88 results for Scholarly text, 1970

  • Bishop Hobhouse: the Nelson episcopate (1859-1865) of the Rt. Rev Edmund Hobhouse D.D., first bishop of Nelson, New Zealand

    Clarke, Timothy Peter (1977)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In 1841 New Zealand became a diocese of the United Church of England and Ireland and the Rev. George Augustus Selwyn, a former student and tutor of Eton, was consecrated as its bishop. Throughout the colony's earliest years Selwyn laboured alone to create for it a comprehensive episcopal system of ecclesiastical organisation. In 1856 he was joined by an old friend, the Rev. Henry John Chitty Harper who accepted the new bishopric centred on J.R. Godley's Church of England settlement in Canterbury. Further division of Selwyn's over-large diocese in 1858 created new dioceses in what had been the New Zealand Company's settlements at Wellington and Nelson and the Ven. Charles Abraham and the Rev. Edmund Hobhouse were appointed as their bishops. At the same time the volcanic plateau and east coast of the North Island became the missionary diocese of Waiapu with the Ven. William Williams as its bishop.

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  • Frequency Dispersion of Impedance in a Molten Electrolyte

    Clarkson, Thomas Stephen (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    It is an experimental fact that the impedance of an electrolyte as usually measured (by conductance bridge in a two electrode cell) is dependent on the frequency of the applied voltage. A quantity of fundamental physical significance in the elucidation of the structure of an electrolyte is the mobility of the conducting species. In order to know the mobilities of conducting species it is necessary to know the resistance of the particular electrolyte. However in order to establish the nature of the electrolyte i.e. its structure, resistance measurements are required which are precise and accurate and the variation of resistance (conductance) with temperature must be accurately know.

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  • An Exploratory Investigation into the Farm Credit Market in New Zealand

    Stanbridge, R J (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    An increasing interest in the finance of farming in New Zealand has emerged in recent years. This is a result of three major developments: (i) the increasing reliance of the farm sector on external sources of finance. For instance, debt per farm has been increasing at an annual compound rate of 12% between 1963 and 1970; (ii) the effect of recent economic phenomena, such as falling product prices and a high rate of internal inflation, which have highlighted the question of a farm debt "burden"; (iii) the increasing sophistication of the New Zealand economy. This has offered the community alternative investment opportunities and has raised the question of availability of finance for farmers to sustain and increase their production.

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  • An Impedance Study of the Membrane Polarisation Effect in Simulated Rock Systems

    McKubre, Michael Charles Harold (1976)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Work is reported on the development of a high precision, low frequency impedance bridge, and the use of impedance measurement in characterising the induced polarisation effect of unmineralised material. Impedance spectra for a variety of laboratory model clay/rock/electrolyte systems are analysed in terms of an equivalent circuit. By measuring the dependence of the parameters of this circuit, on such variables as electrolyte type and concentration, temperature and pore geometry, an electrochemical model for membrane polarisation has been developed. Polarisation is considered to arise from diffusional limitation of cations at the membrane/electrolyte interface of clay aggregations in rock pores, and this is found to be amenable to a Warburg diffusional impedance analysis.

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  • Ultraproducts and Higher Order Models

    Malcolm, Wilfred Gordon (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The programme of work for this thesis began with the somewhat genenal intention of parallelling in the context of higher order models the ultraproduct construction and its consequences as developed in the literature for first order models. Something of this was, of course, already available in the ultrapower construction of W.A.J. Luxemburg used in Non Standand Analysis. It may have been considered that such a genenal intention was not likely to yield anything of significance oven and above what was already available from viewing the higher order situation as a 'many sorted' first order one and interpreting the first order theory accordingly. In the event, however, I believe this has proved not to be so. In particular the substructure concepts developed in Chapter II of this thesis together with the various embedding theorems and their applications are not immediately available fnom the first order theory and seem to be of sufficient worth to warrant developing the higher order theory in its own terms. This, anyway, is the basic justification for the approach and content of the thesis.

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  • Glutathione-S-Crotonyl-N-Acetylthioethanolamine Alkenetransferase: Properties and Comparison with Other Glutathione-S-Transferases

    Speir, Thomas Wilson (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A mercapturic acid is an N-acetylated-S-substituted -L-cysteine in which the substitutive group is generally inert to further enzymic reaction (Wood, 1970). Detoxication of foreign compounds to mercapturic acids in mammals has been known for almost 100 years, however the source of cysteine for conjugation has only recently been positively determined.

