290 results for Scholarly text, 1990

  • Reducing Parabolic Partial Differential Equations to Canonical Form

    Harper, J F (1994)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A simple method of reducing a parabolic partial differential equation to canonical form if it has only one term involving second derivatives is the following: find the general solution of the first-order equation obtained by ignoring that term and then seek a solution of the original equation which is a function of one more independent variable. Special cases of the method have been given before, but are not well known. Applications occur in fluid mechanics and the theory of finance, where the Black-Scholes equation yields to the method, and where the variable corresponding to time appears to run backwards, but there is an information-theoretic reason why it should.

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  • Index to the New Zealand architect and Architecture New Zealand

    Bolland, Kathryn; Howarth, Julie (1991)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A cumulative index from 1986 - 1990 inclusive, giving entries by architect, building type/subject, place, and author. Supplement to WP13 : BROOKES, Susan. Index to the Journal of the New Zealand Institute of Architects 1912 -1980, and WP23 : BOLLAND, Kathryn and BROOKES, Susan. Index to the New Zealand Architect 1981 - 1985.

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  • Adoption of digital technology in the New Zealand motion picture industry

    McInnes, Rachel Gwendoline (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research applies Frambach's integrated model of the adoption and diffusion of innovations to the adoption of digital technology in the New Zealand motion picture industry. Previous models concerning innovation adoption have typically focused on adopter side variables. The model employed here integrates supply-side variables with the adopter-side variables focused on in traditional research. This research extends Frambach's model to consider the time and extent of adoption. The model is tested through a mail-out survey. Tests of associations between dependent and independent variables are carried out through four measures of association in a bivariate fashion. The results show that supply-side and adopter-side variables are both important influencers of the extent of adoption of digital technology in the motion picture industry. However supply-side factors do not appear to be important determinants of the time of adoption of digital technology in this industry.

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  • The Coulomb Potential of a Line of Charges

    Harper, J F (1993)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Recently Lekner gave formulae for the total Coulomb force and potential on a charged particle due to a line of other charged particles, and showed how to use it for a regular array of charges in two or three dimensions. His method involves a series in terms of the Bessel function Ko which converges fast for points sufficiently far from the line. This paper gives an integral which can be evaluated faster for points close to the line.

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  • The Axisymmetric Prandtl-Batchelor Eddy Behind a Circular Disc in a Uniform Stream

    Harper, J F (1998)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Analytical support is given to Fornberg's numerical evidence that the steady axially symmetric flow of a uniform stream past a bluff body has a wake eddy which tends towards a large Hill's spherical vortex as the Reynolds number tends to infinity. The viscous boundary layer around the eddy resembles that around a liquid drop rising in a liquid, especially if the body is a circular disc, so that the boundary layer on it does not separate. This makes it possible to show that if the first-order perturbation of the eddy shape from a sphere is small then the eddy diameter is of order R1/5 times the disc diameter, where R is the Reynolds number based on the disc diameter. Previous authors had suggested R1/3 and ln R, but they appear to have made unjustified assumptions.

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  • User education, bibliographic instruction or information literacy : semantic argument or philosophical debate

    Lester, Justine MacShane (1997)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Information literacy, bibliographic instruction or user education? These terms are widely used to describe the programmes designed to assist library clients in their use of library resources. There are as many variations in these programmes as there libraries. This study is designed to satisfy a professional curiosity regarding the appropriate uses of the above terms. Whilst the terms are often used interchangeably in the literature, their definitions suggest that this should not be occurring. Models of information seeking behaviours are compared with the definitions for user education, information literacy and bibliographic instruction. The matching of programme aims and objectives with the definitions of the three terms is an important aspect in the correct usage of the terms.

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  • Last Cretaceous Geology of Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

