyment, and ongoing participation in sport. However, concerns have been commonly expressed in the media, both in New Zealand and internationally, about inappropriate sideline behaviour displayed by adults at children‟s sporting events. In spite of this, few studies have examined the nature and effect of parental or coaching behaviour at children‟s sporting events. In addition, although young children‟s views are increasingly becoming seen to be important, relevant and valuable, there is no evidence in the peer-reviewed literature of New Zealand based research that has been undertaken with children in this area. Using a scientifically robust epidemiological design and observation instrument, a key aim of this research was to benchmark the prevalence of various coaching behaviours at children‟s (aged 6 to 11 years) events for four major sports (rugby union, touch rugby, soccer, and netball). Utilising a mixed-methods approach, another key aim of this research was to give voice to sporting administrators, parents, children, referees/umpires, and coaches about the effects of parental behaviours at children‟s sporting fixtures. The findings presented in this study provide prevalence and patterns of verbal coach behaviour from 72 sporting fixtures not previously recorded in New Zealand. In total, 10,697 coach comments were recorded at, on average, 3.71 (95% CI: 3.64, 3.79) comments/minute. The coaching behaviours recorded did not always reflect a nurturing, positive, developmentally-appropriate approach to the coaching of children‟s team sports. Of the total number of comments recorded, 35.4% were categorised as positive, xii 21.6% as negative, and 43% as neutral. Significant differences in the distribution of comments were found between sports, with rugby union coaches recording the lowest percentage of positive comments and the highest percentage of negative comments. The percentage of negative comments aimed at umpires and officials was higher in touch rugby and in rugby union than in netball and soccer. The discursive analysis employed in this study revealed the dominance of a sport as competition discourse that would appear to serve the needs more of over-competitive coaches and parents than the needs of children. For children, being treated equally and fairly is a primary concern. Children enjoy competition, but appear to be able to put winning into perspective. There is pressure on children, through disciplinary measures, to conform to the normative behaviours associated with an adult-controlled version of sport. The results of this research provide an evidence-base to inform policy and the development of interventions with regions and nationally; evidence which may also be applicable to other developed countries. Until a child-centred approach to coaching is routinely adopted across all sports, the sometimes extremely negative perceptions of children‟s sport will remain.

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  • FSL-RFG(Maleimide) FSL construction kit

    Henry, SM; Rodionov, I (2011-10-12)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    The FSL-RFG(Maleimide) FSL Construction Kit is for use in creating Function-Spacer-Lipid (FSL) constructs for use in non-covalent cell-surface modification/engineering of cellular membranes, viral particles, liposomes, or other surfaces [1-10]. FSL-RFG(Mal) is one of several FSL constructs with Reactive Functional Groups (RFG); with this construct having maleimide as its Function group. The semi-rigid Spacer in this molecule is constructed via modified hexapeptide unit (Gly-Gly-Ida)2 coupling to both amino groups of ethylenediamine and has been designed to ensure accessibility for target binding/external interactions and proper presentation of functional peptides at a cell or virion surface as well as imparting good solubility to the construct. Electrostatic repulsion forces of spacer’s anionic groups probably favor uniform distribution of the incorporated constructs on the membrane surface [11]. The diacyl phospholipid derived from unsaturated fatty acids is a prerequisite for spontaneous incorporation into cell membranes. This FSL-RFG(Maleimide) FSL Construction Kit cat # 960819-1-R&D (includes a detailed procedure and contains reagents sufficient for one FSL preparation on a milligram scale from cysteine-containing peptides (Figure 1), proteins or any other thiols of biological interest. The effective synthetic approach is based on the well-known Michael nucleophilic addition to maleimides, which react fast and selectively with SH-groups in the pH range 6.5-7.5 producing stable thioether linkages completely stable at physiological conditions [12-15]. The reaction half-life between millimolar concentrations of maleimide and thiol is estimated to be of the order of few seconds [14,15]; but more complex and heavy molecules of biochemical interest interact somewhat slower even when applied in 10-fold excess and durations of at least 2 hours are recommended [16]. The protocol described here is optimized for this kit using FSL-RFG(Mal) with generic peptides and addresses problems which may be encountered if purification of completed FSL constructs is required.

