97 results for Scholarly text, 1980

  • Doing Dirty Work?: Sponsors of Community Service

    Pack, Margaret (1989)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    With the introduction of the Criminal Justice Act 1985 and its orientation toward the provision of community based sentencing options, there is a growing awareness of the importance of encouraging a wide range of sponsoring organizations and individuals to become involved in administering community based sentences. This paper presents the results of an exploratory research project carried out in 1986, which asked people sponsoring community service sentence what they liked about the sentence and how they thought it could be improved, drawing on their experiences as sponsors.

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  • On the Resolution of Compositional Datasets into Convex Combinations of Extreme Vectors

    Renner, Ross Martyn (1989)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Large compositional datasets of the kind assembled in the geosciences are often of remarkably low approximate rank. That is, within a tolerable error, data points representing the rows of such an array can approximately be located in a relatively small dimensional subspace of the row space. A physical mixing process which would account for this phenomenon implies that each observation vector of an array can be estimated by a convex combination of a small number of fixed source or 'endmember' vectors. In practice, neither the compositions of the endmembers nor the coefficients of the convex combinations are known. Traditional methods for attempting to estimate some or all of these quantities have included Q-mode 'factor' analysis and linear programming. In general, neither method is successful. Some of the more important mathematical properties of a convex representation of compositional data are examined in this thesis as well as the background to the development of algorithms for assessing the number of endmembers statistically, locating endmembers and partitioning geological samples into specified endmembers. Keywords and Phrases: Compositional data, convex sets, endmembers, partitioning by least squares, iteration, logratios.

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  • Continuity and Change in the New Zealand Parliament

    Halligan, John (1980)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Few legislatures in the world can claim a continuous existence as long as that of the New Zealand House of Representatives. The basic forms and procedures inherited from the House of Commons in the middle of last centure have persisted until the present. Formal changes to the rules have occurred intermittently during its history although the content of its work has altered. Because of the centrality of the House to the parliamentary system of government and its adaptability to the needs of successive generations of politicians, it has continued to play an important role in the political system.

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  • The Reactivity of New Zealand Ilmenites

    Metson, James Bernard (1980)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The dissolution of West Coast, South Island, New Zealand ilmenite in acid solutions was studied under a variety of conditions, including concentrations approaching those used industrially. The major dissolution medium considered was hydrochloric acid (1-->10 M), at temperatures of 50-->80 degrees C. The series of experiments undertaken souqht to establish the factors affecting the reactivity of the ilmenite samples. Concentrations of dissolved components of the ilmenite were followed by Atomic Absorption spectrometry and the structure and composition of the residual ilmenite was examined by X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, electron microprobe and scanning electron microscopy. Evidence for the rapid dissolution of an iron-rich surface phase was observed, but the dominant feature of early reaction is selective attack along zones parallel to the basal plane of the ilmenite structure. After the initial phase of rapid dissolution, reaction rate declines and all extended period of concentration/time linearity follows. This decline in rate appears to relate to polymerisation and. transport of dissolved titanium within the porous solid. The addition of phosphate and fluoride to the system, has been shown to seriously affect the properties and transport of dissolved titanium. The effects of other interfering reagents such as additional titanium and iron were also considered. The observed behaviour of these ilmenites in dissolution, was related to the pattern of natural weathering identified in other ilmenite concentrates The structure and composition of a range of these materials was examined by X-ray diffraction, Electron microprobe and Mossbauer spectroscopy.

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  • Involvement in Academic Study: an Investigation of the Nature, Effects and Development of Involvement in University Courses

    Willis, Deborah Margery (1989)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The purpose of this research was to examine involvement In study within the framework of the approach to learning literature. Although not discussed in detail, involvement has been related to a deep approach to learning (Ramsden, 1984). Specific interest focused on students' perceptions of the concept of involvement; the relation between involvement, approach to learning and educational orientation (Taylor et al., 1980); the relationship between Involvement in study and learning outcome and finally, the reasons why students become involved and factors affecting change over time. The research methodology used was consistent with the view originally developed by Marton and Saljo (1976a) - that learning can be effectively studied by focusing on student perception of the learning process. Consistent with Marton's methods of research, the data was drawn from interviews (with 58 university students). Additional data was supplied by open ended questions and Entwistle and Ramsden's approach to study inventory. Students produced a range of involvement definitions that emphasised activity but also incorporated feelings about what is studied. However, the experience of involvement is course-specific and it was demonstrated that students direct different levels of involvement to different courses. An investigation of factors that affect students' concept of involvement, revealed that approach to learning was important in determining the type of involvement activity students engage in ('basic' or 'more than required') and the level of involvement activity (full, limited, none). A vocational educational orientation was not incompatible with the development of involvement provided this was combined with interest in subject matter. Commerce students provided an interesting example of this point in that they typically possessed a strong vocational educational orientation towards their Commerce courses but directed their interest (and in many cases their full involvement) to courses outside the Commerce faculty. Analysis of the data indicated that female students were more likely to become fully involved in their study than did their male colleagues. However, the pattern of results was complicated by degree and approach to learning. It was suggested that the sex differences may be due to the fact that females were more likely to combine interest and vocational Interests in their choice of courses. The results indicated that a relationship did exist between the quality of the involvement activity and the quality of the learning outcome. The open ended responses indicated that students possess one of three involvement intentions (positive, neutral or negative). This finding was confirmed in the interviews and a number of relationships were proposed that combined intention and contextual factors to determine a particular involvement outcome (involvement or non-involvement). It was further demonstrated that context is particularly important in influencing involvement. In most cases students' intention was changed by their positive or negative perception of the course context. Thus involvement developed from a combination of personal (e.g. existing interest) and contextual factors (e.g. staff attitude and presentation skills, relevance of course content and form of assessment). These factors were also significant in affecting involvement change. Regardless of approach to learning, an involved student wants to learn. Through this commitment, persistence in study is more likely to occur. The involvement activities themselves will be largely determined by approach and thus the quality of the outcome is related to approach. The thesis concludes with discussion of the implications of these results for policy, teaching and course development.