    Thrasher, Glenn Paul (1992)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Taranaki Basin is a large sedimentary basin located along the western side of New Zealand, which contains all of this countries present petroleum production. The basin first formed as the late-Cretaceous Taranaki Rift, and the first widespread sediments are syn-rift deposits associated with this continental rifting. The Taranaki Rift was an obliquely extensional zone which transferred the movement associated with the opening of the New Caledonia Basin southward to the synchronous Tasman Sea oceanic spreading. Along the rift a series of small, en-echelon basins opened, controlled by high-angle normal and strike-slip faults. These small basins presently underlie the much larger Taranaki Basin. Since the initial rift phase, Taranaki Basin has undergone a complex Cenozoic history of subsidence, compression, additional rifting, and minor strike-slip faulting, all usually involving reactivation of the late-Cretaceous rift-controlling faults. One of the late-Cretaceous rift basins is the Pakawau Basin. Rocks deposited in this basin outcrop in Northwest Nelson as the Pakawau Group. Data from the outcrop and from wells drilled in the basin allow the Pakawau Group to be divided into two formations, the Rakopi Formation and the North Cape Formation, each with recognizable members. The Rakopi Formation (new name) is a sequence of terrestrial strata deposited by fans and meandering streams in an enclosed basin. The North Cape Formation is a transgressive sequence of marine, paralic and coastal-plain strata deposited in response to regional flooding of the rift. The coal-measure strata of the Rakopi Formation are organic rich, and are potential petroleum source rocks where buried deeply enough. In contrast, the marine portions of the North Cape Formation contain almost no organic matter and cannot be considered a potential source rock. Sandy facies within both formations have petroleum reservoir potential. The Rakopi and North Cape formations can be correlated with strata intersected by petroleum exploration wells throughout Taranaki Basin, and all syn-rift sediments can be assigned to them. The Taranaki Rift was initiated about 80 Ma, as recorded by the oldest sediments in the Rakopi Formation. The transgression recorded in the North Cape Formation propagated southwards from about 72 to 70 Ma, and the Taranaki Rift remained a large marine embayment until the end of the Cretaceous about 66.5 Ma. Shortly thereafter, a Paleocene regression caused the southern portions of Taranaki Basin to revert to terrestrial (Kapuni Group) sedimentation. The two distinct late Cretaceous sedimentary sequences of the Rakopi and North Cape formations can be identified on seismic reflection data, and the basal trangressive surface that separates them has been mapped throughout the basin. This horizon essentially marks the end of sedimentation in confined, terrestrial subbasins, and the beginning of Taranaki Basin as a single, continental-margin-related basin. Isopach maps show the Rakopi Formation to be up to 3000m thick and confined to fault- controlled basins. The North Cape Formation is up to 1500m thick and was deposited in a large north-south embayment, open to the New Caledonia basin to the northwest. This embayment was predominantly a shallow-marine feature, with shoreline and lower coastal plain facies deposited around its perimeter

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  • The History of the Short Story in New Zealand

    Wevers, Lydia Joyce (1990)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The thesis will be an investigation of the history of the short story in New Zealand, attempting to shift the focus away from a (implicitly hierarchical) sequence of writers who specialised in short stories to a consideration of the ascendancy of type in short fiction at certain times (for example the domination of nineteenth century short fiction by oral narratives and romance); the preoccupations of groups of writers who share a collective identity (especially Maori and women); and the recurrence of some kinds of narratives (for example Pakeha writers writing about the Maori). I propose to explore both the construction of 'reality' and 'New Zealand' in the short story, demonstrating how race, gender, and sometimes class/wealth figure in that construction, and generally suggest that the short story's dominance in New zealand's fiction makes it both a significant medium for cultural identity, and a context for a postcolonial discourse characterized by recurring questions about origin and subjectivity.

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  • The Theatrical R. L. S.: an Evaluation of the Theatrical Aspects of Robert Louis Stevenson