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  • Aspects of the Language and Thought of Four-Year-Old Maori Children: a Study Based on Bierwisch's Componential Analysis of a Set of Adjectives

    McDonald, Geraldine (1976)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Using an analysis developed by the linguist Manfred Bierwisch of the semantic components of the set of spatial adjectives, big, little, long, short, high, low, wide, narrow, deep, shallow, far, near, thick, thin, fat, thin, tall and short, four series of tests were constructed in order to determine whether differences existed in the meaning systems of Maori and of Pakeha four-year-old children with respect to these words, and whether Maori and Pakeha performances were similar across all four series. The series were: (a) A word recognition series testing for components of meaning in which pairs of components were placed in binary opposition. (b) An implication series testing for understanding of the concepts referred to by the words of the set. (c) An anomaly series, designed to elicit words of the set and to explore the children's understanding of the use of words. (d) A feature series which explored the children's implicit understanding of normativity and proportion. In addition the children were asked to do a drawing of something big and something little. Their mothers were also interviewed in order to collect information about a number of background variables such as mother's education, father's occupation and the language background of the child. Maori and Pakeha samples were established by asking the mothers to give the ethnic identity of the child. The main findings were that the Pakeha performed better than the Maori sample on recognition of the set of target words but this difference did not reach a level of statistical significance. Two words of the set, low and wide were recognised significantly more often by Pakeha than by Maori. With regard to the range of the words of the set elicited the Pakeha children produced a greater variety of words but, again, this difference was not statistically significant. The two samples performed about equally with regard to comprehension of the concepts signified by the words of the set. Nor was any important difference detected in the feature series or the drawings. An analysis of choice patterns showed no significant difference between the two samples. These results were interpreted to mean that the four-year-old Maori children in the sample did not exhibit cognitive deficit relative to the Pakehas even though they showed differences in word recognition and word use. Nor were they hampered in their access to the meaning of the words in the study by acquaintance with the Maori language. In order to assess the possible effects of various background factors, measures of word recognition, concepts, and strategies (choice patterns) were correlated with the background variables. The age of the child was significantly associated with the concept scores and with number of words elicited. Father's occupation was associated significantly with words recognised in the Pakeha sample but not in the Maori sample. In addition to exploring possible Maori-Pakeha differences in interpretation of words and concepts, the semantic feature acquisition hypothesis was examined and found to be inadequate as an explanation of the acquisition of words and meaning. An alternative multi-level model based on a hierarchy of preferred interpretations was developed to suggest the way in which the words of the set and their meanings are acquired by the young child.

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  • Some Studies of New Zealand Quaternary Pyroclastic Rocks

    Kohn, Barry Paul (1973)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The development of volcanic "ash" studies in New Zealand can be traced through three broad periods (Jeune 1970). During the late 19th century the extensive pumice deposits surrounding Lake Taupo received considerable comment (Crawford 1875, Smith 1876 and Cussen 1887). Thomas (1887) recognised a covering of younger andesitic ash from Mts. Tongariro and Ruapehu overlying the pumice from Taupo and in his 1888 report on the eruption of Mt. Tarawera in 1886, Thomas provided a valuable description of the eruption and the deposits resulting from it. Tephra deposits received only cursory attention during the following years until soil surveys initiated as part of the research effort into bush sickness demonstrated a relationship between incidence of the disease and soil derived from tephra (Aston 1926). Extended soil surveys followed (Granger 1929, 1931, 1937, Taylor 1930, 1933, Grange and Taylor 1931, 1932) during the course of which many important soil forming tephras were named, described and mapped. On the basis of minerals studies, contributions were recognised from four recently active volcanic centres; Taupo, Rotorua, Tongariro National Park and Mt. Egmont.

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  • Mechanical Properties of Fibre-Reinforced Materials: the Wood-Water System

    Cave, Ian Douglas (1973)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The mechanical properties of wood are investigated from a "quasi-elastic point of view that makes allowance for variation in moisture content. The theoretical work is divided into three parts. The first part shows that wood may be regarded as a fibre-reinforced composite material and then builds up models of wood structure in terms of an assemblage of basic fibre-composite elements. The second part derives the constitutive relations for a fibre-reinforced composite consisting of, an inert fibrous phase embedded in a water reactive matrix; and the third part is concerned with the properties of the matrix of wood substance. The theoretical work is then tested against mechanical data from a set of specimens for which individual models have been devised. From this work, functions describing the behaviour of the matrix with moisture contest are obtained and the structural modelling procedures and the constitutive relation are shown to be not inconsistent with the observations. It was found that in addition to the mean cellulose microfibril angle, the matrix sorption properties are of great importance in correctly predicting Longitudinal shrinkage behaviour.