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  • Compounds of 6, 13-Diamino-6, 13-Dimethyl-1, 4, 8, 11 - Tetraazacyclotetradecane

    Siriwardena, Asokamali (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The reaction of bis-(diaminoethane)nickel(II) chloride, ([Ni(en)2]Cl2 in methanol with formaldehyde and nitroethane in the presence of triethylamine proceeds readily to produce (6, 13-dimethyl-6, 13-dinitro-1, 4, 8, 11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)nickel(II) chloride, [Ni(dini)] - Cl2. Reduction of the nitro groups of this compound by catalytic hydrogenation yields three isomers of the pendant arm macrocyclic complex (6, 13-diamino-6, 13-dimethyl-1, 4, 8, 11-tetraazachyclotetradecane)nickel(II) chloride, designated a-, b- and c-[Ni(diam)]Cl2. These were separated by fractional crystallization. The aisomer was observed to isomerizes slowly in solution to the b- form. A parallel dissociation reaction of the a- isomer was also observed. The demetallation of a- and b- isomers of the diam complex of nickel by reaction with cyanide or concentrated acid at 140 degrees C produces the macrocycle meso-(6, 13-diamino-6, 13-dimethyl-1, 4, 8, 11-tetraazacyclotetra-decane), diam. A variety of hexamine, pentamine and tetramine complexes of diam with nickel(II), copper(II), cobalt(II) and (III), chromium(III), palladium(II), rhodium(III), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) were prepared. Hexamine and tetramine forms of labile metal complexes could be rapidly and reversibly interconverted by altering the pH. The hexamine cobalt(III) cation, [Co(diam)]3+ was by far the most inert of the prepared cobalt(III) complexes, remaining unaffected in hot acidic solutions. In contrast, a single pendant arm of the hexamine [Cr(diam)]3+ cation could be dissociated in acid. (Two possibly triamine complexes of lead were also prepared). These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic measurements, electronic, infrared, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The pendant arm protonation constants (log K) of diam and selected complexes of nickel, copper and palladium were calculated from potentiometric titration measurements at 25 degrees C. The log K values for diam at 25 degrees C (I = 0.1 M NaclO4) were 11.15, 9.7, 6.2 and 5.3. Kinetics of the parallel isomerization and dissociation of a-[Ni(dimH2)]4+ in HCl/NaCl solutions were monitored spectrophotometrically at 50 degrees C. The rate of reaction in acidic solutions showed a non-linear dependency on acid concentration. The observed first order rate constant (kobs) for disappearance of a-[Ni(diamH2)]4+ (by isomerization and dissociation) in 2.0 M HCl, 0.1 M NaOH and 2.0 M NaCl were 3.05 x 10-4, 2.0(3) x 10-2 and 5.0 x 10-5 s-1 respectively. The rate of the dissociation component of the reaction of a-[Ni(diamH2)]4+ in 2.0 M HCl at 50 degrees C was 1.82 x 10-7 s-1. Acid bydrolysis kinetics of (Cu[diamH2])(ClO4)4 in hydrochloric acid and perchloric acid at 50 and 70 degrees C were studied spectrophotometrically. The reactions were slow and the observed first order rate constants were to a first approximation independent of the particular acid or its concentration. The observed first order rate constants were 1 x 10-9 and 8 x 10-9 s-1 at 50 and 70 degrees C respectively. Questions about the nature of the reaction being followed have been raised.

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  • The Culture and Correlative Electron Microscopy of Pollen Mother Cells in Meiosis: Development of Techniques and Some Observations on Selected Topics

    Ryan, Kenneth George (1980)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Reliable techniques for the living cell culture and correlative light and electron microscopy (EM) of meiotic pollen mother cells (PMCs) of Iris spuria, Allium triquetrum and Tradescantia flumenensis are described in detail. Living PMCs were successfully cultured in a slide chamber on agar/sucrose medium. Cells were covered with an inert oil to prevent their dehydration, and some cells were cultured from metaphase I to tetrad cell formation over a 20 hour period. Other PMCs were fixed with glutaraldehyde and flat embedded using a modification of the agar sandwich technique of Mole-Bajer and Bajer (1968). This technique was developed to permit the preselection of PMCs at known meiotic stages, for subsequent EM examination. Serial thin sections were cut at known planes of section; and 3-D reconstructions of MT distribution, and MT counts from transverse sections were completed. It was also possible to examine sections of an Iris anaphase I PMC which had been previously studied in life. Anaphase I and II chromosome velocities were analysed in the three species. Mean velocities were approximately 0.5 mu m/min with some variation from cell to cell and between sister half-spindles. In Allium anaphase I there was also variation in chromosome velocity within the half-spindle; and this variation was found not to be related to chromosome position on the metaphase I plate. Spindle elongation was zero in Allium anaphase I and in Iris anaphase II, but was detectable in Allium anaphase II (40%) and in "Iris anaphase I (l5%). The extent of spindle elongation in Tradescantia could not be determined. The kinetochore region in the first meiotic division consisted of two closely appressed, but structurally (and functionally) distinct, sister kinetochores. At meiosis II, the two sister kinetochores were separate from each other and faced opposite poles. The kinetochore arrangement probably changes from side-by-side (meiosis I) to back-to-back (meiosis II) during chromosome recondensation at prophase II in these cells. Bundles of non-kinetochore microtubules (nkMTs) span the interzone between sister chromosome units at metaphase I and II and anaphase II. Bundles of kinetochore MTs (kMTs) do not increase in divergence at any stage of meiosis studied; there was little interaction between nkMTs and kMTs, and MT-MT cross bridges were rare. These observations are not consistent with models of chromosome movement based on MT sliding or zipping. No relationship was found between nkMT distribution and spindle elongation, and the several different nkMT distributions which have been reported for other cell types may be variations on a structural theme. Spindle endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in meiosis II was found to be derived largely from invaginations and evaginations of the nuclear envelope. Growth of existing spindle ER was proposed to account for the doubling in the amount of ER observed between interphase and prometaphase II. Randomly oriented elements of ER, in early prometaphase II spindles may become passively aligned along the interpolar axis and then actively transported polewards at later stages of prometaphase II and metaphase II. Suggestions for future research are offered.