    Cairney, John (1993)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Within a format of Shakespeare's seven ages of man, the seven stages of Robert Louis Stevenson are presented here as an inaugural investigation of his theatricality. The Introduction deals with this theatricality generally and is concerned, in its two parts, with the more technical elements of theatricality as they relate to the principles of dramatic theory. Stage One is a curtailed family history as a general background to his development and deals with his introduction to Mr Skelt's Toy Theatre. Consideration is also given in Section 3 to his first juvenile dramatic writing. Stage Two tells of his beginning to 'act a part' while at Edinburgh University. This stage also covers the amateur theatricals and the friendships with Fleeming Jenkin, Mrs Sitwell and Sidney Colvin. Stage Three introduces William Ernest Henley. With Stevenson he writes Deacon Brodie for Henry Irving. Stevenson courts and marries Mrs Osbourne while the playwriting goes on by correspondence. The London performance of Deacon Brodie is discussed and its American production with Edward J. Henley. Stage Four covers 1884 - the playwriting year at Bournemouth. Beau Austin and Admiral Guinea are discussed with comment and analysis offered under separate headings. The adaptation of Macaire is considered in relation to Beerbohm Tree. The Hanging Judge and the meeting with Thomas Hardy are also considered. Then follow general remarks about all the plays with special reference to Arthur Pinero's 1903 lecture on Robert Louis Stevenson as Dramatist. Stage Five is a consideration of Early Victorian theatre and its influence on the Henley-Stevenson partnership. This Stage features the final years of the two Henleys and includes a consideration of the Henley review of Balfour's official biography of Stevenson. Stage Six shows us Stevenson as the Scotch Tusitala, the Patriarch of Vailiama, reading his work aloud from the verandah. It is the final performance and in four short sections we see him rise only to die. Stage Seven is devoted entirely to adaptations of Stevensonia by other writers for all performing media to date. A comprehensive survey of R.L.S. and the drama is an area of Stevenson scholarship which has been either neglected or ill-considered. It is the intention of this study to offer a new focus to this dimension of his literary oeuvre and thus encourage a fresh approach to the Stevenson plays as a whole. It also offers an opportunity to consider his relationship with W.E. Henley and Mrs F.V. Stevenson, his collaborators in the five finished playscripts. In doing so, it puts into perspective the place of the plays in Victorian dramaturgy. Biographical facts and quotations from the Works are used where they may reflect his lifelong preoccupation with the theatre and where they may argue, by analysis or illustration, the theatrical potential evident, not only in the plays, but in every element of his personality. This is the man of theatre as theatrical man. A complete list of adaptations of his work in all the performing media and also selected reviews of his plays are added in support of the conclusion which is, sadly, that in considering R.L.S. as dramatist - one can only regret the loss to the theatre of what might have been...

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  • Geochronology, Correlation and Magnetic Studies of Quaternary Ignimbrites in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Black, Tasha Maria (1995)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Voluminous, rhyolitic ignimbrites erupted from calderas in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) of North Island, New Zealand during the last ca. 1.6 Ma, are characterised by geochemical, paleomagnetic, magnetic fabric and isotopic age techniques to determine their stratigraphy and source vent areas. Most of the welded ignimbrites record distinctive thermoremanent magnetism (TRM) directions that can be defined with a precision of less than 5 degrees. On this basis, individual ignimbrites may be identified and correlated. These data indicate that the voluminous Whakamaru group ignimbrites, mapped by various names in different parts of the TVZ, were probably erupted over a period of as little as 100 years. The Kaingaroa and Matahina ignimbrites display very similar TRM directions and may have been emplaced contemporaneously. Ahuroa and Mamaku ignimbrites display TRM directions widely different to that expected from a dipole field, and were emplaced during polarity transitions in Earth's magnetic field. Geochemically, glasses and FeTi-oxides from the TVZ ignimbrites are homogeneous and typical of high-SiO v2 (>75 wt percent) rhyolites. They indicate little evidence of derivation from physically or compositionally zoned magma chambers, and allow individual eruptives to be fingerprinted. Variable compositions of whole pumice clasts from welded units, previously interpreted as evidence for chemical zonation can be explained by glass alteration and variable mineral components. Geochemical and chronological data suggest the Rocky Hill Ignimbrite and/or Unit E ignimbrite (ca. 1 Ma) may be correlatives of the Potaka tephra, found in sedimentary basins outside the TVZ. Rock magnetic fabric studies using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of ignimbrites allow paleoflow patterns to be determined. These patterns are generally consistent with source areas inferred from other data. The source for Mamaku Ignimbrite is consistent with an area on the western margin of Lake Rotorua. The Whakamaru group ignimbrites appear to have originated north of Lake Taupo, and in particular from an area near the Western Dome Belt. Glass shards from nonwelded bases of ignimbrites are well suited to dating by the isothermal plateau fission track (ITPFT) method. Any partial fading of the spontaneous tracks has been corrected by a single-step heat treatment of 150 degrees C for 30 days. The resulting ages and their uncertainties are comparable is caret 40Ar/caret 39Ar plagioclase determinations. The following new eruption ages were determined: Whakamaru group ignimbrites (0.34 Plus-minus 0.03 Ma), Matahina Ignimbrite (0.34 Plus-minus 0.02 Ma), Kaingaroa ignimbrite (0.33 Plus-minus 0.02 Ma), informally named unit Downer 8 (0.33 Plus-minus 0.02 Ma), and Mamaku Ignimbrite (0.23 Plus-minus 0.01 Ma). These data suggest a major phase of activity, with several different caldera forming events in the interval ca. 0.35-0.32 Ma. The age of Mamaku Ignimbrite constrains the paleomagnetic excursion recorded in the unit to ca. 0.23 Ma, similar to the age of the Pringle Falls geomagnetic episode recorded in the western USA.