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  • Quantum Many-Body Theory

    Henderson, James Robert (1977)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis is a collection of theoretical investigations into different aspects of the broad subject of quantum many-body theory. The results are grouped into three main parts, which in turn are divided into separate self-contained sections. Some of the work is presented in the form of published papers and papers that have been submitted for publication. The first section of Part A introduces some of the concepts involved in many-body problems, by developing methods to evaluate expectation values of the form . In the rest of Part A I consider collective excitations of finite quantum systems. The calculations are confined to nuclei because the results can then be compared with the extensive investigations that have been made into collective nuclear modes. In Section AII, wavefunctions are proposed for rotational excitations of even-even nuclei. Both isoscalar and isovector nuclear modes are discussed. In particular, the l2,m> isoscalar states are investigated for both spherical and deformed even-even nuclei, and the simplest isovector wavefunction is shown to give a good description of the giant dipole resonance. In section AIII wavefunctions are proposed for compressional vibrational states of spherical nuclei. Section AIV discusses sum rules for nuclear transitions of a given electric multipolarity. It is found that the 2+ and 1- states investigated in section AII and all but one of the vibrational states discussed in AIII each exhaust a large part of the appropriate sum rule. In Part B I consider the problem of how to describe flow in quantum fluids. In particular, we want to be able to identify the physical motion represented by any given many-body wavefunction. Section BI derives a guantum mechanical velocity field for a many-body system, paying special attention to the need for a quantum continuity equation. It is found that when the wavefunction has the usual time dependence e-iwt , that the quantum velocity formula averages over all oscillatory motion, so that much of the physical nature of the flow field is lost. In section BII a particular wavefunction is proposed to represent the quantum excitation corresponding to any given potential flow field. The results obtained by considering specific examples are very encouraging. In Part C I investigate the properties of surfaces. Section CI presents a theoretical description of the tension, energy and thickness of a classical liquid-vapour interface. In section CII the classical results are extended to describe the surface of a quantum system, namely superfluid helium four. Problems occur for the quantum system if the correlations arising from the zero-point-motion of the phonon modes are included in the ground state wavefunction. Finally, in section CIII discuss generalized virial theorems that give the change in the free energy of a system undergoing an infinitesimal deformation. For example, a particular deformation gives the expression used in CII, for the surface tension of a plane quantum surface.

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  • A Microearthquake Study of the Plate Boundary, North Island, New Zealand

    Reyners, Martin Everardus (1978)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The seismicity, structure and tectonics of the North Island plate boundary have been studied by means of a microearthquake traverse oriented in the direction of dip of the subducted Pacific plate and stretching from southern Hawke's Bay to northern Taranaki. The geometry of the top of the Pacific plate is inferred from a band of concentrated microearthquake activity which can be identified with the crust of the plate. The Pacific plate appears to have two knee-like bends, one between the east coast and the Ruahine Range, where the top of the plate is about 25 km deep, the other below the volcanic front, where it is about 70 km deep. The shallower bend and subsequent restraightening of the plate can be related to phase changes in the plate, while the deeper bend can be related to volcanism. Composite focal mechanisms indicate that seaward of its shallower bend the Pacific plate is being loaded by the Indian plate, whereas landward of this bend the Pacific plate is sinking under its own weight. Both composite focal mechanisms and the distribution of microseismicity in the Pacific plate suggest the existence of a major discontinuity striking down the dip of the plate and passing beneath the Tongariro volcanic centre. A conspicuous lack of microseismicity in the Indian plate in the eastern North Island revealed in this study can be related to the plates being unlocked in this region. A feature of the seismicity of the Indian plate in the region of the Wanganui Basin is the concentration of activity in the 25-42 km depth range, shallower activity being largely confined to the northeast edge of the basin, near Mt Ruapehu and Waiouru. Composite focal mechanisms suggest the 25-42 km deep activity reflects stresses set up by locking and unlocking of the plates, while the shallower activity reflects local stresses related to volcanic phenomena.