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  • The Thermopower and Resistivity of Nearly Magnetic Dilute Alloys

    Wassilieff, Constantin (1982)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In some nearly magnetic dilute alloys, in which the host and impurity are transition metals of similar electronic structure, the thermopower is observed to form a "giant" peak at about the spin fluctuation temperature Tsf deduced from resistivity measurements. Two explanations for these peaks have been postulated: the first is that the peaks are a diffusion thermopower component involving scattering off localized spin fluctuations (LSF) at the impurity sites; the second is that they are an LSF drag effect. We examine the thermopower and resistively of two nearly magnetic alloy systems: Rh(Fe) and Pt(Ni). In the first part of this thesis we describe measurements of the low temperature thermopower and resistivity of several Rh(Fe) alloys to clarify discrepancies in previous measurements and we show, by using a modified Nordheim-Gorter analysis, that the observed thermopower peaks are a diffusion and not a drag effect. In the second part of the thesis we describe measurements of the low temperature thermopower and resistivity of Pt (Ni), for which no previous data had been available. The Pt(Ni) samples are manufactured as thin, evaporated films on glass substrates. However, due to the difficulty encountered in controlling the very high residual resistivity of these samples, we are not able to draw definite conclusions regarding either the thermopower or the resistivity.

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  • Public Expenditure Planning in New Zealand

    Aitken, Judith Estranna (1983)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    It is argued in this thesis that over the past 15 years planning - and in particular expenditure planning - has had three main functions in New Zealand central government: as a survival mechanism for elites; as a means to cope with the problems and deficiencies of organised knowledge; and as a symbolic act of reassurance in the face of economic and fiscal uncertainty. Expenditure planning is regarded in this work as a learning process. However, the thesis describes historical developments which illustrate that the imperative need to contain and manage conflict inside central government is such that real executive learning is effectively precluded. Dissonance between the political implications of significant information and the rational action that might be dictated by that information inhibits effective communication and control. The cybernetic malfunctioning of the central system arises not so much from political debate over the fiscal issues as from the need of certain elites to retain their pre-eminence in the planning process - most notably, the Treasury and its associated ministers. It is concluded that a less historically-bound system of power-sharing is called for if the executive agents - officials and ministers - are to react more sensitively to adverse fiscal circumstances and prepare more efficiently for future uncertainties than they have in the past.

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  • Attention in Discrimination Learning: a Stimulus Control Approach to the Intradimensional-Extradimensional Shift Paradigm

    Whitney, Lynne (1986)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In the present thesis, the intradimensional-extradimensional shift effect was treated as a problem of two-dimensional stimulus control. Factors determining stimulus control in the ID-ED shift were explored over six experiments. In Experiment 1 adult students were trained to discriminate between successively presented stimuli that differed in both line length and orientation. For half the subjects the length dimension was relevant (ie: different stimuli on that dimension were correlated with different outcomes) and for half the subjects orientation was relevant (phase 1). All subjects were then shifted to a second discrimination between new line lengths and orientations (Phase 2). For half, this constituted an intradimensional (ID) shift in that the previously relevant dimension remained relevant; for the remaining subjects the previously irrelevant dimension was made relevant in an extradimensional (ED) shift. The ID shift required significantly fewer trials to establish strong stimulus control by the relevant dimension in Phase 2 than did the ED shift. Experiments 1 and 2 further established that such differences were not attributable to a dominance relationship between dimensions or to specific cue values. Experiment 3 examined the development of stimulus control by the two dimensions over trials in Phase 2. In the ED shift, two-dimensional generalisation gradients showed a systematic weakening and strengthening of control by the Phase 1 relevant and Phase 2 relevant dimensions respectively. In the ID shift there was no change in stimulus control by either dimension. Experiment 4 established that transfer to the orientation dimension following differential training on length (ED shift) was superior to orientation following non-differential training on length (PD shift). Learning that differences on an extradimensional dimension were relevant in Phase I therefore had a facilitatory effect on control by orientation. Experiments 5 and 6 investigated the effects of manipulating the number of cues on the irrelevant Phase 1 dimension (orientation) and/or the irrelevant phase 2 dimension (length), in an ED shift where orientation was relevant in Phase 2. Both orientation and length (Experiment 5) or orientation alone (Experiment 6) were varied in the generalisation test. The ED shift in Phase 2 was retarded by the irrelevant dimension in Phase 1. It was concluded that in general the phase I relevant dimension must lose control in Phase 2, and the phase 1 irrelevant dimension must gain control in Phase 2 (Experiment 3). However, the inverse relation between loss of control by one dimension and gaining of control by the other does not occur in a way consistent with the Inverse Hypothesis of some selective attention theories. In addition, the previously relevant dimension in an ED shift facilitates control by the new relevant dimension in phase 2 re1ative to non-differential training, consistent with attentional enhancement. The major factor found to be slowing down the development of control by the new relevant dimension in an ED shift is the presence of the irrelevant dimension in Phase 1, (Experiment 5). This is probably a 'learned irrelevance' effect.

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  • Salts and Their Distribution in the McMurdo Region, Antarctica

    Keys, John Ross (1980)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Salts are widespread in the cold, arid McMurdo region of Antarctica. They exist in a variety of deposit types from massive subglacial and sub-lake deposits containing up to 1010 kilograms of salt, down to traces in soil, snow and ice. However, deposits on rock and soil typically amount to a few grams of salt. At least 30 salt phases are known but only 10 of these are widespread. These 10 are thenardite, gypsum, halite, calcite, darapskite, soda nitre, mirabilite, bloedite, epsomite and hexahydrite. The distribution of salts has been examined on two scales, local and regional. The local scale extends from individual deposits to areas of a few square kilometres. The regional scale covers McMurdo oasis, McMurdo Sound and Ross Island, though areas in McMurdo oasis, and particularly Taylor Valley receive most attention. Local distribution is controlled by salt migration and separation. Migration is induced by water and wind, with soil brines moving as thin liquid films, by capillarity and under the influence of gravity. Deflation and asymmetric salt accumulation provide evidence that wind is important. Separation of phases is a consequence of different physico-chemical properties of salts, and environmental conditions, including site aspect, ambient temperature and humidity. Eutectic temperature is a fundamental salt property but solubility is also important. Several salt deposits containing separated (fractionated) phases have been found in the region. Separation is achieved mainly by fractional dissolution and crystallization and the most evolved product of the general separation sequence is calcium chloride. The separation processes, together with salt migration, obscure the sources of the salts. Regional distribution of salts has been characterized by determining the relative frequency at which specific phases are encountered at increasing distance from the coast and above sea level. Chloride and sodium phases decrease, whereas magnesium phases increase in frequency away from the coast. Sulphates-to-chloride and nitrates-to-chloride ratios increase with increasing distance. Calcium and carbonate show little change except in Taylor Valley where a marked decrease is apparent. This regional distribution is mainly dependent on the sources of the salts. The marine source is most important, contributing almost all of the chloride, sodium, sulphate and probably nitrate ions that are present. Chemical weathering is the predominant source of magnesium, calcium and carbonate ions probably via reactions of mafic, ferromagnesian minerals in local rocks and regolith. Biological and volcanic activity are locally significant at eastern Taylor Valley and in the summit area of Erebus Volcano, respectively. The salts have accumulated over the lifetime of the region, that is over less than the last 20-25 Ma or so. There is no evidence that they are relics from earlier, preglacial times, except for very minor amounts of gypsum and calcium carbonate. There has been a recent influx of sea water into Taylor Valley perhaps between 50,000 and 20,000 years ago, and evaporation of this water has preceded advance of Taylor Glacier over part of the resulting salt deposit. The continuing interaction between glacier and salt is causing basal ice to melt and producing aperiodic discharges of up to a few thousand cubic metres of salty water from the terminus of the glacier.