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  • Stratigraphic columns and correlations for the Late Eocene - Oligocene Te Kuiti Group, central-western North Island, New Zealand

    Kamp, Peter J.J.; Tripathi, Anand Ratnakar Prasad; Nelson, Campbell S. (2008)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    This report presents a compilation of stratigraphic columns for geological sections and outcrops of Late Eocene – Oligocene Te Kuiti Group units in central-western parts of North Island, New Zealand, between Port Waikato and Awakino. The columns have been prepared as part of a basin analysis investigation undertaken by the Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology Research Group in the Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences at the University of Waikato, and have been compiled into a common format from recent MSc and PhD theses to make the information more readily available, principally to assist hydrocarbon exploration activities in the region. The columns represent a level of detail underpinning a rationalized lithostratigraphy of the Te Kuiti Group presented in a companion report (Tripathi et al. 2008). This report contains two enclosures, one show in the location of columns in relation to the distribution of the two subgroups (Okoko Subgroup, Castle Craig Subgroup) of the Te Kuiti Group, and the other shows a series of north-south and west-east column correlation panels.

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  • FSL-A+B(tri) Serologic teaching kit

    Henry, SM; Perry, HE (2011-11-28)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    Many teaching/training laboratories do not have access to a source of specimens that will give a full range of serologic reaction grades, or those representative of ABO weak subgroups. As a consequence many laboratory staff may lack a learning opportunity or continued experience in detecting weak serologic reactions. The ability to manually score serologic reactions is important particularly as part of disaster response planning, as laboratories may need to be relocated to areas without support of automated machines. In such situations staff need to be both competent and confident in their ability to manually perform serology. Group O RBCs can be controllably modified (koded) with blood group A and/or B Function-Spacer-Lipid (FSL) constructs to mimic the full serological range of weak ABO subgroups. These so-called kodecytes (KODE™ construct modified cells) already have a range of uses including quality control systems and will react with most monoclonal anti-A and B blood grouping reagents. The quality (sensitivity and specificity) of various monoclonal reagents varies significantly. This FSL-A+B(tri) Serologic Teaching Kit has been specifically designed for teaching purposes to create red cells (kodecytes) expressing reproducible and controlled levels of blood group A and B antigens to group O red cells. The aim is create kodecytes that can determine and improve the skill level of the operator to detect weak serologic agglutination reactions that may be encountered when blood typing weak phenotypes of blood group A or B. FSL-A+B(tri) Serologic Teaching Kit is a mixture of KODE™ technology FSL blood group A and B trisaccharide constructs designed for teaching/training purposes. This product contains a mixture of 0.5 mg of FSL-A(tri) and 1.5 mg of FSL-B(tri). All FSL constructs disperse in saline solutions and spontaneously and stably incorporate into cell membranes.

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  • The distribution of Mixing Times in Markov Chains

    Hunter, JJ (2012-01-20)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    The distribution of the “mixing time” or the “time to stationarity” in a discrete time irreducible Markov chain, starting in state i, can be defined as the number of trials to reach a state sampled from the stationary distribution of the Markov chain. Expressions for the probability generating function, and hence the probability distribution of the mixing time starting in state i are derived and special cases explored. This extends the results of the author regarding the expected time to mixing [J.J. Hunter, Mixing times with applications to perturbed Markov chains, Linear Algebra Appl. 417 (2006) 108–123], and the variance of the times to mixing, [J.J. Hunter, Variances of first passage times in a Markov chain with applications to mixing times, Linear Algebra Appl. 429 (2008) 1135–1162]. Some new results for the distribution of recurrence and first passage times in three-state Markov chain are also presented.

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