17 results for Scholarly text, 1950

  • The Historical and Psychological Significance of the Unorganized Games of New Zealand Primary School Children

    Sutton-Smith, Brian (1953)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In the Spring of 1948 while teaching at a primary school, I observed a small group of girls playing a game called "Tip the Finger". During the game one of the players chanted the following rhyme: "Draw a snake upon your back And this is the way it went North, South, East, West, Who tipped your finger?" I recognized immediately and with some surprise that this rhyme contained elements which were not invented by the children and were probably of some antiquity. I knew, for example, though only in a vague and unlearned manner, that the four pattern of the North, South, East and West and the Snake symbolism were recurrent motifs in mythology and folklore. I was aware also that there did not exits any specialized attempt to explain the part that games of this nature played in the lives of the players.

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  • The Struggle for Imperial Preferential Trade, 1887-1917, with Particular Reference to New Zealand

    Galloway, Ian Thomas (1952)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The years 1887-1917 were years of continuous efforts to reconcile seeming irreconcilables in the economic sphere of relations between Great Britain and those of her self-governing colonies who were rapidly attaining to nationhood: Canada, the Australian and South African colonies, and New Zealand. Simply stated the problem on the one side was how the Mother Country could satisfy the demands of these colonies for some preference to their exports, when to do so would involve her in a fiscal revolution. She stood firmly, with almost religious fervour by the tenets of free trade, and to advocate any radical change would be a policy of political suicide for any party which adopted it as its platform. At the time she was the leader of the world's commerce, a fact that she attributed to the very free trade policy which the colonies would overthrow. From the colonial point of view, the problem was to meet what appeared to them, a growing threat to their own exports by those foreign powers, mainly Germany and America, who through a policy of protection were keeping British products out of their own markets, and who through subsidies and differential rates were able to undersell the colonies on the Home market. These same foreign powers, in spite of colonial protective tariffs, were able to compete with the small local industries, and in many cases could undersell the the produce of the Mother Country in the colonies. The answer which the colonies seized eagerly upon and fought so long and strenuously for, was an imperial preferential trade. Immediately, however, they were faced with the fact that the portion of the Empire most concerned, namely Britain, refused to change her fiscal system for a policy which she considered unnecessary and inimical to her own interests.

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  • Degradative Studies in the Picrotoxinin Series

    Carman, Raymond Maurice (1958)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    PICROTOXIN is a bitter principle of the berries of the species Mensiperum coculus and Anamirata coculus, creepers which are indigenous to the East Indies. It was first isolated in 1812, and subsequent elementary analysis showed that it contained only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Because of its potent poisonous nature and its physiological action, together with its high oxygen content, picrotoxin has often been referred to as an “oxygen alkaloid”. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a powerful convulsant drug. It is used in medicine as an antidote to barbiturate poisoning, being still preferred for this purpose over many other drugs. It has also been used in cases of alcoholic intoxication, and as a fish poison.

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  • Contributions to the Geology of Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand

    O'Shea, Bernard Emmett (1957)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    During the passage of the lahar, shortly after 10 o'clock on Christmas Eve 1953, a portion of the Whangaehu River rail bridge at Tangiwai was demolished by a raging torrent of mud and boulders which originated from the Crater Lake of Mt. Ruapehu, nearly twenty miles distant. This mudflow, or lahar, damaged the railway bridge piers and the Wellington-Auckland express plunged into the torrent. As a result, one hundred and fifty-one people lost their lives. During tramping and ski-ing trips over the past five years the writer has become well acquainted with the National Park area. Close inspection of the Crater Lake was made on 1 January 1954, and again on 22 January. On the latter date the writer was accompanied by two chemists from the Chemistry Department, Victoria University College, and one from the Dominion Laboratory of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, who collected samples of the lake water. On 24 January, the Whangaehu River was followed from the Desert Road to where it emerges from a deep gorge on the lower slopes of Mt. Ruapehu. A number of braided channels were examined on the alluvial fan that extends east from the outlet gorge almost to the Desert Road. On the same day the scene of the disaster at Tangiwai was also inspected

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  • Studies on the Biology of Soil Ciliates