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  • Aspects of the Biology of Juvenile Freshwater Eels (Anguillidae) in New Zealand

    Jellyman, Donald John (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The early freshwater life of the two species of New Zealand freshwater eels, Anguilla australis schmidtii Phillipps and A. dieffenbachii Gray was studied involving an examination of 8131 glass-eels, 5275 migratory elvers, and 4291 resident eels of less than 26 cm. Most eels were collected from the Makara Stream, Wellington by set-net, hand-net and electric fishing. These extensive samples together with subsidiary collections from elsewhere in New Zealand show that glass-eels of both species arrive in fresh-water from July to December. Their otoliths indicate a marine larval life of about 18 months but it is not possible as yet to locate the precise oceanic spawning areas. Migratory movements of glass-eels are in two phases: an invasion of fresh-water from the sea and an upstream migration. The former occurs only at night with a periodicity corresponding to the daily ebb-flood tidal rhythms. There is a seasonal reversal in this response which is attributable to the onset of the behavioural transition taking place prior to the second migratory phase. Increased pigmentation and changes in response to light, flowing fresh-water and schooling tendencies characterise this latter migration which occurs primarily at spring tide periods. Such juvenile eels show specific habitat preferences and a high degree of olfactory differentiation of water types. This behaviour, together with pigment development and physical tolerances, was studied in the laboratory. Measurements of invading glass-eels show that mean length, weight and condition all decline throughout the season of arrival but mean vertebral numbers remain constant. An upstream migration of small eels (elvers) occurs each summer and is readily observed at many hydro-electric stations. These migrations, comprising eels of mixed sizes and age groups, penetrate progressively further upstream each year. In both species, scales begin formation at body lengths of 16.5-20 cm. All features of scale formation, including the number of scale rings, are related to length with relative differences in rate of development occurring between the species. In contrast to scale rings, otolith rings are annual in formation and become visible after grinding or burning the otolith. Growth rates established for 273 eels to 29 cm in length from the Makara Stream, Wellington, are slow, with mean annual increments of 2.2 and 2.1 cm respectively for shortfins and longfins. In contrast, shortfins from a coastal lake near Wellington reach 26 cm in their third year of freshwater life. Length-weight relationships for small eels are given together with mean monthly condition factors. Growth studies on elvers held in a multiple tank unit in which temperature, density, and amount and frequency of feeding could be controlled, show that young eels grow more slowly than normal under such conditions. However, growth appears optimum at 20 degrees C with a feeding rate of 5-7% body weight per day. Feeding efficiency decreases with higher temperatures. At both glass-eel and elver stages, shortfins adapt and survive better under artificial conditions.

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  • Studies on the Reproductive Biology of New Zealand Freshwater Eels