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  • A Corpus-Based Analysis of Simultaneous Speech in English Conversation

    He, Anping (1996)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This is a study of the distribution of 2011 instances of simultaneous speech in a 91,802-word subcorpus from the London-Lund corpus of Spoken English. Five categories of simultaneous speech (successful and unsuccessful turn-bidding, successful and unsuccessful turn-competing, and backchannelling) were analysed in terms of: (a) characteristics of the prosodic, lexical and grammatical context in which simultaneous speech occurs; (b) linguistic devices and strategies in aspects of prosody, discourse and pragmatics which are frequently used to introduce simultaneous speech; (c) variables such as speech domain, degree of familiarity between interlocutors, speakers' status and gender which may influence the frequency of simultaneous speech and affect the occurrence of the linguistic features and devices associated with simultaneous speech. In a complementary case study, 288 instances of simultaneous speech in Chinese (Cantonese) were also analysed in a 10385-word sample of Chinese conversation, and compared with simultaneous speech in English. The findings of the study show: (a) Simultaneous speech is rule-governed and context-constrained. It is most likely to occur at a unit boundary which is prosodically, lexically and syntactically marked. It is often introduced and carried out by a number of prosodic devices, discourse items and repetition strategies. This is particularly the case in turn-bidding and turn-competition. (b) Frequency of simultaneous speech seems to be strongly associated with degree of formality of speech domain and degree of familiarity between interlocutors, but loosely related to speakers' status and gender. However, particular linguistic devices and strategies seem more preferred by interlocutors in a specific speech domain, or with a specific degree of familiarity, or having specific status or gender. (c) Chinese and English simultaneous speech share many similarities in terms of pragmatic functions, and linguistic devices and strategies employed, though equivalents between the two languages are not always found. However social constraints on turn-bidding seem different in the two languages especially in terms of age, status and gender. The descriptive findings of the study help explain why Chinese learners of English find it difficult to take a turn in English conversation, and especially to bid for a turn. Thus the study enhances our awareness of the linguistic features of English conversation and the factors which can affect Chinese students' pragmatic and discourse competence. Moreover, the computer corpus approach adopted in the research provides a way of obtaining rich input for teaching English discourse devices in terms of prosody, lexicon and syntax and suggests further applications of corpus-based research in the study of language teaching and learning.

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  • In This World: Baptist and Methodist Churches in New Zealand 1948 to 1988

    Bolitho, Elaine Elizabeth (1992)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    New Zealand Baptist and Methodist Churches' growth and decline between 1948 and 1988 was caused by the manner of their involvement in this world, in their roles of experiencing and telling about God in word and action. These roles link with the three factors - secularisation, evangelical theology and practice and the Charismatic movement. The roles and factors are encompassed within the context of change and discontinuity. 1. The impact of secularisation showed in declining religious profession and membership, yet also in greater involvement in this world through experiencing God immanent within it. 2. Commitment to evangelical theology and practice led to short term Baptist success, but in the long term triggered membership losses. Methodists without this emphasis showed even greater membership decline. 3. The Charismatic movement which was initially divisive holds within it potential for experiencing God in this world, and for dynamic continuity to make sense of the changing world scene. The relationship of the context of change to the three major factors was that the greater the degree of responding to discontinuity with creative dynamic continuity, the greater the growth of the churches. Increasing the degree of static continuity induced decline. The absence of any form of continuity resulted in even greater decline. The Baptist Churches successfully increased membership through relating well to the post-war generation. Through social service and outreach ministries they became more involved in this world. Evangelism, through a variety of methods, provided continuity in sharing the God news. The Charismatic movement as catalyst for church change in times of societal change brought the potential, through emphases of servant theology, to channel God experience into relational outreach. This led to its meshing with the positive effects of secularisation and evangelism. Methodist church growth was restricted by suspicion of the Charismatic movement, loss of evangelical focuses and recruitment programmes. Social action continued to be the Methodist way of being involved in this world. Profiles completed by 200 Baptist and 168 Methodist churches demonstrated the interplay of these factors. These were complemented by surveys completed by 106 resigned ministers, over 170 interviews, 6 case studies, 46 church visits and extensive reading. Analysis of profiles and membership statistics showed that Baptist churches did not do better because of short term ministries, Pastoral terms, membership and evangelical theology. But without evangelical theology and practice Methodist membership declined more. For every 12 members welcomed Baptists would lose 8 and Methodists 15. This indicated that churches not retaining members and clergy needed a balance of evangelism and whole-of-life theology with longer term focuses to provide dynamic continuity in the discontinuity of life.