    Stout, John David (1952)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The soil ciliate fauna consists of at least three major groups: (a) Species found wholly or chiefly in granular soils and litters and which may also be found in moss or sphagnum. These species are often larger than other soil species and structurally more specialized. (b) Species also commonly fond in sewage, faeces or polluted water. These are chiefly small holotrichous ciliates which feed on bacteria. They tolerate a wide range of pH, salinity, temperature, oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions. They generally have a well developed cyst physiology. (c) Species of common fresh water genera which differ from the fresh water species chiefly in size. They are generally small holotrichous ciliates fairly widespread in soil although they have not yet been recorded from other habitats. Parasitic species such as Balantidium and anaerobic species such as Trimyema occur very rarely. Suctorians occur occasionally. In the laboratory most species grow best in a medium nearest their natural environment, viz. soil or peat extract. This is particularly true of the first and third groups. The second group grows well in enriched media which are not tolerated by the other species. In a laboratory culture most species are found associated with the bottom detritus but one species, Blepharisma steini, common in litters and occasionally pigmented, avoids the bottom of the culture and is found only at the surface. Soil ciliates are not affected by pH changes over a wide range. In a soil laboratory culture there is less variation than in ordinary laboratory infusions, pH and Eh are fairly stable, and after the first week the bacterial flora consists principally of Pseudomonas. The ciliate fauna is present for about six weeks, the first species appearing within a few days, the majority being present after the first week, and finally the carnivorous species Dileptus alone being present after twenty weeks. The rhizopod fauna does not appear until after the majority of ciliate species have disappeared. The effect of a heavy inoculation of bacteria into a mixed culture of protozoa causes the death of certain species, such as Euplotes aediculatus and the rapid growth of other species such as Paramecium caudstum, Cyclidum glaucoma and Vorticella microstoma which encyst or die when the bacteria are wholly consumed. Other species such as Vorticella striata neither die nor divide rapidly. Continued heavy inoculations of bacteria cause Veritcella microstoma to form unstable cysts due it is suggested to the accumulation of bacterial metabolites and the strongly reducing conditions. These cysts excyst when aerated. They are larger than the normal resting cyst which is formed on the exhaustion of food. Only a few species such as Colpoda steinii, Colpoda inflata and Colpoda cucullus survive anoxia for any length of time at room temperatures. These facultative anaerobes continue to feed and move although they cannot divide or excyst. Rarely they form unstable cysts. Other ciliates which also survive for some time are Stentor roeseli and Vorticella microstoma both normally sessile forms. The former becomes detached and swims freely in the medium with the aid of its peristomal cilia. Vorticella also becomes detached and forms a telotroch or swarmer which does not settle unless oxygen is present. The telotroch will survive in the absence of oxygen a little over two days. It cannot feed and it is suggested that the limited survival of these two ciliates is due partly to the exhaustion of their food reserves. Other species such as Stylonychia mytilus a common fresh water species and Halteria graudinella are extremely sensitive to anoxia. Colpoda steinii, Colpoda inflata and Paramecium caudatum are very resistant to high carbon dioxide tensions and C. steinii will continue to move though not feed or divide at very high carbon dioxide tensions. Halteria grandinella is moderately resistant but Coleps hirtus and Stylonychia mytilus are extremely sensitive. Vorticella microstoma in response to high carbon dioxide tensions forms a telotroch which survives a comparatively long time. The trophic ciliate is much more sensitive. Stentor also becomes detached in high carbon dioxide tensions. Colpoda steinii will grow in salinities up to 3% NaCl but division is progressively inhibited and unstable cysts are formed. Excystment takes place only if the environment is hypotonic to the ciliate. Growth of Colpoda steinii is most rapid at about 27 [degrees] c. At high and low temperatures division is inhibited and unstable cysts are formed. This unstable cyst is similar to the reproductive cyst but unlike that cyst remains inactive until the inhibiting factor, e.g. temperature or salinity, is removed. The factors which inhibit division also inhibit excystment and for this reason it is presumed that a common morphogenetic mechanism, identified with the 'activity' system found in other organisms, underlies them both. An interpretation of the physiology of Colpoda upon this assumption is used to explain the common effect of diverse environmental factors. Encystment and excystment are considered two distinct processes, contrary to the suggestion of Bridgeman (1948) who considered them complementary. Excystment of Vorticella microstoma may be stimulated by very low oxygen tensions but is normally dependent upon the presence of bacteria. Activation of the encysted Vorticella leads to two processes: the differentiation of the telotroch and the escape of the ciliate from the cyst membrane. Following imbibition of water the ciliate bursts through the cyst pore the aboral end foremost. The posterior ciliary wreath is normally differentiated after the ciliate escapes from the cyst membrane and assumes the elongated body form of the telotroch. Sometimes the ciliate fails to escape and a fully differentiated telotroch is formed within the cyst membrane. Following excystment the telotroch becomes free swimming and finally settles. It swims with the aboral end and the posterior ciliary wreath directed anteriorly. Telotrochs are normally formed during excystment or by division but anoxia or high carbon dioxide tensions will also cause the trophic ciliate to form a telotroch. It does not encyst under these conditions contrary to prevailing opinion (Brand, 1923). A consideration of the bionomics of ciliates shows that their ecology is determined in their behaviour, life history and physiology. Soil species, such as Colpoda, are distinguished by their small size, their tolerance of a wide range of soil conditions and the efficiency of their cyst physiology. Fresh water species are excluded from soil either because they are not tolerant of such environmental conditions as high carbon dioxide tensions, e.g. Coleps hirtus, or because they have a poorly developed cyst physiology, e.g. Paramecium.

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  • Representative Institutions in Western Samoa During the Mandate 1919 - 1946

    Martin, J. R. (1959)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study began as a description of the government of Western Samoa as a whole during the Mandate period 1919-1946. It soon became apparent that within the limits imposed by the time and space available it would not be possible to give an adequate treatment of such a wide subject, The scope was then reduced to a study of representative institutions during the period; the thesis is thus concerned with a well defined aspect of colonial administration rather than to provide a well rounded study in comparative political institutions. (To put the study in its correct perspective it was necessary also to include a brief chapter on District and Village Government and quite lengthy descriptive and historical chapters.) An additional reason for reducing the scope of the work was the wealth of untouched primary material available in the records of the Department of Island Territories, which were made freely available by the Secretary (Mr. J.M. McEwen). The scarcity of documentation available on the controversial history of New Zealand's Mandate a matter of considerable concern in view of the Territory's imminent independence made it seem worthwhile to collate as fully as possible material from this primary source. Although this may perhaps have been achieved at the cost of developing an original narrative, the exercise of compilation will have been of some value if it provides a starting point for more analytical studies.

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  • Calendar 1959

    Victoria University of Wellington (Wellington, N.Z.) (1959)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1958

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1958)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1957

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1957)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1956

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1956)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1954

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1954)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1955

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1955)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1951

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1951)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1952

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1952)

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    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1953

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1953)

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    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1958 no. 2

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1958)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1950

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1950)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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