    Todd, Peter Robin (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Macroscopic and histological observations of the gonads from 1,739 non-migrant freshwater eels, the shortfin Anguilla australis schmidtii Phillipps and the longfin A. dieffenbachii Gray, showed that they pass through seven stages of development. Shortfins become sexually differentiated at body lengths of 35.0cm to 56.9cm and longfins at lengths of 50.0cm to 67.0cm. No intersexual stage was present, as in A. anguilla L., and although 1% of 350 migrating longfin males examined contained ribbon-like testes, the typical lobed organ of Syrski (testis) can be used as diagnostic of maleness. Histologically, the maximum stage of development attained in the non-migrant, immature stage, was spermatogonia in the males and vacuolated oocytes in females. At the time of seaward migration, based on gonad histology, gonadosomatic indices and ova diameters, migrating longfins were more sexually developed than shortfins. These differences may relate to the location of different oceanic spawning areas: that for the longfin possibly being closer to New Zealand. The autumnal migratory runs, from March to May, of the sexually maturing adults in the Makara stream showed no particular species or sex sequence. The movement of eels was coincident with a rise in stream level and the second half of the lunar cycle. Other relevant environmental factors are discussed. In Lake 0noke peak catches of seaward migrating shortfins were made before the longfins and movements of eels occurred throughout the lunar cycle. Once at sea, the eels apparently disappear. A published note is included on the first eel of the New Zealand species, a longfin female, to be caught at sea. Age determinations from 995 eels were made by otoliths, which were burnt lightly to intensify the growth zones for reading purposes. Shortfin males are younger than females at migration. Longfins are older than shortfins at migration but the males are younger than the females. In the non-migrant stage, sexually undifferentiated shortfins grow more slowly relative to the males, and males relatively more slowly than the females. Similar but less significant differences in growth occur in longfins. Migrant males held in seawater were induced to mature and spawn with injections of mammalian hormones or carp pituitaries, over temperatures of 11.8 degrees C to 28 degrees C. The maturation period was dependent on temperature. Testes of experimental eels that survived maturation regressed to the pre-migrant or migrant stage. Two eels that had regressed were induced to mature a second time. Females held at 20 degrees C and injected with mammalian hormones showed significant increases in sexual development but died before maturity. Females injected with carp pituitaries matured and spawned. Mature longfin eggs, 0.9mm to 1.2mm in diametar, and mature shortfin eggs, 0.9mm to 1.2mm in diameter, are translucent and contain one to many oil globules. A blastodisc formed in water hardened eggs but attempts at fertilization were unsuccessful. Gametogenesis, observed from non-migrant, migrant and hormone injected eels is similar to that described for other teleosts. Electron microscope observations showed parallel features of spermiogenesis in both species. Mature spermatozoa have crescent shaped heads with an anteriorly placed mitochondrion. A flagellum of the unusual 9 + 0 pattern arises from the posterior region of the head, and a short, striated rod-like structure is positioned adjacent to the main flagellum. A complex of subfibrils which extend along either side of the head to the mitochondrion arise from the proximal centriole.

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  • The Opening of the Great Bush, 1869-1881: a Social History of the Bush Settlements of Taranaki, Hawke's Bay and Wellington

    Arnold, Rollo D (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In undertaking this study I had the two-fold object of investigating an area of our history which appears to me to have been too long neglected, and, in presenting my results, of grappling with the problems of writing colonial social history. So far we have only had limited studies of selected aspects of the bush settlement era of North Island history. I believe we cannot properly understand this great colonising effort unless we endeavour both to view it whole and to place it in the larger context of colonial history. I have therefore taken the whole southern half of the North Island as my area of study, and have endeavoured to show how the assault on the Great Bush relates to the aftermath of the Maori Wars, the larger social history of the colony as a whole, and the agrarian history of the Old World from which so many of the bush settlers came. I had hoped originally to carry the story through at least three decades, but it became apparent that my broad canvas required some kind of narrowing, and I reluctantly decided to limit myself to the period 1869-1881, which seemed to have a sufficient political and economic unity to stand on its own. I have, however, done a good deal of research on through the 1880s and 1890s, and this, I trust, has enabled me to see the significance of the 1870s with a sense of perspective.

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  • Piezoreflectance and Electronic Structure of Alloys of Copper with Polyvalent Solutes

    Staines, Michael Philip (1979)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Piezoreflectance and other optical measurements have been made on other optical measurements have been made on a phase alloys of Cu with Zn Ga, Al, In and Ge. The samples were evaporated films deposited on the face of a resonant oscillator assembly. The application of this type of strain transducer to piezoref-reflectance alleviates systematic errors and allows the response to pure shear strains to be distinguished, even in amorphous materials, using the polarisation dependence of the results. The energies of the d band -> Fermi level threshold, the interconduction band threshold, and the L2' -> L1 critical point transition were determined for the alloys. Previous optical studies using more conventional methods either have not been able to resolve these features or have not located them with accuracy comparable with piezoreflectance. With increasing alloy concentration the d band threshold is found to shift slowly to higher energies, the inter-conduction band transitions more rapidly to lower energies. Zn impurities produced much smaller shifts than the others, indicating the importance of interactions between impurity d states and the d and conduction states of the host. Significant differences were found between the isovalent solutes Ga and A1. In concentrated alloys with Zn, Ga and Al the interconduction band threshold tended to a common value of about 2.5 eV. This lack of simple dependence on e/a, the electron per atom density in the alloy, is relevant to the understanding of the electronic structure of the Hume-Rothery alloys and the regularity of the [alpha] phase boundary.