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  • Structure and Evolution of Star Clusters in the Vicinity of the Magellanic Clouds

    Banks, Timothy Stuart (1994)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis describes the collection, reduction, and analysis of Charge Coupled Detector (CCD) images of star clusters. The objects studied are primarily in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a nearby galaxy. The study of these groupings can provide information such as the initial dynamic state of Globular Clusters, the heavy-clement enrichment rate of the LMC, the distribution of masses that stars form with, and the validity of given stellar evolution models. The majority of the observations were collected at Mount John University Observatory (NZ). Procedures for the collection and transfer of the data are described, along with an overview of the analysis facility and CCDs. Statistical moment-based ellipse fitting was applied to the observations, confirming that trends are evident in the position angles and ellipticities of the clusters, as had been reported in the literature. Artificial images of clusters with known parameters were generated and subjected to the same analysis techniques, revealing apparent trends caused by stochastic processes. Caution should therefore be exercised in the interpretation of observational trends in the structure of young LMC clusters. Isochrones were used to date the 19 clusters. The resulting ages are in good agreement with the literature, as are results from profile modeling. There is no evidence for tidal truncation of the young clusters. Observations were made of two LMC and two Galactic star clusters in a test of imaging clusters with the Vilnius photometric system and a CCD. The colour-magnitude diagrams, distances and interstellar reddenings of the clusters were derived and found to be in agreement with the literature. This is the first time that the standard Vilnius filter set has been used with a CCD. Use of the system for direct imaging of star clusters appears promising. Johnson BV CCD observations were made of the young LMC cluster NGC 2214 and a nearby field using the Anglo-Australian Telescope. It has been suggested in the literature that this elliptical cluster is actually two clusters in the process of merging. No evidence was found from profile fitting or the colour-magnitude diagrams to support this contention. Completeness factors were estimated for the CCD frames. These values were used in conjunction with luminosity functions to estimate the Initial Mass Function (IMF) for NGC 2214. A power-law M-(1+x) was assumed for the IMF (where M is stellar mass relative to that of the Sun Mo), with a good fit being found for x = 1.01 plus-minus 0.09. There is some indication that the low mass end (less than or equal to 3oMo) has a smaller gradient than the high mass end of the derived IMF. The value of x is in reasonable agreement with literature values for other Magellanic IMFs, and not substantially different from the poorly determined Galactic IMFs, suggesting the possibility of a 'universal' IMF over the Magellanic Clouds and our Galaxy in the mass range tilde 1 to tilde 10 Mo.

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  • The Competencies Used to Assess the Effectiveness of New Zealand Managers

    Rippin, Sharon Mary (1995)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research on the competencies required by effective New Zealand managers is lacking. This thesis addressed this deficiency by identifying the competencies managers use to assess the effectiveness of managers across organisations and industries in New Zealand. The research was carried out in two parts. First, repertory grid interviews were conducted with 225 chief executives and senior managers from 75 organisations. They described the constructs that differentiated their effective and less effective senior managers. Six independent people categorised the interview constructs, which were incorporated in a questionnaire. In the second part of the study, 185 managers from two organisations rated a manager they regarded as effective on the constructs, as well as their overall effectiveness. The questionnaire analysis revealed a six-factor managerial effectiveness model. One main factor (interpersonal Skills) contributed over 40% of the variance. The five other factors (Conscientious and Organised, Strategic Behaviour, Problem-Solving, Drive and Enthusiasm, and Honest Feedback) contributed between 1.6% and 6% of the variance. The factors were similar to non-New Zealand competency models and the frequently cited Big Five personality factors. The implications of these findings are discussed, as well as issues related to identifying and implementing competencies.

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  • Gender and Choice: Girls, Single Sex Schooling and School Choice