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  • Synthesis of Functionalised Cyclohexanes from Carbohydrates

    Blattner, Regine (1982)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Beta-D-glucopyranose pentaacetate was photobrominated to give the 5-baromide from which 6-deoxy-Beta-D-xylo-hex-5-enopyranose tetraacetate was obtained by reductive elimination. This reaction sequence represents an efficient new route to the 5-ene. A detailed investigation into the photobromination of Beta-D-glucopyranose pentaacetate with bromine and with NBS led to the isolation of several by-products containing bromine substituents at C-1 and/or C-5; their reactions with zinc-acetic acid were studied, and the conformations. in solution of four alkenes derived from the 5-bromo compound were determined. 2,3,4-Triacylated 2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxycyclohexanones were Obtained by mercury (II) catalysed rearrangement of 5-deoxyhex-5-enopyranose esters. The mechanism of this rearrangement, and some enopyranose esters The mechanism of this rearrangement, reactions of the products were examined. The use of these new carbocyclic compounds in the synthesis of branched-chain cyclitol derivatives was explored. By means of diazomethane or, alternatively, hydrogen cyanide, substituted cyclohexanes with one-carbon branches and tertiary hydroxyl groups at the site of chain-branching were preared. Attempts to eliminate water from these tertiary alcohols to give substituted cyclohexene-carbonitriles or -carbaldehydes were unsuccessful.

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  • An Electrochemical Study of Hydrothermal Reactions at Elevated Temperatures

    Mroczek, Edward Kazimierz (1984)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A high temperature hydrogen electrode concentration cell based on a design published by Macdonald, Butler and Owen1, was constructed and used to study the following protolytic equilibria. Thermodynamic equilibrium constants were derived by the usual method of extrapolation to zero ionic strength. 1. The ionization of water at temperatures from 75 to 225 degrees C in 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 mol kg-1 KCl solution. pK degrees w = 7229.701 /T + 30.285logT - 85.007 2. The pH calibration of 0.01 and 0.05 mol kg-1 sodium tetraborate at temperatures from 75 to 250 degrees C in O.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mol kg-1 NaCl solution. 0.0l mol kg-1 Sodium Tetraborate Solution pH = -0.4830t1 + 5.5692t2 + 7.7167t3 + 8.6983 0.05 mol kg-1 Sodium Tetraborate Solution pH = -0.0455tl + 8.3987t2 + O.2123t3 8.8156 3. The second dissociation of sulphuric acid at temperatures from 75 to 225 degree C in 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mol kg-l KCl solution. pK degrees 2 = 5.3353t1 - 15.9518t2 - 111.4929t3 + 3.8458 pK degrees 2 = 6.1815t*1 + 12.7301t*2. + 3.0660 (up to 150 degrees C) Where the t1 to t3= and t*1 and t*2 are the Clark-Glew temperature variable terms at reference temperatures of 423.15 and 373.15 K respectively2. 4. The acid hydrolysis of K-feldspar to K-mica and quartz at a temperature of 225 degrees C. The determination of the hydrolysis equilibrium constant was limited to one temperature because of the very slow reaction rate at temperatures less than 300 degrees C. log(mK+/mH+) = 4.2 (at 225 degrees C) Where a comparison could be made, the results of this study agreed well with previously published work, with the exception of the second dissociation constant of sulphuric acid at temperatures above 150 degrees C. Accurate values for the molal dissociation constant of the KSO-4 ion pair are required at elevated temperatures before the pK degrees 2 results can be fully evaluated. This research was severely restricted by the unpredictable loss of electrical continuity between the two cell compartments at temperatures above 150 degrees C. The problem appeared to be associated with the non-wettability of the porous Teflon plug which formed the liquid junction.

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  • Wealth and Income in New Zealand: c. 1870 to c. 1939