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  • Marine Geology of the Turnagain Area

    Lewis, Keith Brian (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Turnagain Area covers the continental shelf and slope off the east coast of North Island, New Zealand between Napier and Castlepoint. Its late Quaternary stratigraphy, tectonic history, sedimentation and foraminiferal distribution are described with the aid of continuous seismic profiles, sediment samples and cores. Results are presented in seven papers and a chart. The first three papers deal mainly with sub-bottom layers revealed by continuous seismic profiles; the next three papers describe dried sediment samples and cores and the last paper is a study of foraminifera in alcohol-preserved sediment samples. The topics discussed in each of the seven papers are as follows: 1. stratigraphy, sedimentation rates and origin of present topography on the continental shelf and upper slope; 2. rates of tectonic processes; 3. slumping; 4. distribution of sediments; 5. ages of indurated sediments; 6. ash horizons and rates of deposition on the lower part of the continental slope. 7. the distribution of living and dead foraminifera. The chart shows bathymetry and nature of sediment at the seabed. The sediments beneath the sea have been folding since Miocene times in the same way as marine sediments on the adjacent land. On the seabed anticlinal crests are preserved as ridges and banks and synclines form depressions. The present land area is rising and much of the seabed is sinking; the zero isobase between then is situated on the inner continental shelf. It has been at about the same position throughout Late Quaternary times, being always close to the dividing line between net erosion and net deposition. Rates of tilting have ranged from 2 to 36 microdegrees/thousand years and rates of vertical movement from +1.7 to -1.5 m/thousand years. Seaward of the zero isobase the continental shelf and upper slope has been built upwards and outwards by prisms of sediment, each prism representing a phase either of low sea level or of high sea level. Prisms deposited during periods of glacially lowered sea level are at their thickest beneath the upper slope; prisms deposited during periods of relatively high sea level are at their thickest beneath the continental shelf. Parts of the youngest prism on the upper slope have slumped on gradients as low as 1 [degree]. The topography and sediments formed during the last 20 thousand years have received the most attention. The present continental shelf if a composite feature. The inner part has been formed by wave-planation of hard rock near shore and deposition of the latest prism of sediment offshore. The outer part and the shelf break were formed by wave-planation and by deposition during the last low sea level about 20 thousand years ago. At that time the shelf break ranged in depth from about 40m to about 70m, being shallowest where eroded into soft sediment and deepest where deposited beyond the seaward edge of erosion. In adjacent areas the shelf break was probably formed at depths of less than 20m being eroded into hard rock. The inner part of the wave-planed surface formed at that time is now deeply buried by the latest prism of sediment but the outer part is covered by only a thin veneer. The outer shelf is still essentially a drowned low sea level feature. At the thickest part of the prism on the mid continental shelf, rates of deposition above an 8 thousand year old seismic reflector range from about 1 to about 4 m/thousand years, being most rapid south of major rivers. Rates are too slow to be measured at some places near the shelf break and at ridges on the continental slope. In depressions on the continental slope, sedimentation rates are indicated by the depth of the 3.4 thousand year old Waimihia ash and range from 0.36 m/thousand years in a depression relatively near land to 0.02 m/thousand years in the depression furthest from land. Sediments range from fine sand near shore to clayey fine silt on the lower slope. Many sediments are bimodal because they were deposited as a mixture of floculated and unfloculated grains. Rapidly deposited sediment on the continental shelf is predominantly detrital sand and silt; slowly deposited sediment near the shelf break and on ridges consists mostly of volcanic ash, foraminifera, and glauconite Muddy sediment in continental slope depressions contains sandy turbidite layers. Different environments are characterised by sediment types and foraminiferal faunas that can be matched in Tertiary Rocks.

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  • Synthesis of Sporidesmin Based Antigens

    Erasmuson, Anton Francis (1976)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In a program aimed at developing a chemically derived vaccine against sporidesmin-A, the toxin which causes the pasture disease facial eczema, two haptens have been prepared, coupled to protein carriers, and tested for immunogenicity. The hapten, 2-amino-5-chloro-3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol has been synthesised from vanillin and the general synthetic methods developed in the course of this work have been used to prepare a large number of related vanillin derivatives for use in cross-hapten studies. The carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of 16 vanillin derivatives have been obtained, and two independent methods of deducing vanillin substitution patterns have been developed. 5-chloro-6, 7-dimethoxy-N-methyl-lH-indole has been prepared by a new route and its 3-oxoacetic acid derivative has been synthesized for use as a hapten. The Vilsmeier-Haack intermediate, l-methyl-3-(N,N-dimethylimonio) methyl-lH-indole chloride was isolated and a number of possible synthetic routes from it to pyrroloindoles were explored. The vanillin and indole haptens have been coupled to protein carriers to form antigens which generated a low antibody response. However, the use of mycobacterium phlei as a carrier greatly increased the antibody response but the antibodies produced did not interact strongly with sporidesmin-A.