    Watson, Susan Anne (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    New Zealand, like many other OECD nations, has introduced market-style policies into educational provision. The 'rationale' for these policies was derived from New Right or neo-liberal theory. Over the past decade there has been an increasing amount of research aimed at exploring the impact of market-style policies in education, with particular emphasis on issues of equity. However, there has been very little research concerned with examining the implications of the marketisation of education for the schooling of girls. Exploring the implications of marketisation for girls has not been high on the agenda of either critics of marketisation, or of feminist researchers. This thesis is a contribution towards that work. Policies aimed at increasing school choice have been one of the key ways that market-style policies have been introduced into education. The research on which this thesis is based is an exploration of school choice from the perspectives of a group of twenty four girls at a single sex state secondary school in a New Zealand city. In a series of focus group interviews I asked the girls about how they had come to be at Girls' College, their perceptions of their schooling experiences and their reflections on what it meant to be a Girls' College student. Using aspects of feminist poststructural theories, I argue that school choice might be viewed as a site where various discourses are negotiated by girls in the process of educational decision making. These include discourses of gender, which are shaped by social class and ethnicity, as well as by the biography and dynamics of the girls' families; and discourses of choice which have assumed dominance in educational policy. There are also discourses made available to the girls in the context of their schooling experience. If we are to understand the impact of market policies in education on the schooling of girls, we need to consider how girls are negotiating and mediating these discourses and the subjectivities, or ways to do being a 'girl', they make available. We also need to consider the perspectives of girls from a range of social class and ethnic backgrounds since these discourses are shaped by social class and ethnicity to position girls in differing, and often contradictory, ways. Furthermore, in order to understand the impact of market-style policies on the schooling of girls, we also need to consider the girls' schooling experiences in relation to their reasons for being in the school. This exploration of choice and schooling from the girls' perspectives presents a different account of choice to that which is currently available in the research literature or that which is assumed by neo-liberals. By placing the girls' narratives of choice within the broader contexts of their lives and schooling, I have been able to explore the complex dynamics of power that operate inside and outside of school to position the girls, and the school itself, in variously powerful ways. I have been able to show that the assumptions on which the neo-liberal account of choice is based are overly simplistic and serve to marginalise and silence other aspects of the girls' lives and schooling experiences that are not encompassed by a neo-liberal view of the world. Furthermore, this exploration of choice in a particular context and from the perspectives of a certain group of girls also enables me to consider the broader implications of the operation of school choice and market-style policies for the schooling of girls.

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  • A Study of Technological Innovation in New Zealand

    Winsley, Peter Harry (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis addresses the research problem of "what are the key underpinning assets or drivers of technological innovation, and how can they be harnessed to create competitive advantage?" Technological change is an evolutionary process. Research and technological innovation creates knowledge and technology that is irreversible in the sense that inventions can be superseded but not "uninvented". Technological innovation creates knowledge and technology that is cumulative because it lays a platform for further knowledge creation, or sets in place another rung in an ascending ladder of new performance characteristics or properties which are demonstrably superior to their antecedents. In turn, the asset specificity and irreversibility of technology and its cumulativeness create barriers to competitive entry. This allows a firm to earn the premiums that create market power and allow further innovation to be financed. The model of technological innovation advanced in this thesis has at its core the strategic governance framework of a firm, within which the dynamics of significant new technology, human capital and social processes are catalysed and made productive by differentiated technological learning processes. No one type of technological learning applies universally, but rather learning is differentiated by variables such as firm size and structure, the past experience and core competencies of the firm, its human capital stocks, social processes, interactions with the external environment, and a host of market, institutional and technological factors. It is argued that the dynamics of significant new technology, human capital and social processes are fundamental and necessary conditions of technological innovation. Technological learning processes underly and provide a connecting thread that integrates these necessary conditions into a model of technological innovation that can be applied by managers to create and sustain competitive advantage. Technological learning both shapes and is shaped by the human capital stocks and social processes of a firm. Learning processes give rise to significant new technology, and the dynamics of that technology in turn helps catalyse and gives rise to further learning. The rate and direction of learning and of technological innovation is also driven by the firm's interaction with external sources of ideas and technology. To create competitive advantage through technological innovation business managers must address a firm's strategy, human capital-related assets, social processes and technological learning abilities. Policy managers must ensure that the public technostructure is in place to foster human capital creation within an economy and to facilitate access to new ideas and sources of stimulus.