    Galt, Margaret Nell (1985)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines the level and distribution of wealth and income in New Zealand between about 1870 and 1939. To do so it draws upon the available aggregate statistics on wealth and income, and it uses a sample of wealth holders especially constructed to alleviate the data deficiencies which have arisen through New Zealand not having a wealth census. The evidence available suggests that New Zealand was correctly portrayed as having a high level of wealth with an egalitarian distribution. In 1893, the first year in which average wealth could be estimated, New Zealand was definitely wealthier than Victoria. This wealth was not evenly distributed but the gini coefficient of about 0.75 suggested that New Zealand was an egalitarian economy compared to the United States, Britain, or even Australia. Over the period to 1939 the average level of wealth increased by about 100 percent. Most of this increase took place between 1900 and 1922; the late 1920's and 1930's were periods of slow growth. But this increase was not sufficient to maintain New Zealand's high position relative to Australia, and probably to other countries. The growth of real wealth was accompanied by a redistribution of wealth and by the 1930's, the gini coefficient was only about 0.73. Most of this decline was due to the declining assets held by the very rich. In 1890 to 1895 the top one percent of wealth holders owned 55 - 60 percent of all assets, but by 1935 to 1939 this had fallen to 25 - 30 percent. The very rich had, in fact, never been rich by international standards. The case studies in the thesis did not include one millionaire. As a rule they were first generation wealthy men who came from a well-to-do background, who had superior education, but who had to achieve being wealthy through their own efforts. There were few women among the top wealth holders, and those who did appear inherited their wealth from their father or or husband. The wealthy did not show signs of being a closed elite. There was a considerable amount of upward mobility in the group, and the Scots especially tended to come from poor backgrounds. The practise of equal inheritance among all the children meant that few families remained very wealthy for more than one generation. The same social and occupational mobility was clear among our sample of estate holders. Only 50 percent of sons had the same social status as their fathers. The remaining sons were fairly evenly divided between those who rose and those who fell in status. The sample, which was constructed from probate valuations and death certificate records, suggests some of the factors which assisted and hindered upward mobility. Being born female at a time when women did not pursue careers, or own family property obviously influenced the wealth holdings of a considerable proportion of the population. For men, the place of their birth proved to be significant. The Scottish showed a marked tendency to be upwardly mobile, while being Irish or New Zealand born was a definite handicap. Those who were born overseas did better if they arrived as young adults between 1860 and 1880. Assisted migrants produced proportionately less probatable estates, but those who did had about the same estates as those not assisted. Wealth was concentrated among those involved in farming, trading and the professions throughout most of our period, but over time agricultural wealth showed signs of being replaced by industrial fortunes. The professions had the advantage of a comparatively high income which enabled people to accumulate fortunes. Lifetime income undoubtedly had the major influence on wealth at death. The level of average income increased probably three-fold in the period. Again most of this rise came between 1900 and 1920. It is probable that the distribution also became more equal, through the reduced incomes to the top earners. There was a strong trend for margins for skill to decline over time, even though they were already small relative to those found in the United States. The exception to this was teachers' salaries, which showed a marked rise as the occupation became more professional. The rise of teachers' wages, shop work and clerical jobs all changed the employment structure for women, which was reflected in a changed attitude towards higher education. The 1930's saw a reduction in incomes largely through unemployment and short-time. However, the reduction was heaviest among those in the top 10 percent. The depression had mixed effects on production levels, prices and wages, but only one of our three sample industries, butter and cheese making, showed strong evidence of wage overhang. In 1939 New Zealand was still a wealthy nation, though probably she would not have ranked as highly on an international scale as in 1890. The distribution of both wealth and income had changed over our period to being substantially more egalitarian.

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  • Geology and Petrology of Ruapehu Volcano and Related Vents

    Hackett, William Robert (1985)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Ruapehu Volcano is an active, multiple-vent, andesite composite volcano at the southern terminus of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, central North Island, New Zealand. The present-day volume of Ruapehu is estimated at 110 km3, and construction of the massif probably occurred during the past 0.5 m.y. Geologic mapping and stratigraphic studies have led to the recognition of four periods of cone construction, each occurring over 104-105 year time intervals. On the basis of lithologic/petrographic differences, and conspicuous unconformities which separate the deposits of each cone-building period, four new formations are defined, comprises the Ruapehu Group. Te Herenga formation (new formation name) comprises the oldest deposits of Ruapehu (upper lavas ca. 0.23 Ma) and is exposed as planeze surfaces and aretes on N and NW Ruapehu. The formation includes lava flows, tuff breccias, and small intrusive bodies surrounded by zones of hydrothermal alteration. There is little petrographic and compositional diversity; most lavas are porphyritic titanomagnetite- augite- hypersthene- plagioclase basic andesites. Wahiance Formation (new formation name) is younger than Te Herenga Fm,. but of unknown age. It is well exposed on SE Ruapehu, and comprises mostly lava flows and tuff breccias. The lavas comprise acid and basic andesites. Mangewhero Formation (new formation name) is well exposed everywhere except SE Ruapehu, and the upper lavas and pyroclastics (ca. 0.02 Ma) form the present high peeks and main cone of Ruapehu. The lavas are petrographically and geochemically diverse, ranging from basalt to decite in bulk composition. Some of the lower lavas are olivine-beering andesites of hybrid orgin. Whakapapa Formation (new formation name; ca 15,000 years to present) comprises conspicuously young lava flows, tuff breccias, airfall pyroclastics and minor pyroclastic flows of acid- and basic andesite. The deposits of these post-glacial summit and flank eruptions are subdivided into the lwikau, Rangataua, Tama and Crater Lake Members. 'Related vents' produced Heuhungatahi Andesite Fm. (> 0.5 Ma?), and Holocene deposits of basalt and basic andesite at isolated, monogenetic centres comprising Ohakune Andesite Fm., Pukeonake Andesite Fm., and Waimarino Basalt Fm. (new formation name). Most Ruapehu lavas are medium-K acid and basic andesites (mean of 144 bulk rock analyses is 57.8 wt % SiO2), but rare basalt and minor decite are present. Nearly all lavas are porphyritic in plagioclase, augite and hypersthene [plus or minus] olivine, with titanomagnetite micro- phenocrysts, and contain abundant metamorphic and igneous rock inclusions. Petrography, mineral chemistry and bulk rock chemistry indicate fractional crystallization series from parental basalts (52-53 % SiO2, Q-normative, low-alumina) to medium-K basic- and acid andesites (58-59 % SiO2). Early fractionating minerals are olivine and clinopyroxene with minor chrome spinel and plagioclase, followed by plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and minor titanomagnetite in later stages of differentiation. Thus, basalt differentiation to produce andesites involves 'POAM-type' (Gill, 1981) fractional crystallization. Three second-order differentiation processes operate concurrently with frational crystallization: (1) Crystal accumulation involves addition of co-genetic plutonic rock fragments and crystals derived from them. These inclusions are common and few rocks represent liquid compositions. (2) Magma mixing involves mingling of magmas in repeatedly-occupied conduits. End members are as diverse as basalt and decite, yielding petrogaphically and chemically distinctive high-Mg andesites of the upper cone complex and parasitic centres. (3) Selective crustal assimilation is suggested by partially fused metamorphic inclusions, positive correlation of 87Sr/86Sr with SiO2, and failure of simple 'POAM' fractionation to explain decites (63-65 % SiO2). Petrogenesis of Ruapehu andesites takes place under open-system condition, involving production of parental Q-normative basalts in the mantle wedge, concurrent fractional crystallization and crustal contamination, entrainment of co-genetic plutonic rocks, and mixing of magmas in common conduits.