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  • Geology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Late Cenozoic McMurdo Volcanic Group, Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Kyle, Philip Raymond (1976)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Rocks of the McMurdo Volcanic Group occur as stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, scoria cones, plugs, flows and volcanic piles up to 4000 m high along the Ross Sea margin of the Transantarctic Mountains and make up the Balleny Islands 300 km north of the Antarctic continental margin. The rocks are predominantly undersaturated and range from alkali basalt and basanite to trachyte and phonolite. Four volcanic provinces are recognised; Balleny, Hallett, Melbourne and Erebus. The Balleny volcanic province is situated along a transform fault in the South Pacific Ocean. The rocks are predominantly basanite. Hallett volcanic province occurs along the coast of northern Victoria Land as four elongate piles formed extensive of hyaloclastites, tuffs, breccias and capped by subaerial eruptive products. The lavas are a basanite/alkali basalt-trachyte-quartz trachyte association, and were extruded over the last 7 m.y. Melbourne volcanic province stretches across the Transantarctic Mountains in northern Victoria Land and ranges in age from 0 to 7 m.y. A Central Suite of intermediate and trachytic lavas form stratovolcanoes, cones and plugs, while many small basanite outcrops constitute a Local Suite. Three lava lineages, resulting from differentiation, are recognised. 1) Lavas at The Pleiades and Mt Overlord consist of a mildly potassic trachyandesite-tristanite-K-trachyte-peralkaline K-trachyte lineage. Major, trace and rare earth element (REE) data suggest evolution by fractional crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene, magnetite, apatite and feldspar. 2) A basanite-nepheline hawaiite-nepheline mugearite-nepheline benmoreite lineage, found at The Pleiades is believed to result from fractional crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene, kaersutite, magnetite, apatite and feldspar. 3) An oversaturated (Q = 0 to 18%) strongly potassic quartz trachyandesite-quartz tristanite-quartz trachyte lineage occurs at only Mt Melbourne. The Erebus volcanic province covers all McMurdo Volcanic Group rocks in south Victoria Land. Mt Erebus itself is still active, but the province includes rocks as old as 15 m.y. Two lava lineages very similar chemically are recognised: 1) The Erebus lineage consists of strongly porphyritic nepheline hawaiite-nepheline benmoreite-anorthoclase phonolite. Phenocrysts of feldspar, clinopyroxene, olivine, magnetite and apatite are characteristic. The chemistry of the lineage is compatible with fractional crystallization of the phenocryst phases. 2) A kaersutite lineage consists of basanite-nepheline hawaiite-nepheline mugearite-nepheline benmoreite-kaersutite phonolite-pyroxene phonolite. Clinopyroxene (Wo44-48 En40-48 Fs7-14) is ubiquitous, kaersutite is common in all intermediate lavas and primary olivine (Fa12 to Fa26) is confined to the basanites. Major element mass balance models for lavas from Hut Point Peninsula suggest formation by fractional crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene, spinel (includes magnetite and ilmenite), kaersutite, feldspar and apatite. Middle REE show a marked depletion consistent with kaersutite fractionation. REE abundances were evaluated using the mass balance models and published partition coefficients. Calculated REE abundances show excellent agreement with the measured values. Abundances of "incompatible" elements Pb, Rb, Cs, Th and U are not consistent with the models and "volatile enrichment" processes are invoked to explain their abundances. Intermediate lavas of the kaersutite lineage are rare in the Erebus volcanic province, occurring only at Hut Point Peninsula and Brown Peninsula. At other areas basanite and phonolite lavas predominate. However these are considered to form by fractional crystallization processes similar to Hut Point Peninsula lavas. Erebus lineage lavas differentiated at higher temperatures and, lower PH2O than those of the kaersutite lineage, which characterize the periphery of Ross Island. REE abundances and comparison with experimental melting studies indicate DVDP basanite originated by a low degree of partial melting (1-5%) of a hydrous garnet peridotite mantle at pressures of 25-30 kbars. These data suggest that Ross Island is the site of a mantle plume with a diameter of, about 100 km and centred on Mt Erebus.