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  • Vortex Dynamics and Instabilities in Tax Ge1-x/Ge Multilayers

    Ruck, Benjamin John (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In this thesis the magnetic response of a layered type-II superconducting system is explored across the entire range of fields, temperatures and currents where superconductivity exists, with the results providing valuable insight into the role of reduced dimensionality in determining the behaviour of type-II materials such as the new high temperature superconductors. The system in question consists of alternating layers of amorphous Ta or TaxGe1-x (x approximation 0.3) with amorphous Ge where the individual layer thicknesses vary between 17A [angstrom] and 210A [angstrom]. These multilayers were fabricated by vapour deposition in a high vacuum chamber which allowed the creation of samples with uniform layers of high purity. The resistive transport properties have been measured from Tc (approximation 1-3K) to temperatures as low as 50mK in some cases, and in fields of up to 15T. The upper critical fields have been determined from the fluctuation conductivity both with the field parallel and perpendicular to the layer plane of the samples. The results show clearly the dependence of the dimensionality on the superconducting layer thickness and the degree of coupling across the Ge layers. For the samples with the most two-dimensional properties the zero field resistive transition is governed by the unbinding of thermally created vortex-antivortex pairs as described by the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless theory. A detailed investigation of the perpendicular field vortex states and dynamics has been performed, including measurement of the activation energies needed for thermally activated vortex motion. Qualitative difference are observed between the activation energies in two- and three-dimensional samples, with the barriers being generally higher in 3D. The non-linear current-voltage characteristics of the samples provide evidence for the existence of a vortex glass state which melts into a liquid below Hc2, although the divergence of the activation barriers in the glass can be restricted by the finite sample thickness. A brief investigation of the corresponding parallel field regime showed considerably less dissipation, due largely to the transparent nature of the Ge layers to the magnetic field. At the highest currents an instability is observed in the vortices which can drive the samples discontinuously back into the normal state. This instability is shown to be of the type predicted by Larkin and Ovchinnikov (LO), including quantitative agreement between the measured and predicted values of the critical vortex velocity. Several features of the instability are noted which are not specifically predicted by the LO theory, and comparisons are drawn between these and the prevailing vortex state at lower currents.

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  • The Forgotten Enlightener: Shiga Shigetaka (1863-1927)

    Gavin, Masako (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Shiga Shigetaka (1863-1927) is generally known among scholars of Japanese intellectual history as the pioneering advocate of kokusui shugi (maintenance of Japan's cultural identity), a theory which called for spiritual solidarity in the late 1880s when Japan was facing increasing pressure from the West. He is also regarded as an intellectual opponent of his contemporary, journalist Tokutomi Soho (1863-1957), who advocated heimin shugi, total modernisation of Japan. Their so-called rivalry has been understood as Shigetaka being "conservative" and Soho, "progressive", despite the many parallels in their ideas regarding the necessity for industrialisation of Japan: the myth has been created that Shigetaka's ideas are synonymous with those of the "conservative" intellectuals, particularly the "Confucian" scholars (jukyo shugi sha). In fact, Shigetaka strongly rejected the "conservative" label and criticised the "Confucian" scholars when their influence culminated in the promulgation of the Imperial Rescript on Education in 1890 and also when the National Morality Movement gained nation-wide support after 1910. However, his criticism of them has not been sufficiently studied and existing discussions of his thought predominantly focus on the kokusui issue. Other studies deal with Shigetaka as geographer, political activist, and global traveller, but tend to be rather sketchy. Above all, they do not concern themselves with his thoughts on education, which are particularly significant in light of his opposition to the "Confucian" scholars' attempts to achieve national moral control. Despite his opposition, there has been another longstanding myth about him: his kokusui advocacy and his purpose of promotion as well as popularisation of the study of the geography have been interpreted as leading towards Japan's later imperialism. One of the purposes of this study is to challenge these two myths, (Shigetaka as a "conservative" intellectual and Shigetaka as a forerunner of imperialism), by focussing on the areas of his work overlooked by the previous scholars. This thesis presents a more realistic picture of Shigetaka's intellectual activity by examining his thought in two stages: the late 1880s when he advocated Japan's economic reform supported by national (spiritual) solidarity; and after 1910 when he began his outspoken criticism of the "Confucian" scholars. By analysing his criticism of the "Confucian" scholars, the discourse attempts to establish the following two points: first, that the "Confucian" scholars were Shigetaka's intellectual opponents; second, that he was an anti-imperialist who strongly opposed Japan's march towards the "suicidal" World War Two. The thesis also identifies the close relationship between Shigetaka's beliefs regarding education and economic reforms and those of Fukuzawa Yukichi (1835-1901), the most influential enlightener of 1870s in Japan. Both Fukuzawa and Shigetaka had participated in missions overseas and both believed in Western studies, although Shigetaka warned against too indiscriminate an adoption of Westernisation because of his findings of the demeaning effect of Western culture in the South Seas. This thesis demonstrates how Shigetaka supported his reform advocacy with first-hand observations of current world affairs. He believed that Japan's survival and respect in the fast-changing world order depended on education and it was vital to promote and popularise geography as a curricular subject and as a way of understanding the contemporary world. He aimed at not only educating the people through institutions, but also enlightening the general public through journalism. Consequently, this thesis suggests that his views on education, to which insufficient weight has been given until now, are essential to understanding the intellectual activity of this "forgotten enlightener".