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  • Studies on the Life Cycle of Some New Zealand Anisakidae (Nematoda)

    Hurst, Rosemary Jennifer (1980)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The life cycle of Anisakis simplex in New Zealand waters is described from observations on the morphology, distribution and behaviour of free-living and parasitic stages. Comparison with the life cyles of two other anisakids, Phocanema decipiens Myers 1959 and Thynnascaris adunca Rudolphi 1802 shows differences in distribution, degrees of host specificity, the status of invertebrate hosts, the factors influencing infestation levels of teleost hosts, and the location and pathological effects of infestation. Larval stages occurring in intermediate and paratenic hosts were identified by comparison of larval and adult morphometrics. A. simplex larvae were also positively identified by in vitro cultivation through to adults. Some morphometric variations compared to overseas descriptions are apparent. The ventriculus of A. simplex larvae is shorter relative to body length and the intestinal caecum of P. decipiens is longer relative to ventriculus length. Egg and free-living larval stages were obtained from in vitro cultivation of (A. simplex) and collection of eggs from mature adults from definitive hosts (T. adunca). Eggs of P. decipiens were not obtained. Eggs of A. simplex and T. adunca hatch in 8-11 days at 15 [degrees] C. A. simplex eggs hatch in 6 days at a temperature of 22 [degrees] C and did not hatch in 16 days at 10 [degrees] C. Eggs and free-living stage III larvae of A. simplex and T. adunca are similar in morphology with little differentiation of internal structures. Examination of the stomach contents of pelagic fish infested with anisakids indicated that possible intermediate hosts of A. simplex are the euphausiid Nyctiphanes australis and the decapod Munida gregaria. Possible hosts of T. adunca and M. gregaria are a wide variety of smaller zooplanktonic groups, e.g. decapod larvae and copepods. Larvae of A. simplex were found in one of 8850 N. australis; larvae of T. adunca were found in 69 of 3999 chaetognaths (Sagitta spp.) a medusa and a decapod larva. These larvae are morphologically similar to Stage III larvae from teleosts. No anisakids were found in 3956 Euphausia spp., 1147 M. gregaria and 740 prawns. Twenty five T. adunca larvae and adults were found in 818 freshly eaten M. gregaria in teleost stomachs, indicating that this invertebrate may act as a paratenic and a definitive host. Experimental infection of N. australis and M. gregaria with stage II larvae of A. simplex and T. adunca was unsuccessful. The location of anisakid infestation in three pelagic teleost species, Thyrsites atun, Trachurus novaezelandiae and Trachurus declivis is described. A. simplex larvae are found mainly in the body cavity of all species, at the posterior end of the stomach, with less than one percent occurring in the musculature. Distribution of A. simplex larvae does not change with increasing size of the host or increasing total worm burden. Thyrsites atun have a higher proportion of larvae in the stomach wall (8-13%) compared to Trachurus spp. (< 4%). T. adunca larvae are found infrequently in the body cavity of all three species, on the pyloric caeca and in the stomach wall. Adults and larvae of T. adunca are found more commonly in the alimentary canal, indicating that these teleosts are more important as definitive hosts in the life cycle of this anisakid. P. decipiens larvae are found only in Thyrsites atun and occur mainly in the muscles (98.5%). No quantitative pathogenic effects of anisakid infestation on these teleosts hosts were detected. The main factors influencing the infestation of the three teleost species are age of the host, locality and season. Sex of the host and depth (over the continental shelf, 0-250 m) are not important. A. simplex infestation increased with age in all host species examined, and was higher in Trachurus declivis from the southern-most locality, suggesting the existence of at least two distinct populations of this species. Significant differences in infestation of Thyrsites atun with P. decipiens suggests that this anisakid may be more common in southern localities also. The infestation of Thyrsites atun by larval and adult T. adunca in the alimentary canal is most influenced by season and closely related to diet. Nematode samples were obtained from the marine mammals Arctocephalus forsteri, Kogia breviceps and Phocarctos hookeri. Adult A. simplex were recorded from A. forsteri (a new host record) and Kogia breviceps; preadults from Phocarctos hookeri. Adult P. decipiens were recorded from Phocarctos hookeri; preadults from Arctocephalus forsteri and K. breviceps. Other anisakids found were Anisakis physeteris (Baylis 1923), Contracaecum osculatum Rudolphi 1802 and Pseudoterranova kogiae (Johnston and Mawson 1939) Mosgovoi 1951. These records are all new for the New Zealand region except P. decipiens from P. hookeri and C. osculatum from Arctocephalus forsteri. A. simplex and C. osculatum were found associated with gastric ulcers in Arctocephalus forsteri.

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  • N M R Studies of Coal

    Davenport, Sally Jane (1985)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Carbon-13 CP/MAS NMR was used to study a selection of fifty-seven New Zealand coals and ten Australian coals. The coal rank varied from lignite to semianthracite. A qualitative survey of the plant origins of NMR signals was followed by an EPR study of the unpaired spin-species in coal. The quantitative reliability of the NMR response of coal was analysed in relaxation and "visibility" studies. Different approaches to the problem of accounting for intensity in spinning-side-band (SSB) signals were assessed. The most successful approach was found to be the complete computer simulation of the spectrum from combinations of SSB intensity patterns broadened by a mixture of Lorentzian and Gaussian lineshapes. This method of analysis produced oxygen contents that showed a good correlation with oxygen contents (by difference) from Ultimate analysis. The resultant carbon, hydrogen and oxygen functional group analyses allowed considerable insight into the depositional influences on, and alteration of, the coal structure with increasing degree of coalification.