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  • Dynamic Programming as a Scheduling Tool in Multiprogrammed Computing Systems

    Brownrigg, Raymond Douglas (1978)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A potentially parallel iterative algorithm for the solution of the unconstrained N-stage decision problem of Dynamic Programming is developed. This new solution method, known as Variable Metric Dynamic Programming, is based on the use of variable metric minimisation techniques to develop quadratic approximations to the optimal cost function for each stage. The algorithm is applied to various test problems, and a comparison with an existing similar algorithm proves favourable. The Variable Metric Dynamic Programming solution method is used in the implementation of an adaptive highlevel scheduling mechanism on a multiprogrammed computer in a university environment. This demonstrates a practical application of the new algorithm. More importantly, the application of Variable Metric Dynamic Programming to a scheduling problem illustrates how Mathematical Programming may be used in complex computer scheduling problems to provide in a natural way the required dynamic feedback mechanisms.

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  • Studies on Animals Closely Associated with Some New Zealand Marine Shellfish

    Jones, John Brian (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Between March 1973 and September 1974, 858 Perna canaliculus (Gmelin), 150 Mytilus edulis aoteanus Powell, 237 Crassostrea qlomerata (Gould) and 153 Ostrea lutaria Hutton, were surveyed for parasites. From these four commercially important shellfish species, a total of two sporozoans, three species of trematode sporocyst, and a copepod were found. A second copepod and pea-crabs were found associated with certain of the shellfish, but the nature of this association is uncertain. During the examination of each shellfish the ratio of the meat volume to internal shell volume was measured. This provided a condition factor for the shellfish, and gave an indication of the effect of the parasite on the meat weight of the bivalve. Perna canaliculus was collected from Ahipara, Wellington Harbour, and the Marlborough Sounds. Spores of a gregarine, Nematopsis sp., were abundant in the Ahipara mussels, common in Wellington and rare in the Sounds. The fellodistomid trematode sporocyst known as Cercaria haswelli Dollfus was found in mussels from all three locations. Laboratory infection experiments established that the cercaria from this sporocyst develops into the trematode Terqestia aqnostomi (manter). Gravid specimens of this trematode were obtained for the first time, from the mullet Aldrichetta forsteri Cuvier & Valanciennes. Two specimens of the bucephalid sporocyst described by Haswell (1903) were recovered and re-described. The copepods pseudomyicola spinosus Raffaele & Monticelli and Lichomolgus.n sp. were associated with the mussels, but their status is uncertain. The post-planktonic stages of the pea-crab Pinnotheres novaezelandiae Filhol are described for the first time, and the seasonal abundance, effect of depth on abundance, and the effect of the crab on the host's condition are described. Differences between the zoea of apparently identical female crabs from different host species are noted and the significance of these is discussed. Because of the difference between the zoea of crabs from P. canaliculus and Atrina zelandica Gray, only the crabs from the former host are refered to as P. novaezelandiae. The pea-crabs found in A. zelandica, C. glomerata, and M. edulis aoteanus, have not been assigned to a species. Mytilus edulis aoteanus is host to Tergestia aqnostomi sporocysts, Pseudomyicola spinosus, and Pinnotheres sp. Crassostrea glomerata was collected from the Bay of Islands. Only one parasite, the copepod Pseudomyicola spinosus, was found in this host. A pea-crab Pinnotheres sp. is occasionally found associated with the oyster. A disease of this oyster, a symptom of which is the formation of necrotic pustules in the adductor mussel, could not be traced to any parasite. This disease is discussed in an appendix. Ostra lutaria was obtained from Wellington Harbour, the Marlborough Sounds, and Foveaux Strait. Sporozoan cysts were found to occur in 10% of the oysters from Foveaux Strait, but were not observed to adversly affect the oyster. The sporocysts of the trematode Bucephalus longicornutus (Manter) occur in the areas sampled. Pseudomyicola spinosus lnfests the oyster in Wellington and in the Sounds, but not in Foveaux Strait. It was concluded that there were no serious pathogens likely to infect the shellfish farms growing these species, and that there was little farmers could do at present to reduce the effect on the host of the symbionts already present in the shellfish beds. A checklist and bibliography of all the parasites infecting New Zealand marine molluscs is included is an appendix.

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