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  • Managing to Compete? Employment, Work and Labour Relations in the Hospitality Industry in New Zealand

    Ryan, Rose (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis outlines the nature of human resource management in the Accommodation, Cafes, and Restaurants industrial sector in New Zealand in the late 1990s. Using data collected through postal surveys, interviews and analysis of employment contracts, the thesis utilises Gospel's (1992) analytical framework (which suggests that labour, employment and work are the key areas in which managers must make human resource decisions) to describe prevailing patterns of management occurring in the industry. It suggests that stereotypical conceptions about the nature and structure of employment within the industry do not reflect current day reality, and that deregulation of licensing laws, a rapid rate of growth and the nature of customer demand within the industry have had a significant impact on human resource related decisions. The thesis also attempts to uncover the rationales provided by managers for their employment related decisions. In doing so it finds that while some management decisions are clearly affected by market constraints, others appear on the face of things to be inconsistent with management's express view of their competitive strategy. This is explained with reference to Anthony Gidden's stratification theory of action to support the notion that managerial decision making is not a completely rational and market-related process, but that other factors, including ideology and manager's own conceptions of themselves as social actors, are influential in the decisions that are made.

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  • Late Pleistocene Tephrostratigraphy of the Eastern Bay of Plenty Region, New Zealand

    Manning, David Alaric (1995)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis has produced the compilation of a complete tephrostratigraphic record of the eastern Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. About fifty Late Pleistocene tephras (i.e. those older than the Rotoiti eruption), ranging in age from c. 600 to 50 ka, are recorded in a terrestrial sequence of loess and paleosols in the eastern Bay of Plenty. Tephra correlations are based on the distinctive physical characteristics of the airfall beds and confirmed by microprobe analysis of glass shards ("fingerprinting"). Chemical analysis of hornblendes and titanomagnetites is used as a supplementary correlation tool where the tephras are too weathered to retain glass. The eastern bay of Plenty deposits are divided into seven subgroups with their boundaries marked either by major tephras or by significant changes in the paleo-climate indicator deposits such as loess and paleosols. These subgroups, and their estimated age ranges, are: Age control on the eastern Bay of Plenty tephras has been obtained by fitting the paleoclimatic information inferred from field observations to the Low Latitude Stack (LLS) and SPECMAP oxygen isotope curves, with correlations to a few well dated eruptives providing key time planes within this record; in particular, the Mamaku Ignimbrite (correlates to the Kutarere Tephra), and the Kaingaroa (Kaingaroa), Matahina (Matahina) and Rangitaiki (Kohioawa) Ignimbrites. Tentative correlations of several eastern Bay of Plenty tephras to the western, coastal central, and Southeast-central Bay of Plenty areas (Tauranga Matata cliffs and Reporoa, respectively) have been achieved. Three additional subgroups are proposed: the Welcome Bay (with at least 6 tephras) in the west, the Ohinekoao (14 tephras) in the coastal central, and the Reihana (13 tephras) in the southeast-central Bay of Plenty; all of which overlap in time with the eastern Bay of Plenty stratigraphy. The tephras recorded in the Bay of plenty have been used to estimate the ages of formation and uplift rates for many of the landforms that are observed throughout the region. A tectonic regime of subsidence in the west towards Tauranga, block faulting on either side of the subsiding Whakatane Graben in the central Bay of Plenty, and further large scale block faulting towards the far eastern margin of the Bay of Plenty has been proposed. Activity at the Okataina Volcanic Centre is now thought to have initiated at or before c. 370 ka, with the eruption of the Paerata Tephra. This tephra has a distribution pattern consistent with an Okataina source, and contains abundant cummingtonite, which is a signature mineral within tephras from the Okataina Volcanic Centre during the late Quaternary time period. However, the much older, but less well understood, Reeves-A and Wilson Tephras - both with estimated ages of c. 0.5 Ma - also contain cummingtonite, which indicates that activity may have been initiation at a much earlier time, or that a volcanic centre other than Okataina has produced cummingtonite. Activity in the Rotorua Volcanic Centre prior to the eruption of the Mamaku Ignimbrite is also indicated, as is activity at the Reporoa Volcanic Centre prior to the Kaingaroa Ignimbrite eruption.

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