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  • Petrochemical and Sr isotopic studies of lavas and xenoliths from Tongariro volcanic centre : implications for crustal contamination of calc-alkaline magmas

    Graham, Ian J (1985)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Petrogenesis of Tongariro Volcanic Centre lavas, particularly those from Mount Ruapehu and nearby vents, is investigated through a detailed petrochemical and Sr isotope study. The importance and nature of crustal contamination as a process is assessed from metasedimentary xenoliths and their relationship to local sedimentary basement lithologies. These results are tested by least squares modelling of processes such as crystal fractionation, crystal accumulation, combined assimilation and fractional crystallisation (AFC) and magma mixing. Sedimentary basement lithologies near the TVC provide a guide to the composition of potential crustal contaminants and a genetic link to some xenoliths. The rocks are of three main types (i) Torlesse terrane greywackes and argillites, (ii) Waipapa terrane greywackes and (iii) Late Tertiary marine sandstones, siltstones and conglomerates. Torlesse terrane flysch sediments, which form the Kaimanawa ranges on the eastern margin, have dominantly granitic bulk compositions and comprise a chemical continuum between Si-, Na-, Sr-rich greywackes and Al-, Fe- and K-rich argillites. A Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron age for the latter of 141 (3) Ma is interpreted as the time of low-grade metamorphism; similar rocks from Otaki Forks, north of Wellington yield an age of 182 (13) Ma which is some 40 Ma younger than the depositional age as inferred from fossil evidence. These data suggest that metamorphism and uplift of Torlesse terrane sequences are local events unrelated to major phases of the Rangitata Orogeny.Waipapa terrane greywackes occur to the NW and west of the TVC. These have intermediate calc-alkaline chemistries and low Sr isotopic ratios (.70500 to .70850) which give a whole-rock isochron age of 205 (17) Ma. by comparison with a similar rock suite from Coffs Harbour Block, northern of N.S.W., Australia, this age is interpreted to be the timing of low-grade (prehnite-pumpellyite facies) metamorphism.Late Tertiary marine sediments form a thin veneer over older basement on the margins of TVC. These rocks are chemically similar to Torlesse terrane metasediments and have Sr isotopic compositions ranging between .707 and .710. Xenoliths of metasedimentary, igneous and metaigneous origin occur in most TVC lavas and are abundant in some. They are classified according to petrography and presumed origin, and are of six main types: (1) Upper crustal xenoliths (TYPE UCX) include porcellanite, metagreywacke and calcsilicate and can be related to known sedimentary basement on the basis of mineralogy, bulk-rock chemistry and Sr isotopic composition (2) Vitrified xenoliths (TYPE VX) occur only in Ngauruhoe 1954 and Pukeonake lavas and are of two chemically distinct types. Of these, TYPE VXa xenoliths are chemically similar to Torlesse terrane metasediments and usually contain more than 50% glass, representing advanced partial melting. Retention of their original bulk-rock chemistry implies derivation from shallow depths and rapid transport to the surface. TYPE VXb xenoliths are less vitrified and are chemically different from any known basement lithology (3) Quartz-rich xenoliths (TYPE QX) are conspicuous and abundant in most lavas and are mainly quartzo-feldspathic gneisses (TYPE QXa) or quartzites (TYPE QXb). The latter probably represent TYPE QXa xenoliths modified by extraction of partial granitic melt and subsequent recrystallisation. Both are interpreted to be restite assemblages derived initially from greywacke-gneiss (probably from the Torlesse terrane). Several rare TYPE QX xenoliths (TYPES QXc to QXf) with unusual mineral assemblages and obscure origins also occur (4) Quartz-poor xenoliths (TYPE QPX) have biotite-, spinel-rich or feldspar-rich assemblages and are interpreted to be restites after partial melting of the feldspathic and micaceous layers of greywacke-gneiss (5) Igneous xenoliths (TYPE IX), include variably altered blocks of surface volcanics, a natroalunite-bearing nodule and a variety of cognate cumulate nodules and show little evidence of pyrometamorphism or of an extended history (6) Meta-igneous xenoliths (TYPE MIX) have broadly calc-alkaline chemistries but are texturally, mineralogically and isotopically different from host Iavas. Some (TYPE MIXa) are coarse-grained with high Cr and Ni contents and may be basic cumulates. Others (TYPES MIXb and MIXc) are finer-grained and are chemically similar to low-K orogenic andesites. All may have originated from the base of the continental crust and represent the original oceanic crust on which the Torlesse terrane was deposited.Cation exchange equilibria pertaining to certain key assemblages indicates that equilibration of most xenoliths occurred at temperatures of 800 degrees C to 1000 degrees C (reliable pressure estimates are unattainable). The occurrence of granitic partial melt in some xenoliths and the dominance of quartz-rich and quartz-poor xenolith types indicate that crustal contamination (by assimilation of partial melt ) is a widespread phenomenum.Ruapehu lavas and those of nearby vents are dominantly calc-alkaline, medium-K andesites. They are porphyritic with phenocrysts of plagioclase, augite, olivine (mainly in basalts and basic andesites), orthopyroxene (mainly in acid andesites and dacites) and titanomagnetite (or chromian spinel in basic lavas). Hydrous minerals are rare. The lavas can be catagorised into sir petrographically and chemically distinct groups: TYPE 1 are plagioclase-pyroxene-rich and are the dominant type, being represented by all Ruapehu Group Formations, Red Crater basalt and Ngauruhoe 1954 andesite. Compositions range from basalt to dacite and show decreasing Fe, Mg, Ca, Cr, Ni, constant Ti, Al, Na, Sr, increasing LILE and increasing 87Sr/86sr with increasing silica. TYPE 2 are characterised by high modal plagioclase and TYPES 3 & 4 by high mafic mineral contents, but each is otherwise similar to TYPE 1. TYPE 5 lavas are olivine andesites from Pukekaikiore, Ohakune and Hauhungatahi. They characteristically contain no plagioclase phenocrysts and have high Mg, Ca and Sr contents and low 87Sr/86Sr ratios. TYPE 6 lavas show disequilibrium features (such as strongly reversed-zoned phenocrysts) which are normally considered evidence for magma mixing. All have high Cr and Ni contents, and low 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Potential parental magmas for TVC lavas include high-alumina basalts restricted to the extensional zone of rhyolitic volcanism in Taupo Volcanic Zone, low-alumina basalts occurring at the southern end of the extensional zone and directly associated with andesites and one example of magnesian quartz tholeiite (Waimarino basalt). The latter, from east of Lake Taupo, has primary chemical characteristics but is highly porphyritic and contains quartzose xenoliths. Compositional data indicate that neither low-alumina nor high-alumina basalt can be generated directly from tholeiite by any reasonable process and therefore each represents a distinct magma type. Petrochemical and isotopic data of TVC lavas and xenoliths provide an excellent framework for petrogenetic modelling. Least squares analysis shows that evolved TYPE 1 lavas can be generated from low-alumina basalt (e.g. Ruapehu basalt) or from less-evolved TYPE 1 lavas by AFM, involving POAM fractionation plus assimilation of granitic partial melt of greywacke-gneiss. Additional selective contamination may be required to explain the high Sr isotopic ratios of some lavas (e.g. Ngauruhoe 1954). TYPE 2 lavas can be generated from TYPE 1 either by POAM fractionation (where plagioclase removal is suppressed) or, better, by plagioclase addition. TYPE 3 can be generated from TYPE 1 by olivine + clinopyroxene addition. However, their higher LILE and lower 87Sr/86Sr ratios may rather suggest an alternative genesis from an unknown parent. TYPE 5 lavas can be generated from a Waimarino basalt-type parent by POAM fractionation without addition of a crustal contaminant. The somewhat higher 87Sr/86Sr ratio of Waimarino basalt indicates that although tholeiitic basalt has occurred in small amounts throughout the history of the TVC, its isotopic composition (and LILE content) has varied with time. TYPE 4 are chemically and isotopically intermediate to TYPES 3 and 5 and, although internally consistent, these lavas cannot be easily generated from any known basalt type (red Crater basalt gives the best-fit model). For TYPE 6 lavas, the high Cr and Ni contents and low 87Sr/86Sr imply that a Waimarino basalt-type parent must be one endmember; best-fit models are achieved when Mangawhero Formation dacite is the other. Each petrogenetic model is consistent with petrographic, chemical and Sr isotopic constraints. They show that it is feasible to generate most Ruapehu lavas from low-alumina basalt by processes of crystal fractionation with or without crustal assimilation. However, some spatially and volumetrically restricted lava types are better derived from a more tholeiitic parent by crystal fractionation or hybridisation with dacite.

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  • Some Studies of the Geology, Volcanic History, and Geothermal Resources of the Okataina Volcanic Centre, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Nairn, Ian Alistair (1981)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Okataina Volcanic Centre is the most recently active of the four major rhyolite eruptive centres in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand. Within the Centre lies Haroharo Caldera, a complex of overlapping collapse structures resulting from successive voluminous pyroclastic eruptions from the same general source area. At least four main and possibly two minor caldera-forming eruptions have occurred during the last 250,000 years, although poor exposure means that attempts to interpret the early structural history are highly speculative. Although there is no compelling evidence of structural updoming within Haroharo Caldera, magma resurgence has followed the last major caldera-forming eruption of the Rotoiti Breccia at [greater than or equal to] 42,000 years B.P. Eruption of this magma within the caldera has formed the two large rhyolite lava and pyroclastic piles of the Haroharo Volcanic Complex and Tarawera Volcanic Complex, plus two subsidiary adjacent complexes at Okareka and Rotoma. All these intracaldera eruptives are younger than 20,000 years B.P., with the most recent eruptions from Tarawera; of rhyolite at c. 700 years B.P., and of basalt in 1886 A.D. A considerable amount of earlier work carried out at Okataina was directed mainly at petrology and chemistry of the rhyolites forming the Tarawera and Haroharo Volcanic Complexes. The present study has arisen from a 1:50,000 mapping programme at Okataina and has sought to examine structures and volcanic history in greater detail, and to consider the resulting geological implications for geothermal resources. Caldera boundaries have been mapped, and two major vent lineations are defined, apparently related to fundamental basement fractures which have controlled location of the Tarawera and Haroharo Volcanic Complexes. An intracaldera ring fault is also suggested by the sub-circular arrangement of some young volcanic vents. The Haroharo and Tarawera Complexes are mapped, with locations of source vents, and dating of the major lavas and pyroclastic deposits. All the post-20,000 year eruptives are placed in four main emptive episodes at Haroharo, and five at Tarawera. The near-source pyroclastic surge and flow deposits are 14C dated, and with their associated widespread plinian fall deposits they provide time planes for dating the associated lavas. The emptive episodes generally appear to have been of much shorter duration than the intervening quiescent periods which lasted for thousands of years. All the eruptive episodes at Haroharo involved multiple eruptions from vents spread out over several kilometres along the vent lineations. Similar multiple vent eruptions can be demonstrated for some of the Tarawera eruptive episodes. More than 500 km3 of magma has been erupted from Haroharo Caldera during the last 250,000 years, 80 km3 of which was erupted in the Last 20,000 years. This history suggests that a large magmatic heat source should continue to underlie the Okataina Volcanic Centre. However, very little surface hydrothermal activity occurs within Haroharo Caldera. It is suggested that the large external hydrothermal fields at Tikitere, Waimangu-Waiotapu-Waikite, and possibly Kawerau, are related to Haroharo Caldera heat sources. Presently available data are summarized for hydrothermal fields in and adjacent to Haroharo Caldera, and new analyses are presented for some warm springs discovered within the caldera. Estimates and measurements of chloride fluxes in lakes and rivers are reported. The chloride flux values suggest the occurrence of larger hydrothermal heat flows into lakes and rivers than are apparent at the surface. Measurements of chloride flux in the Tarawera River showed that 280 g s-1 of chloride is added to the river within Haroharo Caldera below the Lake Tarawera outlet. Only 80 g s-1 of this chloride comes from known geothermal sources. A total chloride flux of 760 g s-1 in the Tarawera River passing out of the Okataina Volcanic Centre indicates a minimum geothermal heat flow of 600 MW. Estimates of heat flows in other drainage paths from Haroharo Caldera suggest that minimum total heat flow from the caldera may exceed 1500 MW. A large heat flow from the caldera would appear consistent with the volcanic history. Some suggestions are made for further investigation of the geothermal resources

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  • Index to the Journal of New Zealand Institute of Architects 1912-1980

    Brookes, Susan (1982)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A cumulative index to the Journal of the New Zealand Institute of Architects (NZIA) from 1912-1980 inclusive, giving entries by architect, building type, subject, place,author and title.

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